Where it came from, will take you into oblivion or remain with us for a long time what caused it amazing even scientists properties? All this “RG” talks with the supervisor of the Institute for fundamental and clinical immunology of the Siberian branch of the RAS, academician Vladimir Kozlov.
Vladimir, doctors and scientists have a lot to tell the public about clinical aspects of coronavirus infections. But I would like to talk and fundamental issues. And the first of them is what caused such a “weighting” of the properties of this virus, with seasonal options which we meet constantly?
Vladimir Kozlov: I Think that while the answer to this question is no. However, as the IDO still not solved, where did the “Spanish flu” at the beginning of the last century, which claimed millions of lives in the world. Viruses mutate very quickly or can be artificially modified,as a result, they acquire new properties.
So, you still do not dismiss the probability of artificial origin, coronavirus a new type?
Vladimir Kozlov: With absolute certainty, this claim is impossible because creating a virus with new properties is possible. But I guess we’ll never know. But keep this in mind is worth.
noteworthy difference in people’s reactions on the new coronavirus: many infection they do not even notice the other immune response rapid. What does this mean?
Vladimir Kozlov: First of all, that the immune system of all people are different in different periods of life and under different conditions it is in different States. It depends on lifestyle and existing diseases, and from the load, and the most significant factor to her stress. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, we dramatically increased the statistics of morbidity in all age groups. Because drastic changes in life, social stress affect the immune system of millions of people. We actually live in a state of permanent stress, every year something happens unpleasant TV shows almost exclusively negative and disturbing news and what do you want? Man needs positive news, happy emotions, then his healthy immune system is able to cope with any antigens.
Doctors see patients with a severe form of coronavirus pneumonial similar to those that occur in autoimmune diseases. We all learned the phrase “cytokine storm”, but there is little about him to understand. So tell me, what is this phenomenon? What is its danger?
Vladimir Kozlov: When the body to penetrate the antigen, that is, something alien, be it a bacterium, virus, toxin, etc., the immune system starts to produce antibodies – cells that should destroy the”enemy”. But besides mnogie cells of the body, not only immune the virus secrete special substances called cytokines. This low molecular weight proteins that provide intercellular interaction. The cytokines include interferons, interleukins, chemokines, factors of tumor necrosis, etc. the Excess of cytokines in the body causes uncontrolled inflammation, which damages many organs. Cytokine storm often occurs in the flu, for example. It is manifested by fever, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, pain in various parts of the body and reducing the level of oxygen in the blood.This is a severe reaction, which is quite difficult to fight.
You spent years studying cells-macrophages, which are able to destroy viruses. Why now many infected they can not cope with its task?
Vladimir Kozlov: Yes, I was one of the first to examine closely the macrophages and their role in the immune system, for which colleagues have nicknamed me “Kozlotura” (laughs). Now they are fairly well understood, and in fact macrophages several different role – they do not destroy antigens, and products of decomposition of all cells, it is no coincidence Mechnikov called them “scavengers”. In dealing with viruses, I would put in first place the so-called dendritic cells – a special “sentinel” cells of innate and adaptive immunity that recognize viruses and trigger a reaction to their penetration, activate T-killers, which kill cells infected with a virus.
it is Known that our immune system consists of several “levels” of protection. Which of them do not do their function at the meeting with the coronavirus?
Vladimir Kozlov: the innate Immune system responds to the infiltration of any foreign substances, and then enters into the action of adaptive immunity that produces specific antibodies, able to bind the “outsider”, and the cytotoxic lymphocytes to destroy him. Now there is, conversely, too rapid immune response to a coronavirus.
I associate it with the fact that these viruses have, apparently, some kind of protection from immune cells. I talked about this and wrote at the beginning of the pandemic, even when we have almost no infected, but according to information from China it could be assumed that this is so. On the surface of the virus, there are likely some peptides (short chain proteins. – Ed.) which have the ability of moduletitle immune system. It was as if his mask. Perhaps other peptides immediately induce a powerful response from the innate and adaptive immunity, and the virus gets to their target cells. One might think that this is what caused asymptomatic forms of the disease – some people with super strong immunity to this virus.
On ��the ground stage, it was assumed that the virus is most dangerous for the elderly, whose immune system is weakened because of their age. The mystery of the current pandemic – a severe reaction and death of relatively young people, such as doctors. What, in your opinion, could be the reason?
Vladimir Kozlov: the Reasons can be many. First, the development of the disease depends on the number of viral particles in the body. It’s one thing if the two of them,another is if dozens of them. Then, the young people also have a chronic disease, can bear heavy stress, to be overworked – all this affects the immune system.
over the past 30-50 years, humanity has repeatedly received the “jolt” from viruses of different etiologies, ranging from HIV and ending with the Ebola virus, West Nile fever, etc. in your opinion, prognozirovaniye dangerous virus?
Vladimir Kozlov: I Think in principle this is possible. It is possible to allocate characteristic fragments particularly pathogens and on their basis to create a sensitive test system. If you constantly conduct a screening study of a representative population groups in the regions of a potential pandemic, it is likely that it will be possible to take pre-emptive measures. At least to toughen sanitary-hygienic regimes.
And without vaccination no other protection against possible viral outbreak the science can not offer?
Vladimir Kozlov: Why? Vaccination is a specific immunoprophylaxis. And I think that if timely, at the beginning of the epidemic in China, we had taken nonspecific prophylaxis could seriously reduce and collaterali forms of the disease, and the number of victims.
What precautions do you mean?
Vladimir Kozlov: They are well known: a healthy lifestyle, vitamins, herbal preparations – for example, herbal tea type, Kuril tea, Ivan-tea. Only need to apply them two or three days before the epidemic, and for two or three months – practice shows that in this case, people are much less susceptible to respiratory and infectious diseases in General. Only many think it’s too simple. And these methods – the age-old practice. For example, the Cossacks in the old days always used herbal teas, gymnastics, martial arts, and it was burly, what to look for.