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The Libyan conflict has split NATO and the Arab world. Turkey has openly intervened in the war by supporting one of the parties. In fact, Russia was on the other side of the fence. In the conflict in varying degrees, were involved more than a dozen countries. While no one can make it a decisive victory, and the conflict remains far from resolution. “Kommersant” recalls how it all began and who is on whose side was.Photo: Reuters Esam Omran Al-Fetori15 February 2011 in Benghazi, the second largest city in Libya, broke out to protest. Libyans, inspired by the rapid change of power in Tunisia and Egypt in the “Arab spring”, took to the streets to demand the resignation of who ruled the country for nearly 42 years Muammar Gaddafi. Example Benghazi was followed by other cities. Less than a month, the rebels managed to take control of virtually the entire East of the country. Government forces have used against the rebels artillery, tanks and aircraft. Against this background, on 26 February 2011 the UN Security Council imposed an embargo on arms supplies to Libya. Three weeks later, on 17 March, the security Council adopted resolution 1973, providing for the introduction of no-fly zone over the entire territory of the country and protect the local population of “all necessary measures”. Russia and China abstained, what then repeatedly regretted. Neither Moscow nor Beijing is not expected that this resolution will be used by Western countries and their Arab allies as a reason for direct military intervention in the Libyan conflict.Read далее19 March of the French air force launched the first air strikes on Gaddafi’s forces. March 23, started full-scale military operation of the NATO “unified protector”. The opposition pushed government forces. Muammar Gaddafi was killed in Sirte on 20 October. Three days later the national Transitional Council officially declared an end to the civil war in Libya. The NATO mission officially ended on 31 October.A coalition of various tribes and groups opposed to Muammar Gaddafi, collapsed almost immediately after his death. The country began a war of all against all. In August 2012 the national Transitional Council handed over power in the country, the General national Congress (GNC), the elections which took place a month before. The main forces were distributed around the national forces Alliance and the Islamist party of justice and construction, is close to religious-political Association “Muslim brotherhood” (banned in Russia). By February 2014, the GNC was supposed to submit a draft of the Constitution, but not in time to meet deadlines and unilaterally extended its powers for a year. This led to the rebellion of a group of military led by General Khalifa the Haftarot. And if his February speech ended unsatisfactory��her in may at the second attempt by supporters of the Haftarot were able to establish control over many areas of Libya. They were supported by various political forces to hold new elections. To read the result of the next elections to the House of representatives, which would replace the GNC, were held in June 2014. The turnout was 18% — almost three times less than in the 2012 election. A few months later, the Supreme court in Tripoli ruled on the dissolution of the house of representatives, after considering the request submitted by loyal Islamists deputies on the recognition of the house of representatives unconstitutional. Deputies in Tobruk has rejected the Supreme court’s decision, stating that it was made under threat of arms. Some of nepereinami deputies Islamists refused to recognize the election results and formed a New Inc, based in Tripoli which was created the Government of national salvation. The house of representatives was recognized by the international community and began work in August 2014 in Tobruk in the East of the country. The UN took more than a year to bring representatives of the two political camps to the negotiating table.Photo: December 17, 2015 in the Moroccan city of Skhirat, an agreement was signed on forming the national consensus Government (NTC) and the Presidential Council. Both on headed by Fayez Sarraj. PNS given two years to develop the Constitution. In addition, established a Higher Council of state, which fulfills Advisory functions. Among the powers of the Presidential Council — a representation of a state in the international arena and performing the functions of the Supreme commander.But Libya’s problems did not end there. To March 2017 in Tripoli was a struggle between the forces that support the national consensus Government, and supporters of the Government of national salvation. At the same time the House of representatives in Tobruk three times rejected the proposal on the composition of the NTC and in the end refused to cooperate with him, forming a private office.In March 2015 the House of representatives has appointed the Caliph Haftarot commander of the “Libyan national army” (LNA). The house of representatives also believes that the term of office of the NTC has long expired and the authority, as and Shirtshe agreement as a whole, has lost its legitimacy. Khalifa Haftar has never recognized the agreement.At the moment, the main struggle is unfolding between the government and Zarraga forces of the Haftarot. Political support for the latter continues to provide the House of representatives led by speaker Agil Saleh. Individual tribes and armed groups continue to play an independent role in Libyan politics, moving on one and on the other side.Photo: Esam Omran Al-Fetori / Reuters Khalifa haftar was born in 1943. As an officer, he, along with Muammar Gaddafi participated in the overthrow of Royal power in Libya in 1969. Has long been among the entourage of the Libyan leader. Studied in the USSR for the higher officer courses. In the 1980s, Haftar was commander of the Libyan military who took part in the military conflict in Chad. In 1987, he and his people were captured and Muammar Gaddafi disowned him. From this point on Khalifa Haftar has dedicated his life to the struggle with a former ally. According to media reports, to be released he was helped by the CIA. More than 20 years he has lived in the United States and returned to Libya in 2011. It is believed that Washington underestimated Khalifa the Haftarot and did not promote him to the first position in 2011, but he did not give forget about yourself. By 2014, formed around him a group of like-minded people who disagree with the course of official Tripoli. In may of the same year he launched “operation Dignity” to liberate Benghazi, and after him and the entire Eastern province of the country from various Islamist groups. In September 2016 the House of representatives awarded him the rank of field Marshal for the seizure of oil fields in the region of Benghazi. In their rhetoric often appeals to the need to restore the rule of law and the secular nature of the Libyan state. While his side is fighting a sufficient number of Salafis, that is, followers of the school of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, common in Saudi Arabia.Photo: Michel Euler / AP Fayez Sarraj was born in 1960 in Tripoli, in the family of one of the Ministers of the Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969 years). In 1982 he received a bachelor’s degree in urban planning and worked in the Ministry of housing. After the change of government in 2011 he headed the Ministry. In 2014 he was elected to the House of representatives from one of the districts of Tripoli. In 2015, on the recommendation of the UN special representative on Libya Bernardino Leon Fayez Sarraj becomes the main candidate on a post of the head of the NTC. The choice was due to the equidistance of Mr. Zarraga from the main parties to the conflict. Started implementation of his duties in March 2016. Zarraga political opponents accusing him of failing to restore order in the country, support for political Islam and relations with the “Muslim brotherhood”. Fayez Sarraj their membership in the organization denies.Esam Omran Al-Fetori / ReutersПНС relies on a broad coalition of various groups of Tripolitania and Fezzan different spectrum, there is a “Muslim brotherhood” and similar Islamists associated with the head of the Supreme state Council of Khaled al-Misri (formally out of the “brotherhood”), a diverse group of regionalists Misrata, close to the Deputy Prime Minister of the NTC, Ahmed Mitiga and interior Minister Fathi Basaga, secular representatives of the military Council Zintaat headed by Osama al-Juwali, the Tuareg-Gaddafi supporters, led by General Ali Kana, the Salafists of Tripoli, headed by Abd al-Rauf Kara, and Berbers-ibadi from the mountains Nafusa and Zuwara.Similar to the umbrella structure is and the LDF. Despite the grandiose name, the regular army, this structure is not. Its backbone is about 7-8 thousand, including former officers and soldiers of the Libyan army during the Gaddafi strengthened the various factions and tribes, renamed army brigade. In April 2019 the Haftarot forces launched an attack on the Libyan capital, but stayed on the outskirts of Tripoli. The success of the LDF is largely due to the transition on her side in certain tribes and groups.Those and other forces in addition to fighting with each other fought with the terrorist group “Islamic state” (banned in Russia).Photo: Riccardo De Luca / AP the International community has repeatedly tried to find a way out of the crisis in Libya. So, Shirinskogo the signing of the agreement was preceded by an international conference on Libya in Rome, organized in December 2015 at the initiative of Italy and with the support of the United States.The next conference was held in 2016 in Vienna [may], in 2018 in Paris (may) and in Palermo (November). In addition, the Western powers tried to arrange separate meetings between Fitom Barragem and Khalifa the Haftarot, trying to get them to agree on a ceasefire and the holding of presidential elections. In particular, in July of 2017 in Paris the parties agreed to a cease-fire and the holding of new parliamentary and presidential elections in the spring of 2018, but it never came.In 2017, the new UN special envoy on Libya was a Lebanese politician Ghassan salamé. According to his plan, in Shirtshe agreement had to be amended. It was about holding a National conference with the participation of the main Libyan political forces and representatives of civil society, based on the results which proposed to develop a new Constitution and hold elections. The launch conference was scheduled for April 2019, however, at this time, Khalifa Haftar launched an offensive on Tripoli.Another attempt of reconciling the warring parties have taken Russia and Turkey in January 2020. Fayez Sarraj and Khalifa Haftar arrived in Moscow, however, refused to meet each other, but were in the same building where the negotiations took place. According to their results, was developed a document on ceasefire. Fayez Sarraj signed the document, while Khalifa Haftar took the time to think.After a few days, both politicians arrived in Berlin on 19 January and held another international conference, but they did not take part in. Russia was first presented at a similar event at the presidential level. In the outcome document of the conference participants��of enzie called for a ceasefire, pledged to refrain from interference in the Affairs of Libya, has offered to create a unity government and launch reforms to restore the state. Also established was the Committee on supervision of the execution of the agreements of the Berlin conference. For its part Fayez Sarraj and Khalifa Haftar has agreed to establish a military Committee composed of five officers from each side to implement the agreement on a cease-fire. Two meetings of the Commission took place in February 2020 in Geneva, but in March, Hasan Salaam, resigned. The Committee’s work was only resumed in June.In late April, Khalifa Haftar said that the LDF in accordance with the will of the people takes on the burden of running the country and interrupted the action is “devastating for Libya” Shirinskogo agreement. This step is not approved even allies field Marshal.Photo: Ismail Zitouny / Reuters Protracted conflict in Libya is largely due to the active support of warring parties from abroad.PNS receive support from the forces ideologically close to the “Muslim brotherhood”. In the first place — to Qatar and Turkey. Doha has a NTC material and diplomatic support. Ankara became the only external force, which concluded a formal Treaty of military assistance with the government of Tripoli. In exchange for using the NTC recognized the exclusive rights of Turkey on the development of gas fields in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is thanks to Turkish support in June was removed which lasted 14 months, the siege of Tripoli, which was followed by the almost complete expulsion of the forces of the LNA from Western Libya. With the end of 2019 Turkey has deployed to Libya thousands of fighters under its control the Syrian opposition.Italy has the NTC forces diplomatic support. Rome is interested in the stability of Libya, because even in the midst of fighting, about 13 million cubic meters of Libyan gas (8% of the Italian market) continue to arrive in the country by pipeline Green Stream. Working in Libya since 1959, the largest Italian oil and gas Corporation Eni prefers to deal with the internationally recognized government in Tripoli than Khalifa the Haftarot and the House of representatives.The LDF support UAE, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The Alliance of the three powers due to the reluctance of the establishment in Libya of the government, close to the “Muslim brotherhood”. UAE has become the main supplier of high-tech weapons the LDF, including drones and anti-aircraft missile systems “Pantsir-S1”. Saudi Arabia helps the Caliph Haftarot financial. Egypt supplies the LNA heavy weapons, ammunition, and implements on-site repair of damaged equipment. On 6 June, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi proposed a ceasefire in Libya and launching a politicalone process, called the “Cairo initiative”. This time, Tripoli agreed to a cease-fire. Two weeks later, the Egyptian President promised to provide military assistance to Libyan tribes, if the forces of the NTC will not stop the offensive and to Cairo upon the request of the Libyans (house of representatives). So he decided to act similarly to the Treaty of Ankara and Tripoli.From European countries to the Caliph Haftarot supports primarily France, which I do not like the growing influence of Turkey in North Africa. French oil giant Total has a long-standing partnership with the Libyan National oil Corporation and plans to further increase its presence in the country.Russia and the United States officially does not rely on one player, calling on both sides to cease fire. Washington provided military support for both the NTC and the LDF in the course of their operations against the Islamic state and other jihadists in Sirte and Benghazi. The African command of the U.S. armed forces (AFRICOM) had its operations room in Tripoli, which was launched after the beginning of the onset of the LDF in April 2019. Washington, as well as Tripoli and Ankara, accuses Moscow of sending to Libya of both Russian and Syrian mercenaries. Russia officially denies this fact. On the side of the Haftarot also fighting mercenaries from Sudan and Chad.Thanks for the help in material preparation expert of the Russian Council on international Affairs Cyril Kozhemyaka Semenovskaia, Marianna Belenkaya