June 30, 1960 was proclaimed the independence of the Belgian colony of the Congo. 50 of the next 60 years the country was ruled by only two people, both of them became owners of huge fortunes. Since independence, the country experienced two major wars and numerous regional conflicts that have claimed millions of lives. Killed two Prime Ministers and one President, publicly executed another Prime Minister. The current President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo — the first, which his predecessor lost to the post on their own.Names and pereimenovaniya the late nineteenth century when the colonial powers section of spheres of influence in Africa, a large part of the Congo basin was recognized as a possession of king Leopold II of Belgium. The territory received the name of Free (translated also as Independent) State of the Congo. Part of the territory on the North Bank of the Congo river went to France. On 15 November 1908 king Leopold II sold the Congo Free State to the Belgian state. The colony was called the Belgian Congo. After independence on 30 June 1960, the country was renamed the Republic of Congo.August 15, 1960, proclaimed the independence of the French colony, also called the Republic of the Congo. To distinguish between the two countries, they began to add the names of the capitals — Congo-Léopoldville (the former Belgian colony) and Congo-Brazzaville (a former French colony). In 1964, the former Belgian colony became known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. From 1971 to 1997 the Democratic Republic of Congo was called Zaire.The promised 30-year guttata: photo Archive of the magazine “Ogonek” / Commercentre of colonialism in the Belgian Congo was rapid. In 1955, when king Baudouin of Belgium arrived in the colony on an official visit, was welcomed by enthusiastic crowds of citizens. The monarch approved nominated by the Governor-General Leon Petion the idea of creating the “Belgo-Congolese society,” in which the indigenous people would have received more civil rights. In the same year, the Belgian Professor Anton van Bilsen presented a plan for the transition of the Belgian Congo to independence for 30 years.In December 1957, the colony was allowed municipal elections and creation of political parties. There were dozens of parties. The major political forces began standing on ethno-regional positions of the Alliance of the bakongo people (of abako) led by Joseph Kasavubu and the center-left National movement of the Congo (NIR), whose leader was Patrice Lumumba.4 January 1959 not authorised meeting of abako in Leopoldville has outgrown in mass riots. It was attended by about 35 thousand people. Rebellious stones were thrown at police and cars of the white inhabitants, looted shops, set fire to the Catholic mission and beat the monks. There were calls of “Independence now!”. Police forces, which has used armored vehicles, the riots were stopped. Was killed from 49 (the official) to 500 (according to unofficial estimates) people. Hundreds of people were injured. About 300 people were arrested, including Joseph Kasavubu. He stayed in prison for two months. After the events in Leopoldville members of the ABACO sent a letter to the Belgian government to immediately provide the Belgian Congo independence. A copy of the letter was sent to the Soviet foreign Ministry with a note: “a Copy is forwarded for information, His Excellency Mr. KHRUSHCHEV with the request to provide us military assistance to 19/1–59”. The foreign Ministry left a letter unanswered.In January 1960, the negotiations of Belgian and Congolese politicians in Brussels, agreement was reached on the granting of Congo’s independence. 22 may, General elections were held in which the victory was won by the NDC. The party leader Patrice Lumumba became Prime Minister. And the head of abako, Joseph Kasavubu, the first President of the Congo.Summer Lumumbiste: Getty Madev April 1959 Patrice Lumumba was involved in the work of the standing Committee of the Conference of the peoples of Africa in Conakry. 18 April, it took the Soviet Ambassador to Guinea Pavel Gerasimov. During the meeting, Lumumba promised in case of coming to power immediately to establish diplomatic relations with the USSR and declared that the Soviet Union could provide his party with financial assistance to combat anti-Soviet propaganda. Lumumba also expressed a desire to visit the Soviet Union.Ordinary Soviet people first heard of Patrice Lumumba may 19, 1960, when the newspaper “Izvestia” published the following short message: “Reuters reports from Stanleyville: the head of the national movement of the Congo Patrice Lumumba has written to the king of Belgium, Baudouin telegram which requires the immediate withdrawal of Belgian troops from the Congo affected by the unrest. 30 June the Belgian Congo to independence.”Read next day of the Declaration of independence of the Belgian Congo, the Soviet Newspapers published a congratulatory telegram to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR Nikita Khrushchev.At the festivities of 30 June was attended by the Soviet delegation. From a travelling diary of the head of the delegation Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR Mirzo Rakhmatov: “At the airport, the Belgians we met extremely unfriendly. They were not happy that the Soviet people entered the land of the Congo… Belgian administration tried to isolate them from the members of the delegation Secretary and interpreter. Selected for the delegation car “broke down” at a time when we hurried on the Declaration of independence of the Republic. The invitation one of the members of the delegation were receivedon just 15 minutes before the start of the celebrations at the official dinner the other member of the delegation was busy”.Photo: Getty Mageshkar “news” in the Congo Nikolay Khokhlov described the historic day: “Pink June morning he parted the dark blue curtains of tropical nights, by removing the velvety folds over the horizon, and the light lit up the city of Leopoldville. Last day of June, the last day of colonial rule — the first day of the Republic of the Congo — a new independent state on the African continent.”In many historical articles and books can be found addressed to the king of Belgium of the words allegedly spoken by Patrice Lumumba in his speech on the occasion of the proclamation of independence of the Congo: “We are no longer your monkeys”. No verbatim records, no tape recordings of speeches made by 30 June, these words are not. When and who started to turn this fake quote is unknown.Katanga. Those nights full of agnetta: M. Abramovish after independence, it was hit by a severe political crisis. 5 Jul rebelled officials of the gendarmerie in Tisvilde. Junior officials were outraged that the white officers retained command posts. Soon the excitement of the gendarmes spread across the country. The commander of the gendarmerie Emile Janssens wanted to send Belgian troops against the rebels. Lumumba sacked the commander, was renamed the gendarmerie in the Congolese national army, improved the all blacks are soldiers in the rank at least one rank. The new commander was appointed Victor Lundula produced from Lieutenant Colonel to major General. Chief of staff of the army was Joseph-désiré Mobutu.The Prime Minister and the President tried to stop the riots, he persuaded the rebels to lay down their arms. But the situation only escalates. Across the country, beaten and robbed white: and the military, and civilians, women were raped. 9 April, Belgium sent to Congo troops to protect citizens. President Kasavubu welcomed the intervention of the former metropolis. Prime Minister Lumumba called on the Congolese to protect the young Republic.The Belgian army was engaged in the evacuation of civilians and simultaneously conducted operations against the rebels.Photo: AP Photo / Photopress-Bilderdienst11 June, my Tshombe, head of the Confederation of tribal associations of Katanga (CONAKAT), head of the provincial government of Katanga, the son of the richest inhabitant of the country, has announced the release of the province from the Congo and the proclamation of the independent State of Katanga.Katanga is the richest mineral region of the Congo. KONAKAT worked closely with the Belgian mining company UMHK. The company’s management feared that Lumumba’s government decided to nationalize UMHK. After independence, Tshombe asked the Belgian with a request t��nicesly, financial and military assistance.9 August 1960 on the territory of the Congo have yet another self-proclaimed education — Mining state of South Kasai. His government collaborated with the Belgian mining company Forminiere.Together with copper and cobalt from Katanga and diamonds of South Kasai of the Congo state budget lost the main part of the export revenues.To counter separatism Patrice Lumumba appealed to the UN for assistance against Belgian aggression. On 14 July, the UN Security Council adopted a resolution on the withdrawal of Belgian troops from the Congo and their replacement with UN peacekeeping forces. But the mandate “blue helmets” have involved only the maintenance of peace in the country, not the struggle against separatism. Lumumba appealed to the Soviet Union. In the Congo came the Soviet military advisers, was delivered weapons, equipment and airplanes of the military transport aviation.Photo: N. Lysogorskiy USA and Western countries, the Prime Minister of the Congo a “Communist.” The Director of the CIA Allen DULLES said that Patrice Lumumba is the second Fidel Castro, if not worse. At the meeting of the Council of national security of the United States July 21, 1960, DULLES said: “There is every reason to believe that Lumumba was bought by the Communists, is also consistent with his own beliefs.” The Prime Minister of the Congo was invited to Washington, where Secretary of state Christian Herter tried to convince him that we need to rely entirely on the UN, not asking for help anymore. Lumumba to the Secretary of state did not listen.At the meeting of the Council of national security of the United States August 1, the army leadership feared that the Belgian military bases in the Congo can be Soviet military bases. It was agreed that the U.S. should “prepare for the possibility of military action to prevent or counter the Soviet military intervention in the Congo”. At the same meeting were made, but quickly rejected the idea of the assassination of Lumumba.Photo: V. Ahmetow late August, the CIA station chief in Leopoldville, Lawrence Devlin received from the management of cablegram, which stated that the removal of Lumumba from power is the most important and the most urgent purpose. The solution to this problem has been allocated $100 thousand of them were killed by soldiers of the national army to get involved in tribal conflict. Army used Soviet planes, trucks and weapons.President Joseph Kasavubu on 5 September stated that dismisses Prime Minister from office, accusing him directly of murder in South Kasai. The Parliament President did not support. Lumumba, in turn, tried just power Kasavubu. A constitutional crisis has allowed the army chief of staff Joseph-désiré Mobutu. On 14 September he announced on the radio about the “peaceful revolution”, was removed from power and Lumumba and Kasavubu, and was put in charge of the country’s interim “government of technocrats” Callstrategy of the General commissioners.Attempted arrest of Patrice Lumumba. The UN soldiers managed to free him, but in the process of freeing the former Prime Minister lost the briefcase. Found in it is documents, someone added a few fakes, including dated 16 September a Memorandum that after a week in the Congo will be introduced by Soviet troops. Five days later, the Soviet military advisers were asked to leave the country.On 23 September the First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Nikita Khrushchev, speaking at a session of the UN General Assembly, demanded the resignation of Secretary-General Dag hammarskjöld and the replacement of the post of Secretary General to the collective body of three persons representing the Western countries, socialist and neutral state.On September 26 in Leopoldville arrived Sidney Gottlieb, chief chemist of the CIA. He brought poison for the assassination of Lumumba. By the time the country left the Soviet military experts, and Lumumba was already removed from power. The assassination did not take place. Before returning home, Gottlieb threw the poison into the Congo river.December 1 Patrice Lumumba was arrested by Mobutu’s soldiers. At the request of the Union 7 Dec was convened by the UN Security Council. The Soviet Union demanded the immediate release of Lumumba, restore it to the position of head of the government and disarmament of troops of Mobutu. On 14 December, the Security Council, by eight votes to two, rejected the Soviet draft resolution in support of Lumumba. On the same day, the Soviet Union vetoed a Western resolution granting the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskold additional powers to resolve the situation in the Congo.On 17 January 1961 Patrice Lumumba was brought to Katanga and Tshombe to Moise, where he was shot the evening of the same day after beatings and torture. Commanded the shooting of a Belgian mercenary Julien gat. The corpse of the first Prime Minister of the Congo were dismembered and dissolved in hydrochloric acid.After the murder of Lumumba, the Soviet government demanded the immediate dismissal of Dag Hammarskjold from the post of the UN Secretary General, said that he “deserves only the contempt of all honest people”, and declared that he would not recognize it as official. The conflict with the Soviet Union with the UN Secretary General has resolved itself. 18 September 1961, hammarskjöld died in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia.Periodic dipotnosheny: Photo ITAR-Tesotsterone Patrice Lumumba from power has dealt a powerful blow to Soviet influence in the Congo.17 September 1960 from Congo were temporarily withdrawn staff of the Soviet Embassy. This was preceded by the rupture of diplomatic relations announced by the authorities of the Congo.Antoine Gizenga, the Deputy Prime Minister of the Congo until the “peaceful revolution” Mobutu, 12 Dec 1960, formed his own government in the city Strlevelb (now called Kisangani) and declared the Free Republic of the Congo. It recognized the Soviet Union, China, most of the socialist countries and several African States.In March 1961 in Moscow, was secretly visited by a delegation of the government Gizenga headed by the Minister of culture Pierre Mulele. The request for military assistance, the Soviet government did not respond. Was provided financial assistance in the amount of $500 thousand Half of this amount was intercepted on the road by the CIA, most of the remaining money, Antoine Gizenga spent on themselves.Diplomatic relations between the USSR and the Congo was restored at the mission level July 6, 1961. Another aggravation of the Soviet-Congolese relations occurred on 19 November 1963. This day the staff of the Congolese security services and the police detained the car with diplomatic numbers of the Embassy of the Soviet Union, just arrived from the neighboring country of Congo-Brazzaville. In the car were the counselor of the Embassy (resident of the Soviet foreign intelligence) Sergey Voronin attaché of the Embassy Yuri Meat. In Brazzaville Voronin met with representatives of the opposition Congo-Leopoldville. When the car was surrounded by Soviet diplomats were tearing up the incriminating documents. Voronin and the Meat pulled from the car, beaten and arrested. In prison, they were interrogated and continued to beat. Mobutu personally imitated the shooting of Soviet diplomats. After the publication in local Newspapers of articles about the expanded Soviet Communist conspiracy to the entire staff of the Soviet Embassy was asked to leave the country within 48 hours.Photo: Lev Ivanov / RIA Novostidue years later in Kinshasa, was arrested by the special correspondent of “Izvestia” Nikolay Khokhlov, author of the first report of the independent Congo. 29 January 1965, he was arrested by the police at the post office in the centre of Leopoldville, which passed correspondence in Moscow. After the address of the editorial office of “News” to foreign colleagues, the heads of African States and political leaders in defense of Khokhlova made, in particular, the UN Secretary-General U Thant, the Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie I, President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, the President of Senegal, Leopold Senghor, the leaders of other countries, the international Association of journalists. After 46 days of the conclusion of the Ukrainians were released and returned to Moscow.The second coup Lobotomies Mulele, Minister of culture of the Free Republic of the Congo, did not receive support in the USSR, in April 1962, went to China, where he studied military Affairs, including the conduct of guerrilla operations. Returning home, he organized an underground army and began a guerrilla war.In 1963, the UN peacekeeping force took Katanga province. The state of Katanga ceased to exist, and my Tshombe fled abroad.In April 1964 in the Eastern Congo raised vosthe settlement of Simba (in Swahili — “lions”). On 5 September they took Stanleyville and proclaimed the people’s Republic of the Congo. Simba called themselves followers of Patrice Lumumba. The lions took 7 of the 21 provinces of the country.Returning from abroad and became the new Prime Minister of my Plan with the involvement of mercenary troops suppressed the rebellion Simba.After the parliamentary elections of 1965 the situation was repeated in 1960: two leader, Tshombe and Kasavubu, began to fight for power. And again, as in 1960, the situation allowed the Joseph-désiré Mobutu. Staging another coup, he dismissed both and disbanded the government. But this time he didn’t want to create a temporary government of technocrats, and began to reign himself.Photo: ARI he ruled for 32 years.In the first speech after coming to power, Mobutu stated that the policy is within five years of destroying the country, so he will need at least the same amount of time to get everything in order. So over the next five years in the Congo will not act in any political party.But it’s only been two years, and may 20, 1967 was founded new political party — the popular movement of the revolution. The Constitution is the existence of two parties was allowed. Since the second is still not there, in 1970, the Constitution has been changed. The popular movement of the revolution became the ruling and only political party of the Congo. It has positioned itself as “neither left nor right” and later as “not even centrist”, rejecting both capitalism and communism.The founder and leader of the party was Joseph-désiré Mobutu. In 1966 he was officially proclaimed the “Second national hero”. The first was Patrice Lumumba. However, Mobutu had a hand in the arrest and death of Lumumba, was considered the successor of his case. Mobutu brought together all the unions in one country and brought it under state control, he also took control of the Parliament, reduced the number of provinces and restricted their autonomy.The new king successfully dealt with political opponents. In 1966, the KGB arrested the former Prime Minister Evariste Kimba and three former Ministers of his government. They were tortured, accused of conspiracy to assassinate Mobutu, was tried by a military court without a lawyer, was sentenced to death (not provided for by the laws of the country in this article) and June 2, 1966 were publicly hanged in the capital in the presence of more than 50 thousand spectators.In 1966 and 1967, Mobutu suppressed the rebellion of two in Kisangani.In 1968 he proposed to return to the country Pierre Mulele promising him Amnesty. Believing the promises Mulele on arrival in the Congo was arrested by the security agencies. He gouged out his eyes, tore off genitals, and cut off the hands and feet. What is left, drowned in the river Zaire.Photo: ARV 1968, was restored diplasticheskie relations between the Congo and the USSR. But in 1970, Mobutu expelled four Soviet diplomats. In 1971, he was declared persona non grata 20 employees of the Soviet Embassy, accusing them of inciting students of the local University for demonstrations.In 1970, Mobutu and the popular movement of the revolution won the General election. For them was given to 99.99% and 98,33% of the votes respectively. With the election of President Mobutu voted by 30.5 thousand more than were registered voters. In 1977 and 1984, Mobutu had successfully won re-election, being the only candidate.In 1977 and 1978 he repelled the invasion of the rebels into the territory of Katanga, having received military assistance from France and Belgium.Sairiala and kleptocratic: STR / AFPОдним of the main policies of Mobutu was authenticity, also known as sairiala.1 June 1966 was renamed the Congolese city whose name recalled the colonial past. Leopoldville — Kinshasa, Elisabethville in Lubumbashi, Stanleyville in Kisangani, Civil in Mbanza-ngungu.In 1971 was renamed the country — to Zaire.All the residents, which bore European names, were ordered to exchange them for African. The priests under pain of five years imprisonment was forbidden to baptize infants European names. Under the ban came also European apparel. Women were not allowed to wear pants, and men had to change the jacket to abacast, it is considered that the design of this clothes he designed himself Mobutu.Mobutu Sese Seko propagated the cult of personality, awarded himself medals, appropriated and honorable military rank and led a luxurious lifestyle. He sailed on the Congo river on a yacht Kamanyola. In the town of Gbadolite, where he was born, his family, he built a Palace, unofficially nicknamed “Versailles in the jungle”, in other parts of the country had a dozen residences. At the airport in Gbadolite was built the runway capable of taking the supersonic Concorde, which Mobutu and his family rented to travel more often for shopping in Paris.Read nextin the contents of the head of state of the budget allocated more funding than education, health and other social spending combined. Years of generous financial aid from the West also contributed to the welfare of Mobutu.I visited many countries of the world, Mobutu Sese Seko never visited Moscow. In 1974, he accepted an invitation to visit the Soviet Union, but at the last moment changed his mind and went to China and the DPRK.The leader of Zaire hoped to hand over power by inheritance to his son Nieuwe, but that in 1994 he died of AIDS.After the collapse of USSR and end the cold war, Mobutu ceased to be of interest to the West as the main fighter against communism on the African continent. Ek��nomika Zaire was in a deplorable condition. To the discontent in the country has added to the ethnic conflicts with neighbors.Photo: Martine Archembault / AFPПри the active support of Rwanda and Uganda, the group “Alliance of democratic forces for the liberation of Congo” (ADCSOC) under the leadership of Laurent-désiré Kabila started a rebellion against the Mobutu regime. The opponents of Mobutu’s Angola has adhered. In November 1996, the First Congolese war.Patient prostate cancer, Mobutu was in treatment in Switzerland and could not control the situation.16 may 1997 the army ADSTOCK and her allied troops entered Kinshasa. Mobutu fled to Togo and then to Morocco, where he died on 7 September of the same year.The next day after the overthrow of dictator Laurent-désiré Kabila declared himself President and was returned to Zaire, the old name of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).Time father and Cinescore after the coming to power of Laurent-désiré Kabila fell out with former allies and ordered Rwandan and Ugandan military to leave the country. In the course of the next ethnic conflict on the territory of the DRC, Rwanda and Uganda provided assistance to anti-government rebels. 2 Aug 1998 began the Second Congolese war, which lasted until 2003. It was attended by more than 20 groups from 9 African countries: from Libya to South Africa. The war and its aftermath had killed 5.4 million people, including died of disease and starvation. This makes it the bloodiest military conflict that occurred after the Second world war. About 2 million people became refugees, about half a million women suffered sexual violence.After his father’s death the country was headed by the eldest son. On 17 January 2001 the President of DRC was 29-year-old Joseph Kabila, chief of the General staff of the armed forces of the Congo. Despite his youth, he showed himself a serious politician. In 2002 a peace agreement was signed, formally ended the Second Congo war. Joseph Kabila remained head of state.In 2004, he had survived two attempted military coup. In the night from 27 to 28 March rebelled former soldiers of the presidential guard of Mobutu. According to various estimates, for participating in the conspiracy were arrested from 72 to 88 people, several people are wanted for help in finding them a reward of $5 thousand, the Second coup took place on 11 June. The rebels, led by major Eric Lange even managed to announce on the radio about overthrowing the government, but was defeated by government troops.At 30 June 2006, the DRC was appointed as the General election. Joseph Kabila could not nominate his candidacy for the presidential elections, as according to the Constitution at the time of designation, the candidate must be over 35 years old. 35 he was executed on 4 June, the campaign had less than a month. Poet�� in December 2005 was held a referendum which approved a new Constitution. At her age of presidential candidates was reduced to 30 years. Later the election was postponed for a month. Not counting the burning of several polling stations, armed clashes between supporters of the two main presidential candidates in the capital and election boycott by the opposition led by Etienne tshisekedi, following his accusing power in large-scale fraud, the elections passed quietly. Kabila Jr. won in the second round.Five years later Joseph Kabila was re-elected for a second term. In the 2011 elections still took part Etienne tshisekedi, following his. He even proclaimed himself President for 20 days until the election, stating that it supports most of the population.In 2017, the Congo Research Group based at new York University, has published a report on the business Empire Joseph Kabila. According to this based on open sources research, the President and his brother and sister belonged to more than 80 companies in the DRC and abroad, operating in various fields: agriculture, mining, banking, real estate, telecommunications, concessions for the extraction of diamonds on the border with Angola on the line a total length of about 725 km. According to the most conservative estimates, the total value of assets amounted to tens of millions of dollars, and the total profit for half a decade in business hundreds of millions of dollars.Journalist Richard Miniter were more generous in their assessments: in 2014 he wrote in Forbes magazine that Joseph Kabila withdrew from the country to offshore accounts of about $15 billion President’s Family suspected that information was passed on to journalist the speaker of Parliament Evariste of Bosab. Boshab was beaten unconscious by MP Zoe Kabila, the President’s brother.The Constitution of 2005 prohibited to hold a post of the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo for more than two terms, i.e. ten years. At the same time after two terms the incumbent can stay in office until new elections. Therefore Kabila is strongly delayed their implementation, so short of until 30 December 2018. On this day, elections were held. Their preliminary results announced in 2019.According to a statement by the electoral Commission, the elections were won by the opposition leader, the head of the party “Union for democracy and social progress” Felix tshisekedi, following his — son died in 2017, Etienne tshisekedi, following his. His main rival Martin the File stated that the results were falsified, because tshisekedi, following his signed a cooperation agreement with the ruling party supporters of Kabila, having a majority in Parliament.Photo: Ramil Sitdikov / RIA Nowosciach or otherwise, but January 25, 2019 there has been an unprecedented event for the DRC — the transfer of power to the new head of stategovernment peacefully. With the arrival of a new President has opened new prospects for Russian-Congolese relations. Felix tshisekedi, following his became the first leader of the DRC, to visit Russia: 23 October 2019, he met with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Sochi.At this meeting, Mr Putin said: “Russian-Congolese cooperation has been constructive, mutually respectful nature. In the first months of independence of the Republic in 1960, the Soviet Union provided substantial assistance to the government of Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba. This is an absolutely legendary man, a legendary fighter for the liberation of African peoples from colonialism. In our country it was very popular, enjoyed great popularity and support among the population of the Soviet Union”.Alexey Alexeev
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