January 2020 China, Russia, USA and many other countries actively engaged in the search for a vaccine against coronavirus. “Газета.Ru” collected data and found out when and who is willing to provide it to the people.

Chinese experts said the work on the vaccine back in February, but its clinical trial was to commence before the end of April. Until that time, the samples had to test on animals.

And in mid-may the volunteers was tested by five vaccines with two new was also based on inactivated virus. Phase II clinical trials in China scheduled to be completed by July, and to consider the vaccine ready for use by the end of 2020.

In Russia, reports on the development of vaccines against coronavirus appeared in early March, to its creation started St. Petersburg research Institute of vaccines and serums FMBA Russia.

a shutdown is expected in the second half of 2020, and the emergence of vaccines in pharmacies as a registered drug in 2021.

Virologists from MSU admitted that a vaccine can be developed by the middle of June, they managed to get from the tobacco mosaic virus an ideal spherical particles, to which you can attach any proteins, including the surface spikes of the coronavirus. Particles are similar to the actual pathogen, but to protect against it. This finding became the basis for development.

a vaccine began in the BIOCAD. The development is on the Foundation of previous work to create mRNA-oncovin, because it is in this area SUPPLIES a significant experience. Among projects — the live viral vector vaccine based on the attenuated basis of influenza virus and a liposome encapsulated mRNA.

the Vaccine from the Federal biomedical Agency is expected in early 2021, said Veronica Skvortsova, the head of the Agency:

the First test results, however, the Agency expects to receive in June.

working On a vaccine and other Russian research centers. So Vice President RAS academician Vladimir Chekhonin has informed that at the Institute of Bioorganic chemistry named after Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov developed “modern high-tech vaccine COVID-19, based on virus-like particles using recombinant protein fragments of the coronavirus”.

he Also noted the work ongoing at the Institute of General genetics, Vavilov.

“the vaccine produced there bears on its surface three proteins of the coronavirus that will help to create a polyvalent vaccine,” added Chekhonin.

the Russian state centre “Vector” expects to start testing a vaccine on LiuDah in June. Experts managed to develop 26 prototypes of vaccines and to investigate the most successful of them on animals.

Among the projects Vector — peptide vaccine, created on the platform, previously used for vaccine development against Ebola virus, subunit vaccines, live vector-based vaccine of measles virus, recombinant intranasal vaccine based on influenza A virus, vaccine vector based on vesicular stomatitis virus and mRNA-vaccine.

as of may 20, in Russia experts develop 47 of vaccines against coronavirus infection on 14 platforms.

on may 22, it became known that scientists from the National research centre of epidemiology and Microbiology named after N. F. Gamalei experienced developed by them genetic engineering vaccine against coronavirus for yourself.

“All alive, healthy and happy”, — said the Director of the center Alexander Ginzburg. He noted that the developers are not so much test the vaccine on himself, but protect himself for work on the drug in a pandemic coronavirus.

the Effectiveness of this experiment raised doubts among specialists.

In the US, one of the pioneers of vaccine development was the national Institute of Allergy and infectious diseases USA (NIAID) together with the biotech company Moderna, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

the Vaccine is called mRNA-1273 was created using genetic platform of mRNA (messenger RNA), which directs the body’s cells on the expression of viral protein. This protein, as experts believe, will cause a strong immune response. The vaccine has been successfully tested on animals, and in mid-April, the first dose received a 44-year-old American Jennifer Haller. It was followed by another 44 volunteers.

the Institute noted that even if human trials are successful, the release of vaccines on the market do not expect more than 18 months.

18 may, the company Moderna reported on the success. Experts managed to achieve the production of antibodies in the subjects.

Their concentration depended on the dosage of the vaccine than she was higher, the more antibodies were observed. For more extensive tests, the company plans to start by July.

At the beginning of April experts of the University of Pittsburgh has successfully tested a vaccine against coronavirus in mice. They used the conventional approach to vaccine development and took the core fragments of viral proteins — these are, for example, flu vaccines. The researchers were able to achieve in mice production of antibodies to coronavirus, but trials on humans have not been reported.

in addition, in may animal tested vaccine INO-4800 biotech company Inovio. The researchers were able to obtain marine��x pigs to develop antibodies and T lymphocytes.

In early March, the vaccine took, and Japan. Researchers are working with DNA plasmid HGF, extrachromosomal self-replicating genetic element. According to them, this will create a vaccine faster than a viral protein.

Italy in mid-March began testing the vaccine, derived from a fragment of genetic material of the virus on animals. It was the first testing of vaccines in Europe.

In late April, about the human trials reported by Germany — the vaccine will get 200 volunteers.

In the UK from the end of April on people being tested of the vaccine from the experts at Oxford University. In June to test the vaccine on volunteers will begin researchers from Imperial College London.

Also in may, the contract for the provision of the UK vaccine signed a local company AstraZeneca. The vaccine, however, is not yet ready — it has been tested on animals and is now being tested on humans.

But the company is determined and promised 30 million doses of vaccine by September.

In mid-may, about the beginning of the test potential vaccines reported in Canada.

And later Israel reported the successful tests on mice and willingness to experiment on other animals and then on humans.

the Timing of the emergence of vaccine assessed the Institute of state and municipal management of the NRU HSE in the Bulletin on the economic and social consequences of coronavirus in Russia and in the world.

“the best estimate is coming from the pharmaceutical industry, is more likely to achieve satisfactory vaccine at the end of 2021. This means that the pharmaceutical industry did not have high hopes for accelerated testing of the first products going now. Accordingly, the world can be secured by a vaccine, if it will be created only in 2022. This means that the former situation will continue for years to protect citizens is not based on drugs and vaccines, and the use of epidemiologically based methods of protection”, — stated in the Bulletin.

According to the statements of the who, wait for a vaccine should be no earlier than a year.

the Head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova also noted that it was unlikely somebody, will be able to get visible results of the tests until the summer.

the Experimental vaccine that will be used to protect the most vulnerable to the infection groups of population, can be ready by the autumn.

Scientists assure: virtually no coronavirus mutates, so the vaccine that is now giving good results in human trials, will not lose over time, its relevance and after registration they could be applied widely.