the Warsaw uprising on 1 August 1944, the heroism of its participants, and its tragic consequences is one of the most significant events of the final stage of the Second world war. The courage of Warsaw, locked within the walls of his native city, entered into an unequal battle with heavily armed enemy, their heroism and dedication inscribed in Golden letters in the history of the Resistance movement. The only thing that Mars the memory of this heroic event, is today’s statements by Polish politicians and historians about the fact that the defeat of the uprising and blame huge losses the Red army and Stalin personally. So – no more and no less.
In July 2017, the President of the United States Donald trump visited the Polish capital and made a speech, in which, in particular, noted: “…in the Summer of 1944 the Nazi and Soviet troops were preparing for a terrible and bloody battle right here in Warsaw. In this “hell on earth” Polish citizens came to the defense of their homeland. A great honor for me to stand on the stage next to the veterans and heroes of the Warsaw uprising. …And on the other side of the river, the Soviet troops stopped and waited. They watched as the Nazis mercilessly destroyed the town, killing men, women and children. They tried to destroy this nation forever, breaking their will to live… Until we remember our history, we will know how we build our future.”
it is Clear that trump is not a historian, he was misled by those who prepared his speech. Although the American President said nothing new – in fact the same and teach Polish children in schools. For example, in 2004 in Russian was published in “History of Poland”, in which the readers ‘ attention was focused primarily on the glorification of the participants in the uprising: “Two months (August-September 1944) tens of thousands of rebels, supported by the civilian population (which, however, had nothing to arm), fought with a well-equipped and numerically superior German forces. During this time the Red army offensive which had been suspended, was on the Eastern Bank of the Vistula. The authors do not explain to the reader why the Red army in August 1944 did not take the decisive assault on the Polish capital, although it is mentioned that the events on the Soviet-German front near Warsaw in the summer of 1944 unfolded rapidly, and not in favor of the red army. However, the blame for the failure of the rebellion they are trying to shift to the Soviet side: “For several weeks the Soviet leadership has not taken any actions to come to the aid of the rebellion, and even forbidden to land airplanes allies, who with military bases in Italy tried to bring the fighting Warsaw weapons, ammunition, medicine and food. Only in mid-September, ovla��EV not covered by the uprising in right-Bank part of Warsaw, the Soviet command attempted to cross the Vistula a force of weak units who were in his command of the Polish army. The operation failed and led to large losses”.
Try to restore the chronology of events and to look “behind the scenes” taking place at the time of certain events.
it is Known that on the eve of the uprising in the Polish capital, on 30 July 1944, arrived in Moscow a delegation of the Polish government in exile, headed by Prime Minister Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, who was in the capital of the USSR until October 20, 1944. Details of this visit, except for a few documents, almost not known to the public. Did Polish Prime Minister, mikolajczyk, S. Molotov or Stalin about the uprising in the Polish capital, and if not, why not? This issue of the modern Polish historians and politicians studiously avoided saying how many people, so many opinions. But one fact remains: in Poland there is a strong position, formed by the emigrant government in London, of course, not without the help of the British that Stalin intentionally did not help the insurgent Warsaw.
on 31 July, i.e. the day before the uprising in Warsaw was held the meeting of the people’s Commissar of foreign Affairs of the USSR V. M. Molotov with the Prime Minister S. Mikolajczyk, members of the Polish delegation. During the conversation, Molotov said that “to Warsaw was only 10 kilometers,” and asked, “does the Mikolajczyk any more questions.” In response, the Polish Prime Minister said that “the questions he is no more…”.
a few days Later – August 3 – Mikolajczyk accepts Stalin personally. Polish Prime Minister during a call, informs Stalin that “…on 1 August the Polish underground army began an open struggle against the Germans in Warsaw and that he mikolajczyk, would probably rather go to Warsaw…”. Later in the conversation mikolajczyk was again mentioned that “…he wants to be in Warsaw. Tov. Stalin replied that Warsaw from the Germans. Mikolajczyk said that he thought Warsaw would soon be released and he will be able to create a new government based on all the forces of Poland. Tov. Stalin says: “God Forbid that it were so…”
But they say the previously unknown, declassified documents from the Central archive of the FSB of Russia. It should be noted that before and during the uprising, the AK had actively conducted propaganda campaign aimed against the Soviet Union. The intelligence report on the situation in Poland 1st Department of the NKGB of the USSR of 19 August 1944 it was also reported on the ongoing AK anti-Soviet propaganda, which accused the USSR’s failure to provide assistance to the rebels.
the paper reported: “[…] Leadership “of the home Army” had hoped that the red army takes Warsaw on 19-20 August. The rebellion pwas rassledoval political purposes: to take power into their own hands to the arrival of the red army and declare that the poles liberate Warsaw themselves before the arrival of the red army”… In this case in connection with the failure of the uprising the leadership of the “home Army” conducting oral propaganda: “We are revolted with the aim to help the red army to take Warsaw. However, when the uprising started, the Red army deliberately stopped its offensive and not helping the rebels, even with arms. The red army did to the Germans destroyed the best part of Polish patriots” […]”.
essentially, this thesis was the basis for all postwar numerous insinuations about the Warsaw uprising.
Recently in the Central archive of the FSB of Russia managed to find new documents relevant to the Warsaw uprising of 1944, from which it follows that the Polish government in exile in London was quite informed that the uprising in Warsaw are ill prepared for. So on March 15, 1945 Lodz operations group “SMERSH” of the 1st Belorussian front, was arrested Deputy commandant of the home Army, Colonel Roman Rudkovsky. 19 and March 23, 1945, the Commissioner of the NKVD of the 1st Belorussian front I. Serov at the “RF”connection sent memos to the people’s Commissar of internal Affairs L. Beria about the arrest and interrogation of Colonel Rudkovsky.
In particular, he reported that “…during the Warsaw uprising home army soldiers he was in London, mikolajczyk told him that they had a meeting about the organization of the uprising in Warsaw, but due to lack of knowledge of the situation in Poland, the Council of Ministers for a final decision did not come was: “to Provide the opportunity for independent action General “Borax”, depending on the situation on the ground”. In September Rudkovsky has caused mikolajczyk to him and asked him to fly to Poland in order to check the position of the rebels, their weapons and ammunition, and also see the condition of AK.
shows Rudkovsky, it is during October-November 1944, while in Poland, Mikolajczyk gave four telegrams, which explained that akovtsy to the uprising in Warsaw was not prepared, due to the lack of weapons and ammunition, nickelocene units of AK and the absence of command personnel. In one of the telegrams Rudkovsky pointed out that the main headquarters AK lied to the London emigrant government on the number being in the underground home army soldiers and their weapons, exaggerating at the same time in 4-5 times the size of the AK. Supposedly this telegram he showed to the chief commandant of the AK “of Niedzwiadek”, which was unhappy with this message and stated that it refers to the General “Borax”, as he was only a Deputy”.
Chrome�� in order to understand what reasons led to the tragedy of the uprising in Warsaw, you should consider the situation by the summer of 1944, German forces occupied the Polish territory. GHQ and the Soviet leadership had very detailed information about military-political situation in Poland and the intentions of the Polish government in exile in London in connection with the entry of the red army on Polish soil. In the summer of 1943 in Poland were active in the detachment of Soviet partisans and operational groups of the NKGB of the USSR. New facts about their activities are given in a recently published, 6-m, volume 12-volume history of the great Patriotic war. That’s how marked the work of the London government and the Polish underground organizations in occupied Poland in 1944: “Officially under the leadership of the government in exile, headed by S. Mikolajczyk, the Polish intelligence and clandestine military structure of the home Army acted only against the German occupiers in the General interests of the allies, including the USSR. In fact they were aimed at preventing the establishment in Poland of a regime is not only friendly, but even loyal to the Soviet Union.
“Chelsea” and their representatives in Poland did not want to even discuss the issue about the so-called East Kress – territorial jurisdiction to the country in the Western Ukraine, Western Byelorussia and some regions of Lithuania. Joining them in 1939 to the Soviet Union was seen as the occupation and the Red army – as an army of invaders.
in October 1943, the 1st administration of the NKGB of the USSR received from the London residency a message about some of the decisions of the Polish General staff. Agents of Soviet intelligence noted that the General staff with the consent of the government in exile had given instructions to the Commissioner of the Polish government in Poland “to prepare for the resistance of the red army when it comes to the territory of Poland”. In addition, the Polish armed forces, i.e. Army, was ordered to fight against Pro-Soviet partisans in Western Ukraine and Western Belarus and “to prepare a General uprising in these areas when entering there the red army.”
And finally, on 20 November 1943 the commander of the AK, Komorowski issued the order about introduction in action of the so-called plan of “Bougie” (“Storm”). The plan envisaged to use the time gap between the departure of the Wehrmacht and the entry into any city of the red army to capture parts of the AK government and the “presentation” of the legitimate authority of the Polish government in exile. Part of the plan “Storm” was the Warsaw uprising of 1944.
the Soviet counter-intelligence has received a number of documents irrefutably demonstrating direct contact between ��And to German intelligence: “the units of the home Army was giving their activities enough reason for the Soviet intelligence services doubt the desire to support the efforts of the red army in the fight against the enemy. This is clearly indicated in the intercepted KGB records of negotiations of the representatives of the German military intelligence and the security police with one of the commanders of the home Army major Krzhizhanovsky (alias Wilk). Their meeting took place on 13 February 1944, the German side agreed on the existence of the Polish armed forces numbering several thousand people in exchange for them not to use weapons against German soldiers.”
the documents of the Soviet foreign intelligence service also testify that in connection with the entry of the red army on the territory of Poland by the German occupation authorities changed their attitude to the poles and began to actively attract them to the armed struggle of Polish underground organizations of the left orientation and the Soviet partisan groups operating on Polish soil.
here are excerpts from archival materials stored in the funds of the Central archive of the FSB of Russia:
on 20 January 1944 the NKGB operational group acting in the area of Rivne, reported to Moscow: “the Poles residing in places. Rafalivka, Proproach, the Rozhysche, in recent years, dramatically changed their attitude toward the Soviet partisans and moved completely to the service of the Germans. In Lutsk, Rozhysche and created the Polish police, who diligently carries out the orders of the Germans in the extermination of the Russian and Ukrainian population of the Eastern regions of the USSR. The poles ride through Ukrainian villages, burn them, kill people and commit robberies. The last time the poles burned C. parks Omelene and looted S. S. Harnevo and Klimentova. In Proproach the Germans created unit poles strength to 1,200, which are armed with two 45-mm guns, heavy and light machine guns and rifles. The poles spread among the population of provocative rumors about the alleged committed by the Soviet partisans the murder of the Polish population.”
From February 1944 zafrontovym intelligence NKGB of the USSR has documented training of Polish underground organizations subordinated to the Polish government in exile for the uprising in the country and a negative attitude to the formation of a Polish army on Soviet territory.
In the special report of the 4th Department of the NKGB of the USSR to the leadership of the people’s Commissariat of state security on February 9, 1944, stated: “[…] an Underground organization conducts mass work among the prosperous part of the Belarusian population and the poles under the slogan: “don’t let the Red army on Polish territory. We will help England and America.” The organization is intensively preparing for the General uprising of the poles. To the armed forces of the poles in the Soviet Union the organization is hostile, ��asiva soldiers of the Polish corps in the USSR traitors to the Motherland”.
10 may 1944 the head of the task force, acting on the territory of the General government, reported: “[…] in early April in the village of Guta Kastelanska that near the town of Yanov, killed 8 poles of the order “Guard the Nation”. Last summer, an armed unit under the command of Lech in the woods Yaniv killed 23 of the red army who had fled from German captivity. In March, ibid. killed, three wounded from the Soviet partisan connection Kovpaka left to cure.
the task force has reported on the conflicts taking place within the Polish underground organizations, subordinate to the London government.
June 20, 1944, the chief of the 1st Department of the NKGB of the USSR P. M. Phytin sent to the head of the 2nd Department of the NKGB of the USSR P. V. Fedotov a memo with the following content:
“According to our intelligence reports, the Commissioner of the London government in Poland Jankowski and the commander of the “Edge Army” General Komorowski gave the following Directive: “the Germans went bankrupt, with them there is nothing to be considered, the main enemy – the Soviet Union, all the forces against the Soviet Union. To enhance the struggle against the Soviet Union released from custody major Lipinski and captain Komorowski (“Army Executive”). The Germans run some of the teams “the home Army”. “Battalions of chlopska” positive attitude to the Soviet Union, resulting in “home Army” is trying to disarm them”.
As you can see, the information coming from the operational groups of the NKGB of the USSR and other sources, enabled the administration to obtain an objective picture of the events that occurred in the country on the eve of the Warsaw uprising. This information has talked about the fact that the London government and its emissaries in Poland are even ready to cooperate with the German occupiers, if only to prevent the Red army on Polish soil.
Information on the situation on the territory of Poland, collected by the people’s Commissariat of state security of the USSR, promptly the leadership of the country. Of course, that the negative attitude of the home Army to the USSR as a whole have been considered by the command of the red army in conducting offensive operations in Poland.
for more information on the situation in occupied Poland in 1944, and give the materials of a Special folder of the NKVD of the USSR, 1946, in particular, on the relations between the bishops of the Catholic Church in Poland and the leaders of the Nazi administration. In may 1945 in Soviet captivity was the former head of the Ecclesiastical Department of the Gestapo (division IV B3) of the Main Department of Reich security, the SS sturmbannführer of the reserve, doctor of theology and philosophy Karl Neuhaus. Let us cite a fragment from his statement of 18 February 1946
“Despite the repression against Catholic priests in Poland, the Polish higher clergy were found common ground for cooperation��in cooperation with the German authorities.
Supreme leader of the Catholic Church in Poland cardinal Hlond after the occupation of Poland by German troops in 1939, fled to Rome and for a long time was in the Vatican. Hand was in close relationship with Pope Pius XII, which he is very patronized. As reported in February 1944 telegram former SS and police chief in France, General-Colonel – Oberg, – Hand on the personal initiative proposed Directors and representatives of the foreign Ministry to take part in the propaganda war against the Bolsheviks. After the flight of cardinal Hlond from Warsaw Catholic Church in Poland was headed by the Archbishop of Cracow, Prince Sapieha. In Poland, the German authorities have made many Catholic priests in the concentration camps and their property confiscated. Despite this, Archbishop Sapieha knew how to get along with the German authorities in the Polish General government. In late 1941, Sapieha said to one of his priests – agent SD: the Germans have to understand that it is time to change the policy towards the poles; if they gave the poles some promises, the poles would willingly joined the struggle against the Soviets. Apparently, based on these views Sapieha, Governor-General Frank of Poland, with the intention to create the Polish part of the SS, Himmler wrote that he hoped for assistance in this Sapieha and his Church. In other words, while some poles fought against the Nazis, their Catholic pastors behind them turned a blind eye to the crimes of the Nazis and agreed to jointly fight “against the Soviets”.
Should pay attention to some of the political and military events before and during the uprising in the Polish capital. The intensity of the battles of summer of 1944 was very hot. Nazi Germany was sandwiched in a pincer movement from the West and the East.
June 6, allied troops landed in Normandy (overlord), opening hostilities on a Second front. A few weeks later, on June 23, the Red army launched the biggest offensive of the Second world war in Byelorussia (Bagration). Less than a month later, on July 17-18, Soviet troops crossed the Soviet border with Poland. Together with the soldiers of the red army to his native land he joined the soldiers of the 1st Polish army (the so-called Berling army).
Starting from 22-23 July 1944, Warsaw was seized with panic. Under pressure from the advancing red army units of the Wehrmacht hastily left the Polish capital. This has strengthened the AK command in the correct moment to begin the uprising.
However, by the end of July 1944 the situation changed dramatically. Hitler decided not to surrender under any circumstances.
the intelligence Service of AK in a timely manner, pointed to his leadership on the strengthening of the German defense on the approaches to Warsaw, and its Director K. jiránek-Osmecki beforegested to the commander of the AK General Komorowski to postpone the rebellion as doomed to failure. It is also known that for some time before the start of the uprising held a secret meeting with Komorowski, commander of the representative of German military intelligence P. Fuchs. The Polish General has warned that the German side is aware of the impending rebellion, and the approximate date of its beginning. But Bor-Komorowski went into a revolt, which was not unexpected for the Germans and thus was doomed to failure.
on the Eve of the uprising in the Warsaw district of the home Army were about 30 thousand fighters that were superior to the German part of the city (13-15 thousand), but they were armed very poorly. So, on August 1, 1944, the insurgents had only 47 machine guns, 657 guns, 29 anti-tank rifles, rifles, 2629, 2665 pistols and 50 thousand grenades.
the rebels from the first days of the uprising, joined by several hundred soldiers of the Army Ludovit (AL), but most of it was taken out of the city before the uprising for the establishment of guerrilla warfare in the forests.
given the fact that the Germans advance has strengthened a key building in the city, preparing for defense against the Soviet troops, hopes for success of the uprising were very slim. 31 July 1944 at the meeting of the General staff of the AK was still prevailing view that it was premature statements.
however, according to the Soviet plan of operations (approved by I. V. Stalin on July 28, 1944), Warsaw, as the heavily fortified city, it was planned not to take in the forehead and around the North and South, creating a bridgehead on the Vistula. This tactic was also mindful of the need to maintain the city as one of the centres of Slavic culture.
In the period from 28 July to 2 August 1944, Soviet troops seized a bridgehead South of Warsaw and gave it to the parts of the Polish army, which was stepping along the river, to go in Warsaw from the South.
By this time the troops of the 1st Belorussian front, under the walls of Warsaw were fighting since the end of June, more than 600 km and were extremely malnourished. Behind the carts with ammunition, clothing, food and fuel and lubricants. Besides, the front’s forces temporarily lost air cover, since attached them to the 16th air army still had not managed to relocate on next to the front airfields. All these facts were well known to the German command, which also solved the operational plan of the red army and decided to deliver a powerful armored counterattack from Warsaw to the rear of the Soviet bridgehead on the Vistula.
For counterstrike command of the Wehrmacht gathered in the “iron fist” significant forces: 5th Panzer division SS “Viking” Panzer division “Hermann Goering”, the 3rd Panzer division SS “Dead head” and one infantry division.
In late July near Warsaw notMCI focused 51,5 thousand soldiers and officers, 1158 guns and mortars, 600 tanks and self-propelled guns. Who was the closest to the Polish capital of the Soviet 2nd tank army had 32 thousand soldiers, 468 guns and mortars, 425 tanks and self-propelled guns. Striking from three sides, the Germans virtually surrounded and destroyed 3-rd tank corps, 2nd army, and on August 2-3, threw part of the 1st Belorussian front from Warsaw. While the German group was in more favorable conditions, as it relied on the Warsaw fortified area. On the outskirts of the capital of Poland, Soviet troops lost 280 tanks and were forced to go on the defensive.
Polish historians have also noted the inability of the 1st Belorussian front to continue in the current environment, a further attack.
on 1 August 1944 at the appointed hour “W” (Polish “wybuch” – the uprising) an uprising broke out in Warsaw. The security police and SD, Gestapo, through its agents learned about the AK and, in advance, has strengthened all the key points of the city. In detail told about it during interrogation in Soviet captivity, the former military commandant of Warsaw, Lieutenant General Reynard Stagel.
From the testimony of Stages it follows that the German counterintelligence had very full information on the situation in Warsaw, so the beginning of the uprising did not find the German military command by surprise and it had to be well prepared.
In the early days of the uprising the poles had seized most of the capital, but was unable to take any major government building. Stations, the main transport artery, and – what was especially important for invaders – the bridges over the Vistula remained in the hands of the Germans. In the city the insurgents, having mastered a number of areas, failed to create a single liberated territory, making it very difficult for their air support. Inside each of the occupied areas were German strong points that held every precinct in the city under fire.
meanwhile, the intelligence of the 1st Belorussian front received the first (very vague) reports about the uprising in Warsaw only on 2 August. The situation in the city at that time remained unclear. The city was dropped, the Soviet liaison officer with the radio station, but he died as the red army command did not know the exact location of the rebels.
on the first day of untried parts of AK, consisting mainly of young people and intellectuals, suffered heavy losses – about 2000 people (the Germans lost about 500). However, the first four days the rebels had the initiative, because the German military command has not pulled to the city trains, tanks and guns. Having learned about the revolt in Warsaw, SS Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler called it a “godsend” because it was a convenient pretext for the destruction of the Polish capital.
on 4th August, the German military commandthe study began the systematic suppression of the uprising. With the front was not revoked any major parts. Against the rebels had abandoned the security of the SS, police and Ukrainian nationalists and the combined regiment of the 29th battalion of the SS “RONA” (the so-called “Kaminsky brigade”).
At the same time the German command using the lack of a unified leadership of the uprising (by Komorowski himself recognized this, noting that the city is in terms of the location of the opposing sides was similar to “chess Board”), methodically destroyed all pockets of resistance, using heavy guns, armored trains, tanks and flamethrowers.
on 8 August 1944, with the participation of the special representative of the Supreme command (WMC) of Marshal G. K. Zhukov developed a new plan for the liberation of Warsaw. August 9, 1944, Stalin again took in Moscow, Polish Prime Minister Mikolajczyk S., appealed to the Soviet leader with a request to assist the rebels. In addition to providing the poles of small arms, anti-tank weapons, as well as medicines and food, Stalin, fulfilling the promise to Mikolajczyk, ordered the commander of the 1st Belorussian front of Marshal Rokossovsky to send to Warsaw officer of a scout with the operator. In Warsaw were sent to scout Lieutenant Ivan Kolos, “captain Oleg”, which was in force among the insurgent poles from 21 September to 2 October 1944. Thanks to the efforts of officer reconnaissance of the Soviet command had brought the insurgent poles, a significant number of military supplies, medicine and food.
interest and prompt report of Lieutenant Spike on the work done in Warsaw, which described the course of events in Warsaw from September 21 to surrender the rebels:
“…the end of the uprising, the entire population was looking forward to the Red Army, accusing the AK in the crime of inciting revolt, who led to the deaths of thousands of civilians. Similar sentiments appeared inside AK. Reactionary elements, and, first and foremost, the underground military organization of AK, the so-called “PKB” (Panstwowy case bezpieczenstwa) were pronounced nationalist politics. All the Ukrainian people who remained in the city, were cut or shot. Forces of PKB was also destroyed the remnants of the Jews who did not manage to destroy the Germans. PKB conducted special raids on Russian prisoners of war who escaped from German captivity, trying to seize hostages to exchange with the red Army… So, for example, of AK holding as hostages of Colonel Nikolai Rumyantsev, major Nikolai Gorodetsky and Professor of medicine Alexander Danilovich Ershov. Members of the AK were killed by officers and soldiers of the 9th regiment of the 1st Polish army, which took place in the center.��after the defeat of the Germans Chernyakhovskogo of the site. Inform the agent of the Intelligence staff of our front – Sergeant of the regiment of Lahno, was soon shot from the corner…”.
on 22 August 1944, in a message to Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin emphasized that “Soviet troops …doing everything possible to …go on a new broad offensive near Warsaw. There can be no doubt that the Red army would spare no efforts to defeat the Germans at Warsaw and liberate Warsaw for the poles. It will be the best and effective help to the poles-antiracists”. However, due to the necessary after extremely heavy fighting, the rearrangement operation of the red army could not begin before August 25.
Despite the difficult situation for the Soviet troops near Warsaw, aid to the rebels was provided. She was more efficient than the one that tried to airlift the Anglo-American air force. So, Marshal Rokossovsky in his memoirs, he noted:
“…, September 13, began supplying the insurgents by air with weapons, ammunition, food and medicine. Did our night bombers Po-2. They dumped the load from low altitudes at points indicated by the insurgents. From 13 September to 1 October 1944, the aircraft of front made in the aid 4821 sorties, including with supplies for the rebel forces – 2535. Our aircraft at the request of the rebels covered their areas from the air, bombed and stormed the German troops in the city.”
Total from 14 September to 1 October 1944 were dropped 156 mortars, 505 anti-tank rifles, 2667 machine guns and rifles, 41 780 grenades, 3 million rounds of ammunition, 113 tons of food and 500 kg of drugs.
let us Return to the events that took place on the outskirts of the Polish capital. Since the end of August 1944, the troops of the 1st and 2nd Byelorussian fronts tried active offensive actions to cast a strong group of Germans hanging over Warsaw from the North-East, to create conditions for the liberation of the capital of Poland.
September 10, 1944, the 47th army and the 1st Polish army passed to the offensive on Warsaw. They were opposed by the 100-strong group of Germans, the average density was one division on 5-6 km of the front. Began a stubborn battle for the Eastern part of Warsaw – Prague.
on the night of 14 September, Soviet troops reached the Vistula. The Nazis managed to blow up all the bridges across the river. Weak rebel forces, besides pushed into the center of the city, could not prevent their destruction. In the battle of Prague had been killed 8500 Nazis, and Moscow on 14 September 1944 saluted the troops, who took this part of the city officially declared the Germans the fortress, salvoes from 224 guns.
September 16, 1944, 1st VP Army began crossing to the West Bank of the Vistula river, trying to connect with the rebels holding near beregi southern and Northern suburbs of Warsaw – Zoliborz and Czerniakow.
Total from 16 to 20 September in Warsaw crossed six reinforced infantry battalions. However, failed to move to the other side tanks and guns, because the Germans kept the Vistula under heavy fire. Using heavy tanks and self-propelled guns, the Germans on September 23 replaced the landing on the Eastern shore. Polish units suffered heavy losses: 3764 killed and wounded.
on 29 September the Germans, having received reinforcements, launched an attack on Warsaw and took half of the quarter. Given the current situation, the Soviet command decided that the only way to rebel is to evacuate.
September 30, Soviet intelligence agents received the order of command: at 10.00 the assault to seize the Western Bank of the Vistula, where suitable boats, and able in one trip to transport about 350 people. The assault was preceded by artillery shelling, bombing enemy positions Soviet aircraft and smoke screen.
At the appointed time, the rebel forces have occupied initial positions for the attack. Began artillery preparation, in the air there were Soviet aircraft, but the smoke could not be established. In this regard, the received new instructions: to storm the enemy positions in the absence of a smokescreen or wait until evening.
it Was decided the assault to be postponed till evening. However, by the evening of the same day, the German command sent to the rebel representatives, who said that General Bur negotiating a surrender. In proof of this they brought on a tank of Colonel AK Juhnovskogo (Nast. name Karol Rural), who commanded the rebels in the “Old town” of Warsaw. The headquarters of the AK Zoliborz ordered his troops to cease fire and entered into negotiations with the Germans.
Should pay attention to the attitude of the officers and soldiers of the 1st Polish army to surrender of the rebel forces army in Warsaw. Directorate of counterintelligence “SMERSH” of the 1st Belorussian front was fixed the attitude of the personnel of the 1st Polish army about the surrender. For example, on 11 October 1944 the head of the UKR “SMERSH” of the 1st Belorussian front Lieutenant General A. Vadis reported in gukr “SMERSH” NGOs of the USSR: “…Article[arshy] the adjutant of the 2nd battalion of the 1st infantry division Zdunczyk 5 October, reading the message on the surrender of a command “AK”, in the presence of our operatives, said: “This is betrayal, what is not seen the world. Officers “AK” so much so that they began to guard German officers. I don’t know what it is. They fear us, don’t want to we went to Warsaw, and therefore surrendered their positions to the Germans, thus gave them more. However, this “AK” nothing will happen”.
September 27, German troops launched the final offensive on rebel areas. Komorowski did not break through the Vistula and October 2, 1944, signed toMandelson German troops in Warsaw, the SS General von dem Bach-Zelewski agreement of surrender. The prisoner was 17 thousand rebels, including 922 officers of the AK. SCARLET troops left the city and partially broke through the Vistula. If we talk about the future of captive poles, these questions also answer the declassified archives of the FSB: “the Information that the Nazis created from poles armed groups, came from zafrontovym groups of the 4th Department of the NKGB of the USSR from the territory of German-occupied Poland. January 17, 1945 the people’s Commissar of state security of the USSR Commissioner GB 2 rank S. M. Savchenko has written to the Deputy people’s Commissar of state security of the USSR Commissar of GB of 2-rank B. Z. Kobulov special report “On the formation by the Germans of the Polish army”.
the document said: “…According to information received from the agents, smuggled into the units of the home Army, the commander of the home Army – Tadeusz Komorowski, known under the nickname “drill”, with the defeat of the Warsaw uprising, refusing to go to the Soviet side, surrendered to the Germans and was imprisoned in the camp Thorne. According to the data obtained from the agent “moravec”, […] the Germans were transported from Warsaw to Birkenau, located near Auschwitz, 5-7 thousand poles – participants of the Warsaw uprising. Among them is recruited into the German army, accompanied with threats.”
all in All, the result of the Warsaw uprising killed 200 thousand poles, including 16 thousand rebels. The entire civilian population of Warsaw was evacuated from the city, including 87 thousand people were sent to forced labor in Germany. During the uprising the Germans destroyed 25 percent of the pre-war development of the city.
until the liberation of Warsaw by the red army on 17 January 1945, units of the SS on the orders of Himmler systematically blew up the cultural monuments destroyed particularly archives and libraries of the Polish capital. As for the losses of the red army, only in August – first half of September 1944 the troops of the 1st Belorussian front lost on the outskirts of Warsaw, 166 808 soldiers and officers. The loss of the 1st Ukrainian front only for August was 122 578. That is, both front lost 289 386 people. And still in the West there are people who dare to accuse the Red army and its leaders that they would not like to help fighting Warsaw. The Polish army in the battles for the liberation of the Motherland has lost 26 thousand killed and missing.
to summarize, based solely on documentary evidence, we can say that the Warsaw uprising August-September 1944 is an example of the heroic struggle of the poles against the German occupiers, which ended tragically because of anti-Soviet views of the Polish government in exile and subordinate to the home Army, who did not want coordinate the time and place of the uprising with the Soviet Union.
the question Arises, how came the rebellion if it started a few weeks later and was coordinated with the Soviet command. The answer is simple – such losses, especially among civilians, could have been avoided and the Warsaw would not have been destroyed. After all, Stalin was initially set the task forces – Warsaw at the storming of the keep.