they say: the war has left a deep trace in the history of every family. Behind these words – the fate of millions of people, their suffering and the pain of loss. Pride, truth and memory.
For my parents the war is the terrible suffering of besieged Leningrad, where he died my two year old brother Victor. Where miraculously survived the mother. Father, with your booking, he volunteered to defend his city. Did the same as millions of Soviet citizens. Fought at Nevsky Pyatachok bridgehead, was seriously wounded. And the more the years, the greater the need to talk with parents to learn more about the military period of their lives. But it is impossible to know anything. So retain at heart conversations with my father and mother on this subject, they are stingy emotion.
For me and my peers it is important that our children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren understand what tests and flour were their ancestors. How and why were able to survive and win. Where did their true iron fortitude, which surprised and delighted the whole world? Yes, they defended their home, children, relatives, family. But all were United by the love for the Motherland, for the Fatherland. It is a deep, personal feeling in all its fullness is reflected in the very essence of our people and has become one of the determinants in his heroic, sacrificial struggle against the Nazis.
Often wonder: “How the current generation will behave? How to proceed in terms of the emergency?” Before my eyes – the young doctors, nurses, and sometimes former students who today are in the “red zone” to rescue people. Our military in the fight against international terrorism in the North Caucasus, in Syria were killed. Very young guys. Many soldiers of the legendary, the immortal, the sixth airborne company was 19-20 years old. But all of them showed that they are worthy of the heroism of the soldiers of our country who defended it during the Great Patriotic war.
Therefore, I am confident that the character of the peoples of Russia – to do their duty, not feeling sorry for myself, if circumstances so require. Dedication, patriotism, love for one’s home, to his family, the Fatherland – these values are for the Russian society of the fundamental, pivotal. They, by and large, largely rests the sovereignty of our country.
Now we have a new tradition, born of the people, such as “Immortal regiment”. This March our grateful memory, blood, living connection between generations. Millions of people go out on procession with photos of their loved ones, to defend the Motherland and defeat Nazism. This means that their lives, trials and sacrifices, the Victory, which they gave us, will never be forgotten.
Our responsibility to the past and the future to do all we can to prevent the repetition of terrible tragedies. So I considered it my duty to speak with the article about WWII and the great Domestic wars. Discussed the idea in conversations with world leaders, met their understanding. At the end of last year, at the summit of heads of the CIS countries, we all agreed: it is important to transmit to posterity the memory of that victory over Nazism was won primarily by the Soviet people that in this heroic struggle at the front and in the rear – shoulder to shoulder stood the representatives of all the republics of the Soviet Union. Then talked with colleagues about the difficult pre-war period.
This conversation has caused a great resonance in Europe and the world. So, an appeal to the lessons of the past really necessary and topical. However, there were a lot of emotions, ill-concealed complexes, noisy accusations. A number of politicians have the habit hastened to declare that Russia is trying to rewrite history. However, it could not refute a single fact, not one given argument. Of course, it is difficult, and it is impossible to argue with the original documents, which, incidentally, are stored not only in Russian but also in foreign archives.
Therefore, there is a need to continue the analysis of causes that led to world war II, reflections on her difficult events, tragedies and victories, its lessons for our country and the world. And here, again, it is crucial to rely solely on archival materials and testimonies of contemporaries, to avoid any ideological and politicized guessing.
again I remind you the obvious thing. The underlying causes of the Second world war largely emanate from decisions taken after the First world war. The Treaty of Versailles was for Germany a symbol of deep injustice. In fact, it was about the robbery of a country that had to pay the Western allies huge reparations, have debilitated its economy. Supreme allied commander, French Marshal F. Foch prophetically described the Versailles: “This is not the world. It is a truce for twenty years.”
It is a national humiliation formed the breeding ground for radical and revanchist sentiment in Germany. The Nazis cleverly played on these feelings, building their propaganda by promising to deliver Germany from the Versailles heritage, to restore her former power, and in fact, pushed the German people into a new war. Paradoxically, that directly or indirectly contributed to the Western States, primarily the United Kingdom and the United States. Their financial and industrial community is very actively invested capital in the German factories producing military products. And among the aristocracy and political establishment had a lot of supporters of radical, right-wing, nationalist movements gaining strength in Germany and in Europe.
Versailles “world order” has spawned numerous hidden conflicts and apparent conflicts. They are based on randomly decorated the winners in the First world war borders of the new European States. Almost immediately after their appearance on the map began territorial disputes and mutual claims which have become “time bombs”.
One of the most important outcomes of the First world war was the creation of the League of Nations. This international organization has high hopes for lasting peace, collective security. It was a progressive idea, the consistent implementation of which, without exaggeration, could prevent a repetition of the horrors of global war.
However, the League of Nations, which was dominated by the victorious powers – Britain and France, proved ineffective and just drowned in empty talk. In the League of Nations, and indeed on the European continent, were not heeded repeated calls by the Soviet Union to form an equitable system of collective security. In particular, to conclude the Eastern and Pacific pacts, which could counter the aggression. These proposals were ignored.
the League of Nations failed to prevent and conflicts in various parts of the world, such as the attack of Italy on Ethiopia, civil war in Spain, Japanese aggression against China, the Anschluss of Austria. And in the case of the Munich agreement, which in addition to Hitler and Mussolini was attended by the leaders of Britain and France, with the full approval of the Council of the League of Nations was the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. I note in this regard that unlike many of the then leaders of Europe Stalin was not mired in a personal meeting with Hitler, who then had a reputation in Western circles quite a respectable politician, was a welcome guest in European capitals.
In the partition of Czechoslovakia together with Germany acted and Poland. They advance together and decide who gets what of the Czechoslovak lands. September 20, 1938, the Polish Ambassador to Germany J. Lipsky said the Minister of foreign Affairs of Poland Yu Beck on the following representations of Hitler: “… in the case between Poland and Czechoslovakia it comes to conflict on the basis of Polish interests in téchiné, the Reich will be at our [Polish] side.” The leader of the Nazis even gave hints, advise to the beginning of the Polish action “came… only after the occupation by the Germans of the Sudeten mountains.”
In Poland was aware that without Hitler’s support for its aggressive plans would be doomed to failure. Here I will quote the transcript of the German Ambassador in Warsaw, Mr. A. Moltke with South Bay from 1 October 1938 the Polish-Czech relations and the Soviet position in this matter. Here is what it says: “… Mr. Beck… expressed gratitude for a loyal interpretation of Polish interests at the Munich conference, and also for sincerity relations during the Czech conflict. The government and the public [referring to Poland] to fully appreciate the position of the führer and Reich Chancellor”.
the division of Czechoslovakia was cruel and cynical. Munich brought down even those formal, fragile safeguards that remained on the continent. Showed that mutual agreement is worthless. What the Munich agreement was the “trigger” after which the great war in Europe became inevitable.
European politicians, and especially the Polish leaders would like to “silence” in Munich. Why? Not only because their country then betrayed their commitments, supported the Munich agreement, and some even took part in the spoils. But because it is inconvenient to remember that in those dramatic days of 1938, only the Soviet Union stood up for Czechoslovakia.
the Soviet Union on the basis of their international obligations, including agreements with France and Czechoslovakia, tried to prevent the tragedy. Poland, pursuing their interests, all the forces prevented the creation of a collective security system in Europe. Polish foreign Minister J. Beck 19 September 1938, just writing this has already been mentioned, Ambassador J. Lipski before his meeting with Hitler: “… in the past year the Polish government four times rejected the proposal to join the international intervention in defence of Czechoslovakia.”
Britain and France, which was then the chief ally of the Czechs and Slovaks chose to abandon their guarantees, and leave them to the mercy of this Eastern European country. Not just quit, and to direct the aspirations of the Nazis to the East, with a view to Germany and the Soviet Union inevitably would face and drew blood from each other.
that was the Western policy of “appeasement”. And not only in relation to the Third Reich, but also to other members of the so-called anti-Comintern Pact of fascist Italy and militarist Japan. Its culmination in the far East was the Anglo-Japanese agreement of the summer of 1939, providing Tokyo a free hand in China. Major European powers did not want to admit what a fatal danger to the world comes from Germany and its allies. Hoped that the war they themselves will be spared.
the Munich agreement showed the Soviet Union that the Western countries will solve the security issues without taking into account its interests. And when the opportunity can form an anti-Soviet front.
however, the Soviet Union to the last tried to use any chance to create anti-Hitler coalition. I repeat: despite the hypocritical stance of the Western countries. So, through intelligence, the Soviet leadership received detailed information about the backstage Anglo-German contacts in the summer of 1939. Pay attention: they were conducted very intensively, and almost simultaneously with the tripartite talks between representatives of France, Britain and the Soviet Union that its Western partners, on the contrary, deliberately delayed. Result in connection with this document from the British archives. This is the instruction of the British military mission which arrived in Moscow in August 1939. It is explicitly stated that the delegation should “negotiate very slowly”; “the United Kingdom government is not prepared to take on detailed commitments that can limit our freedom of action in any circumstances”. I should also note: unlike the British and French, the Soviet delegation was headed by the top leaders of the red army, which had all the necessary powers “to sign a military Convention on the organization of the military defense of England, France and the USSR against aggression in Europe.”
Its role in the failure of the negotiations was played by Poland, which did not want any obligations to the Soviet side. Even under pressure from Western allies, the Polish government refused joint action with the red army against the Wehrmacht. It was only when he became aware of the arrival of Ribbentrop in Moscow, Yuri Beck reluctantly, not directly, but through French diplomats had notified the Soviet side: “… in the case of joint actions against a German aggression collaboration between Poland and the Soviet Union with technical conditions that must be excluded.” At the same time to his colleagues he explained: “… I’m not opposed to this wording only in order to facilitate tactics, and our fundamental point of view toward the Soviet Union is final and remains unchanged”.
In this situation, the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression Pact with Germany. Actually did it last from Europe, and amid a real danger to face a war on two fronts – with Germany in the West and with Japan in the East, where already were intense battles at the river Khalkin-Gol.
Stalin and his entourage deserve the many fair charges. We remember the crimes of the regime against its own people, and about the horrors of mass repressions. I repeat: the Soviet leaders can be criticized in many ways, but not a lack of understanding of the nature of external threats. They saw that the Soviet Union trying to keep one-on-one with Germany and its allies. And act, aware of this real danger, to win precious time to strengthen the defense of the country.
about then-signed non-aggression Pact now a lot of talk and it claims to address modern Russia. Yes, Russia – the legal successor of the USSR, and the Soviet period – with all its triumphs and tragAdemi is an integral part of our ancient history. But let me also remind you that the Soviet Union gave a legal and a moral evaluation of so – called Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The resolution of the Supreme Soviet of 24 December 1989, officially condemned the secret protocols as “an act of personal power,” does not reflect “the will of the Soviet people, who are not responsible for this conspiracy.”
however, other States prefer not to think about the agreements, which was signed by the Nazis and Western politicians. Not to mention the legal or political assessment of such cooperation, including the tacit compromise of some European leaders with the barbaric plans of the Nazis, until their direct encouragement. That there is a cynical phrase of the Polish Ambassador to Germany J. Lipsky, said in a conversation with Hitler on 20 September 1938: “… for the solution of the Jewish question we [the poles] will deliver him… a beautiful monument in Warsaw”.
We also don’t know whether there was any secret “” protocols and annexes to the agreements number of countries with the Nazis. All that remains is “word for it”. In particular, has still not declassified materials about the secret Anglo-German negotiations. Therefore we call upon all States to intensify the process of opening its archives, the publication of previously unknown documents of the prewar and war periods. So, as does Russia in recent years. Are ready to cooperation, to joint research projects between historians.
But back to the events immediately preceding the Second world war. It was naive to believe that disposing of Czechoslovakia, Hitler will not impose another territorial claim. This time to his recent partner in the partition of Czechoslovakia – Poland. The reason here, by the way, also was the legacy of Versailles – the fate of the so-called Danzig corridor. The ensuing tragedy of Poland – entirely on the conscience of the then Polish leadership, which prevented the conclusion of the Anglo-Franco-Soviet military Alliance and relied on the assistance of Western partners. Threw his people under the roller of the Nazi death machine.
the German offensive developed in full accordance with the doctrine of blitzkrieg. Despite the fierce and heroic resistance of the Polish army, a week after the outbreak of war, 8 September 1939, German troops were on the outskirts of Warsaw. And the military-political leadership of Poland on September 17 fled to the territory of Romania, betraying their own people, who continued to fight the invaders.
the Western allies did not meet Polish expectations. After the Declaration of war with Germany, French troops advanced only a few tens of kilometers into German territory. It seemed only as demonstrat��I action. Moreover, the Anglo-French Supreme war Council gathered for the first time on 12 September 1939 in Abbeville, decided to stop the offensive because of the rapid development of events in Poland. Started the infamous “phoney war”. There is a direct betrayal of France and England of their obligations to Poland.
Later, during the Nuremberg trials of German generals so explained their rapid success in the East. Former chief of staff of the operational management of the Supreme command armed forces of Germany General A. Jodl admitted: “… if we are still in 1939 was defeated, it is only because approximately 110 French and British divisions facing during our war with Poland in the West against 23 German divisions, remained completely inactive.”
Asked to raise from the archives of the entire array of materials related to the contacts between the USSR and Germany in the dramatic days of August and September 1939. As evidenced by the documents: paragraph 2 of the Secret Protocol to the nonaggression Pact between Germany and USSR on 23 August 1939 had established that in the event of a territorial and political rearrangement of the areas belonging to the Polish state, the spheres of influence of the two countries should “take place approximately on the line of the rivers Narev, Vistula and San”. In other words, in the Soviet sphere of influence were not only the territory inhabited predominantly Ukrainian and Byelorussian population, but the historic Polish lands between the rivers bug and Vistula. This fact is not all now you know.
How about the fact that immediately after the attack on Poland in the first days of September 1939 Berlin persistently and repeatedly urged Moscow to join military action. However, the Soviet leadership such calls were ignored. And to get involved in the dramatically unfolding events was not going to last.
Only when it became clear that Britain and France did not want to help his ally, and the Wehrmacht is able to quickly occupy all of Poland and to go actually on the outskirts of Minsk, it was decided to enter on the morning of 17 September, military units of the red army in the so-called kresy. Now it is part of the territory of Belarus, Ukraine and Lithuania.
it is Obvious that no other options remained. Otherwise, the risks for the USSR would have been increased repeatedly since, again, the old Soviet-Polish border was only a few dozen kilometers away from Minsk. And the inevitable war with the Nazis would start for a country with an extremely unfavorable strategic position. And millions of people of different nationalities, including Jews, who lived near Brest and Grodno, Przemysl, Lviv and Vilnius, would be thrown to destroyogenie the Nazis and their local henchmen – the anti-Semites and radical nationalists.
It is the fact that the Soviet Union to the last, sought to avoid involvement in escalating the conflict and didn’t want to play on the German side, led to the fact that the real contact between Soviet and German troops, the far East agreed in a secret Protocol boundaries. Not on the Vistula, and about the so-called Curzon line, which in 1919 was recommended by the Entente as the Eastern border of Poland.
As you know, the subjunctive is difficult to apply to past events. Let me just say that in September 1939 the Soviet leadership had the opportunity to push back the Western frontier further West, all the way to Warsaw, but decided not to.
the Germans proposed to fix the new status quo. On 28 September 1939 in Moscow Ribbentrop and Molotov signed a Treaty of friendship and border between USSR and Germany and a secret Protocol about the change of the state border, which recognized the demarcation line where a de facto standing army of two.
in the Autumn of 1939, deciding its strategic military, defensive objectives, the Soviet Union began the process of incorporation of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. Their accession to the Union was sold on a contractual basis, with the agreement of the elected authorities. It conforms to the norms of international and state law of the time. In addition, Lithuania in October 1939, was returned to the city of Vilna and the surrounding region, formerly part of Poland. The Baltic republics within the Soviet Union retained its own government, language, had representation in the Supreme Soviet government.
All these months did not stop invisible to a foreign eye diplomatic, political and military struggle, the work of intelligence. In Moscow realized that before her implacable and cruel enemy, that covert war against Nazism is already underway. And there is no reason to accept official statements, formal Protocol notes of those years as proof of “friendship” between the USSR and Germany. Active trading and technical contacts, the Soviet Union had not only with Germany but with other countries. While Hitler repeatedly tried to involve the U.S.S.R. in confrontation with Britain. However, the Soviet leadership did not succumb to these entreaties.
one Last attempt to persuade the Soviet Union to joint actions Hitler undertook in the course of the visit of Molotov to Berlin in November 1940. But hammers to precisely follow the instructions of Stalin, limited to General conversations about the idea of the Germans concerning the accession of the USSR to the Covenant three – Union of Germany, Italy and Japan signed in September 1940 and was directed against great Britain and the United States. Not by chance on 17 November Molots were instructed in London by the Soviet envoy I. May the following way: “For your guidance… No contract in Berlin was not signed and was not supposed to do that. Case in Berlin limited… exchange of ideas… the Germans and the Japanese, as you can see, I would love to push us in the direction of the Persian Gulf and India. We declined the discussion of this issue, as we believe such advice on the part of Germany inappropriate.” And on November 25 the Soviet leadership did put a point here. Officially nominated Berlin for the Nazis, unacceptable conditions, including the withdrawal of German troops from Finland, a Treaty of mutual assistance between the USSR and Bulgaria, and several others. Thereby deliberately exempting themselves of any possibility of accession to the Covenant. This position is ultimately strengthen the führer in his intention to unleash a war against the Soviet Union. And in December, putting aside all the warnings of its strategists about the catastrophic danger of war on two fronts, Hitler approved the plan “Barbarossa”. Did it, knowing that it was the Soviet Union – the main force which opposed him in Europe. And the upcoming battle in the East will decide the outcome of world war II. And the fact that the March on Moscow will be brief and successful, he was sure.
I would like to emphasize: Western countries have actually agreed then with the Soviet action, acknowledged the Soviet Union’s desire to ensure its security. So, on October 1, 1939, the former at the time the head of the British Admiralty Winston Churchill, in a speech on the radio said, “Russia is pursuing a policy of cold self-interests… To protect Russia from the Nazi threat was clearly needed to the Russian army stood on the line [meaning the new Western border]”. October 4, 1939 in the House of lords, Minister of foreign Affairs of great Britain Edward Halifax said: “… it should be recalled that the actions of the Soviet government was to transfer the border substantially to the line, which was recommended during the Versailles conference, Lord Curzon… I just present the historical facts and believe that they are undisputed”. Famous British politician and statesman D. Lloyd George stressed: “the Russian army occupied the territory, which are not Polish and which were forcibly seized by Poland after the First world war… would be an act of criminal folly to put a Russian advance on a par with the advancement of the Germans.”
And in informal conversations with the Soviet Ambassador I. May English high-ranking politicians and diplomats spoke more frankly. Deputy Minister of foreign Affairs of great Britain R. Butler 17 October 1939, shared that: “… in English government circles believe that there can be no��th question about the return to Poland of Western Ukraine and Belarus. If it were possible to create ethnographic Poland modest size with a guarantee of not only the USSR and Germany, but also England and France, then the British government would consider themselves quite satisfied.” 27 October 1939, chief Advisor N. Chamberlain H. Wilson said: “Poland should… be restored as an independent state on its ethnographic database, but without Western Ukraine and Belarus”.
it is Worth noting that these interviews were Sangiovese soil and to improve Soviet-British relations. These contacts largely laid the foundations of the Alliance and the coalition. As a responsible and forward-looking politicians stood Winston Churchill, who, despite the well-known antipathy to the Soviet Union, and had supported cooperation with him. In may 1939 in the House of Commons, he said: “We will be in mortal danger if we fail to create a Grand Alliance against aggression. It’d be absurd if we rejected a natural cooperation with Soviet Russia”. And after the outbreak of hostilities in Europe – meeting I. May 6 Oct 1939 – he confidently said that “… between Britain and the Soviet Union there are no serious contradictions, and therefore, there is no reason for exhausting and unsatisfying relationships. The British government… would like to develop… trade relations. It would also be ready to discuss any other measures that could facilitate improvement of relations”.
the Second world war did not happen overnight, it does not start unexpectedly, suddenly. And the aggression of Germany against Poland was not unexpected. It is a result of many trends and factors in the world politics of the period. All pre-war events lined up in one fatal chain. But, of course, the main thing that determined the greatest tragedy in the history of mankind, is a state of selfishness, cowardice, pandering to the gaining strength of the aggressor, the unwillingness of political elites to seek compromise.
So unfair to say that a two-day visit to Moscow, the Nazi foreign Minister Ribbentrop Pact – the main causes of the Second world war. All the leading countries in varying degrees, have their share of the blame for its beginning. Each made a fatal mistake, presumptuous thinking that you can outsmart others to secure a unilateral advantage or to stay away from the looming global disaster. And for such short-sightedness, the failure to establish a system of collective security had to pay millions of lives, huge losses.
Write about it without the slightest intention to assume the role of judge, someone to blame or justify, much less to initiate a new round of international information protevascoania on the historic field, which can cause a clash between States and peoples. I believe that finding the weighted estimates of past events should be engaged in academic research with a broad representation of respected scientists from different countries. We all need truth and objectivity. For its part, always have been urging colleagues to calm, open, trusted dialogue. For a self-critical, unbiased look at the common past. This approach will allow not to repeat errors then committed, and to ensure a peaceful and prosperous development for many years to come.
However, many of our partners are not yet ready to work together. On the contrary, in pursuit of their goals, they are increasing against our country, the number and scale of information attacks, you want to make excuses, to feel guilt. Take hypocritical politicized Declaration. So, for example, approved 19 September 2019 the European Parliament resolution “About the importance of preserving historical memory for the future of Europe” directly accused the USSR along with Nazi Germany in the outbreak of the Second world war. Naturally, any references to Munich are provided.
Believe that such a “paper” – can’t call this resolution a document – with all the explicit calculation of the scandal are dangerous, a real threat. After all, it took a very distinguished body. And what it showed? Sadly – conscious policy of destruction of the postwar world order, the creation of which was a matter of honor and responsibility countries, the number of representatives who voted today for this false Declaration. And thus, raised his hand to the conclusions of the Nuremberg Tribunal, the efforts of the international community, created after the victory of 1945 universal international institutions. I recall in this regard that the process of European integration, which was established relevant bodies, including the European Parliament, was only possible thanks to the lessons learned from the past its clear legal and political assessments. And those who deliberately casts doubt on this consensus, destroy the foundations of the entire post-war Europe.
in Addition to the threats to the fundamental principles of world order is here and the moral, ethical side. A mockery, a mockery of the memory of meanness. Meanness is intentional, hypocritical, completely conscious, when the statements about the 75th anniversary of the end of world war II are listed all the allies, except the USSR. Meanness is cowardly, when the demolition of monuments erected in honor of the fighters against Nazism, justifying shameful acts of the false slogans of the struggle with unwanted ideology and alleged occupation. Meanness sometimes bloody when those��about, speaks out against neo-Nazis and the heirs of Bandera, kill and burn. Again, the meanness manifests itself in different ways, but from this it does not cease to be abominable.
forgetting the lessons of history inevitably results in severe retribution. We will stand firmly for the truth, based on documented historical facts. We will continue to honestly and impartially to narrate the events of the Second world war. On it including a large-scale project aimed at creation in Russia of the largest collections of archival documents, film and photographic materials on the history of the Second world war, the prewar period.
Such work is already underway. A new, recently found, declassified materials used in the preparation of this article. In this regard, I can responsibly say that there is no archival documents that would confirm the version about the intention of the USSR to launch a pre-emptive war against Germany. Yes, the Soviet military leadership adhered to the doctrine that in case of aggression, the Red army will give a fitting rebuff to the enemy, takes the offensive and will wage war in enemy territory. However, such strategic plans did not mean the intentions are the first to attack Germany.
of Course, today at the disposal of historians, there are military planning documents, the directives of the Soviet and German headquarters. Finally, we know how events unfolded in reality. From the height of this knowledge, many argue about the actions, errors, failures of the military-political leadership of the country. Will say this one thing: along with a huge stream of different kinds of disinformation, the Soviet leaders received and real information about the impending aggression of the Nazis. In the prewar months has taken steps aimed at improving the combat readiness of the country, including the hidden part of the appeal of reservists on fees, relocation of formations and reserves from the internal military districts to the Western borders.
the War was not sudden, was waiting for her, was ready for it. But the Nazi attack was indeed unprecedented destructive power. On 22 June 1941 the Soviet Union was faced with the most powerful, mobilized and trained army in the world, which employ the industrial, economic, and military capabilities of almost all of Europe. In this deadly invasion took part not only the Wehrmacht but also the satellites of Germany, military contingents from many other countries of the European continent.
Severe military defeats of 1941 brought the country to the brink of disaster. To restore the combat capability, the control had methods of emergency, General mobilization, tension of all forces of the state and nation. In the summer of 41-St under the enemy’s fire, began the evacuation to the East of the country of millions of citizens, hundreds of factories and industries. As soon as possible the rear has started to produce weapons and ammunition, which began to come to the front in the first winter of the war, and by 1943 – exceeded indicators of military production of Germany and its allies. For eighteen years the Soviet people have accomplished what seemed impossible. And at the front and in the rear. And it’s still hard to realize, to understand, to imagine what an incredible effort, courage, dedication demanded these greatest achievements.
Against a powerful, armed to the teeth cold blooded predatory machines of the Nazis went up a huge force of Soviet society, United by a desire to protect the homeland. To take revenge on the enemy, broke, trampled on peaceful life, her plans and hopes.
of Course, during this terrible, bloody war some people were possessed with fear, confusion, despair. There were betrayal and desertion. Made itself felt cruel faults generated by the revolution and Civil war, nihilism, the humiliating attitude towards national history, traditions, faith, who tried to impose on the Bolsheviks, especially in the first years after coming to power. But the General mood of Soviet citizens, and our fellow citizens stranded abroad, was the other – to save, to save the Motherland. It was a real, uncontrollable impulse. People looking for support in true Patriotic values.
the Nazi strategists were convinced that the huge multinational state can be easily subjugate. Hoped that the sudden war, its ruthlessness and unbelievable hardship will inevitably exacerbate inter-ethnic relations. And can the country be split into pieces. Hitler said: “Our policy in relation to the peoples inhabiting the broad expanse of Russia, should be to encourage any form of dissension and schism.”
But from the very first days it became clear that the Nazi plan failed. The Brest fortress to the last drop of blood to defend the soldiers of more than 30 nationalities. Throughout the war – and the major decisive battles, and in defending each base, each meter of our native land – we see examples of this unity.
For millions of evacuees home became the Volga region and the Urals, Siberia and the far East, the republics of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Their inhabitants shared last supported in any way we could. Friendship of peoples, their mutual help became the enemy of this impregnable fortress.
In the defeat of Nazism – that would be now trying to prove – main, decisive contribution to the Soviet Union, the Red army. Heroes who end up fighting in encirclement at Bialystok and Mogilev, Kiev, Uman, Vyazma, and Kharkov. I fought at Moscow and Stalingrad, Sevastopol and Odessa, Kursk and Smolensk. Liberated Warsaw, Belgrade, Vienna and Prague. Stormed Konigsberg and Berlin.
��s stand for real, not smoothed or varnished truth about the war. This popular, human truth – a harsh, bitter and merciless, largely handed down to us writers and poets that have passed through the fire and hell of the front-line tests. For my, as for other generations, their honest, deep novels, poignant, “Lieutenant prose” and poetry forever left a mark in my soul. Steel Testament – to honor the veterans who made to win everything I could. To remember about those left on the battlefield.
And today, shake is simple and great at its core lines of the poem by Alexander Tvardovsky “I was killed near Rzhev…”, dedicated to the participants of bloody, brutal battles of the great Patriotic war in the Central sector of the Soviet-German front. Only during the fighting for Rzhev and Rzhev protrusion from October 1941 to March 1943, the Red army lost including wounded and missing, 1 million 342 thousand 888 people. Call these collected from archival sources of the terrible, tragic, is far from complete figures for the first time, paying tribute to the heroism of the known and unknown heroes, which in the postwar years due to various reasons talked unfairly, unjustly little or does nothing.
let me Give you another document. This is the report of the International Commission on reparations from Germany, headed to I. Mayskiy, prepared in February 1945. The objectives of the Commission included the definition of the formula, according to which a defeated Germany had to reimburse the damage to the victorious powers. The Commission came to the following conclusion: “the amount spent by Germany on the Soviet front soldato-days exceeds the same number in all the other allied fronts at least 10 times. The Soviet front was also delayed four-fifths of the German tanks and about two thirds of the German aircraft”. In General, the share of the USSR accounted for about 75 percent of all military efforts of the coalition. The red army during the war “milled” 626 divisions of the axis, of which 508 German.
28 April 1942, Roosevelt, in his address to the American nation said: “Russian forces have destroyed and continue to destroy more manpower, planes, tanks and guns of our enemy, than all the other United Nations put together.” Churchill’s message to Stalin on September 27, 1944, wrote that “it was the Russian army that tore the guts out of the German military machine…”.
This assessment has resonated around the world. Because in these words – that is the great truth that nobody questioned. Almost 27 million Soviet citizens died in the war German captivity, died of starvation and bombing, in ghettos and ovens of the Nazi death camps. The Soviet Union lost a seventh of its nationals, UK – one��of 127, and the United States – one of 320 people. Unfortunately, this figure is heavy, irreparable losses of the Soviet Union is not final. We must continue the painstaking work to restore the names and destinies of all the dead soldiers of the red army, partisans, underground fighters, prisoners of war and concentration camp inmates, civilians murdered punitive. It is our duty. And here a special role belongs to the participants of the search movement, military-Patriotic and volunteer associations, projects such as an electronic database “memory of the nation”, based on archival documents. And, of course, in addressing such humanitarian tasks requires close international cooperation.
To the victory were the efforts of all countries and peoples who fought with the common enemy. The British army defended their homeland from invasion, fought with the Nazis and their satellites on the Mediterranean, in North Africa. American and British troops liberated Italy, opened a second front. The US struck a powerful, crushing blow to the aggressor in the Pacific. We remember the enormous sacrifices of the Chinese people and its huge role in the defeat of the Japanese militarists. Do not forget the fighters “Fighting France”, which did not recognize the shameful surrender and continued to fight with the Nazis.
We will always be grateful for the assistance provided by the allies, providing the Red army with munitions, raw materials, food, equipment. And it was substantial – about 7 percent of the total volume of military production of the Soviet Union.
the core of the anti-Hitler coalition began to take shape immediately after the attack on the Soviet Union when the US and UK has fully supported him in the struggle with Nazi Germany. During the Tehran conference in 1943 Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill formed an Alliance of the great powers, agreed to a coalition diplomacy, a joint strategy in the fight against a common deadly threat. The leaders of the “Big three” had a clear understanding that the combination of industrial, resource and military potential of the USSR, USA, UK will create an indisputable superiority over the enemy.
the Soviet Union fully complied with its obligations to the allies, has always extended a helping hand. So, the scale of operation Bagration in Belorussia, the Red army supported the landing of the Anglo-American landing in Normandy. In January 1945, broke through to the Oder, our soldiers put an end to the last powerful attack of the Wehrmacht on the Western front in the Ardennes. And three months after defeating Germany, the Soviet Union, in full accordance with the Yalta agreements, declared war on Japan and defeated the Kwantung army.
in July 1941, the Soviet leadership declared that “the aim of the war against the fascist ��of gnetales is not only the elimination of the threat looming over our nation, and all Nations of Europe, groaning under the yoke of German fascism.” By mid-1944, the enemy had been expelled almost all Soviet territory. But he had to finish before the end in the lair. And the Red army began liberating mission in Europe. Saved from destruction and enslavement, from the horror of the Holocaust of entire Nations. Saved the cost of hundreds of thousands of lives of Soviet soldiers.
it is also Important not to overlook the enormous material aid that the USSR had liberated countries in the elimination of the threat of famine, in the reconstruction of economy and infrastructure. Did this at a time when thousands of miles from Brest to Moscow and the Volga stretched some of the ashes. For example, in may 1945, the Austrian government asked the USSR to assist with food because “I didn’t know how to feed its population in the next seven weeks before the new harvest.” The consent of the Soviet leadership to send food to the state Chancellor of the Provisional government of the Republic of Austria Karl Renner described as a “saving act” that “the Austrians will never forget.”
together, the Allies created the international military Tribunal intended to punish the Nazi political and war criminals. In its decisions, given a clear legal qualification of such crimes against humanity as genocide, ethnic and religious cleansing, anti-Semitism and xenophobia. Directly and unambiguously, the Nuremberg Tribunal condemned Nazi collaborators, collaborators of various stripes.
This is a shameful phenomenon took place in all the States of Europe. These “leaders”, like Petain, Quisling, Vlasov, Bandera, their henchmen and followers, though dressed in the clothes of the fighters for national independence or freedom from communism are traitors and torturers. Inhumanity they often surpassed their masters. Trying to curry favor, of special punitive groups willingly did the cannibal order. It is their bloody hands – executions of Babi Yar, Volyn massacre, burned Khatyn, shares the destruction of the Jews in Lithuania and Latvia.
And today, our position remains unchanged – criminal accomplices of the Nazis cannot be justified, they have no Statute of limitations. So puzzling, when in some countries those who have stained themselves by collaborating with the Nazis, suddenly equated to veterans of the Second world war. Consider it inadmissible to put an equal sign between liberators and occupiers. And the glorification of Nazi accomplices can only be regarded as a betrayal of the memory of our fathers and grandfathers. The betrayal of those ideals that United the peoples in the struggle against Nazism.
Then, before the leaders of the Soviet Union, United States and the UK stood, without exaggeration, a historic task. Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill represented the country with different ideologies, governmental ambitions, interests, cultures, but has shown great political will has risen above controversy and preferences and put in the forefront the true interests of the world. As a result, they were able to agree and reach a solution that benefits all mankind.
the victorious Powers left us with a system that became the quintessence of the intellectual and political aspirations of several centuries. A series of conferences – Tehran, Yalta, San Francisco, Potsdam, laid the Foundation of what the world has 75 years, despite the sharp contradictions of living without a global war.
Historical revisionism, the existence of which we are seeing now in the West, particularly in relation to the topic of the Second world war and its outcome, the threat that cynically distorts the understanding of the principles of peaceful development laid down in the 1945 Yalta and San Francisco conferences. The main historical achievement of Yalta and other decisions at the time the consent is to create a mechanism that would allow the leading powers to stay within the framework of diplomacy in resolving the emerging differences.
the twentieth century brought a total and comprehensive world conflicts, and in 1945 entered the scene and even nuclear weapons can physically destroy the Earth. In other words, the settlement of disputes by force has become prohibitively dangerous. And the victors of the Second world war is understood. Understand and realize their own responsibility to humanity.
the Sad experience of the League of Nations had considered in 1945. the structure of the UN Security Council was designed to do guarantee of peace as specific and effective. Thus was born the Institute of the permanent members of the Security Council and the veto as their privilege and responsibility.
What is the right of veto in the UN Security Council? To put it bluntly – this is the only reasonable alternative to the direct confrontation of major countries. This statement is one of the five powers that the solution for it is unacceptable, is contrary to the interests and views about the correct approach. And the rest of the country, even if they do not agree with this, take this position for granted, abandoning attempts to implement their unilateral aspirations. That is, one way or another, but you need to compromise.
a New global confrontation began almost immediately after the Second world war and wore at times very violent. And the fact that the cold war did not turn into a third world, convincingly confirmed the effectiveness of the agreements concluded by the “Big three”. Rightssludge behavior, consistent with the creation of the UN, has further allowed us to minimize the risks and keep the opposition under control.
of Course, we see that the UN system is now working with tension and is not as efficient as they could be. But its main function of the UN still execute. The principles of the UN Security Council is a unique mechanism for preventing a major war or global conflict.
the Ringing quite often in recent years, calls to abolish the right of veto, to deny the permanent members of the security Council in a special opportunity – in fact, irresponsible. Because if that happens, the United Nations will essentially turn into the League of Nations – Assembly of empty talk, devoid of any levers of influence on global processes. The outcome is well known. That is why the victorious powers came to the formation of a new system of world order with the utmost seriousness in order not to repeat the mistakes of predecessors.
the creation of the modern system of international relations is one of the most important results of world war II. Even the most irreconcilable contradictions – geopolitical, ideological, economic – not bothering to find forms of peaceful coexistence and cooperation, if you have the desire and the will. Today, the world is not experiencing the quiet times. Changing everything from the global balance of power and influence to social, economic and technological foundations of life of societies, States, entire continents. In the past era shifts of this magnitude are virtually never complete without big military conflicts. No power struggle for building a new global hierarchy. Thanks to the wisdom and foresight of the political leaders of the allied powers managed to create a system that holds from extreme forms such an objective, historically inherent in the global development of competition.
it is Our duty to all those who take the political responsibility, and especially the representatives of the victorious powers in the Second world war, to ensure that the system is preserved and improved. Today, as in 1945, it is important to show political will and work together to discuss the future. Our colleagues – Lord XI Jinping, the Makron, trump, Johnson supported the Russian initiative put forward to hold a meeting of leaders of the five nuclear-weapon States – permanent members of the Security Council. We thank them and we hope that this face-to-face meeting could take place at the earliest opportunity.
What we see the agenda of the forthcoming summit? First of all, in our opinion, it is advisable to discuss the steps to develop collective principles in world Affairs. To speak frankly about the issues of preserving peace, strengthening global and regional securityti, control over strategic arms, the joint efforts in combating terrorism, extremism and other pressing challenges and threats.
a Separate issue on the agenda of the meeting was the situation in the global economy. And, above all, to overcome the economic crisis caused by the pandemic coronavirus. Our countries are taking unprecedented steps to protect the health and lives of people, support to citizens in difficult life situation. But how severe will be the consequences of a pandemic, how quickly the global economy climbs out of recession – depends on our ability to work together and in unison, as partners. Moreover, it is unacceptable to turn the economy into an instrument of pressure and confrontation. Among the popular topics – environmental protection and combating climate change and ensuring the security of global information space.
Russia proposed agenda of the upcoming summit of the five – extremely important and relevant for our countries and for the world. And on all counts we have specific ideas and initiatives.
can be No doubt that the summit of Russia, China, France, the US and the UK will play an important role in the search for common responses to modern challenges and threats and demonstrate total commitment to the spirit of the Alliance, the high humanistic ideals and values, who shoulder to shoulder fought the fathers and grandfathers.
Based on common historical memory, we can and should trust each other. This will provide a solid basis for successful negotiations and concerted action for the sake of strengthening stability and security in the world, for the prosperity and well-being of all States. Without exaggeration, this is our duty and responsibility to the world, to the present and future generations.