75 years ago Zhukov accepted the surrender of Germany.
on may 8, 1945 CET when Moscow has already arrived may 9, in Karlshorst was signed the act of unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. It was the second such document. First signed on may 7 in Reims, however, Joseph Stalin refused to accept it and demanded to conduct another ceremony that would be held according to the scenario of the Soviet side. In the end, the capitulation of the Nazis took the commander of the 1st Belorussian front, Marshal Georgy Zhukov.
the capitulation of Nazi Germany in world war II were signed twice. The first time was may 7, 1945 in Reims, 2 hours and 41 minutes CET. From the face of the Third Reich his signature under the document were put by chief of operations staff of the Wehrmacht high command Colonel General Alfred Jodl. The Americans and the British was represented by the chief of the General staff of the allied expeditionary forces Walter Bedell Smith, the delegate from the USSR was major General Ivan Susloparov.
as a witness To the act committed by the Deputy chief of staff of national defense of French Brigadier General Francois Seveso. Under the agreement, the surrender of Nazi Germany went into effect on may 8 at 23:01 CET and 9 may at 01:01 Moscow time.
These events do not have a single interpretation. There are several versions of how was the process of legal registration of the defeat of Germany, as well as reactions from leaders of the victorious countries.
on display in the Reims conditions are not like Stalin, because in this embodiment of the surrender of the leading role played by the allies. After the signing of the act Susloparov received from the Kremlin a telegram with the categorical prohibition to sign the document. Upon learning that the signing of the still held, Stalin was furious and refused to recognize the act is valid.
“the Treaty signed in Reims, cannot be undone, but it is impossible to admit. The surrender must be perpetrated as the most important historical act, and not adopted on the territory of the winners, and there, where they came from fascist aggression, in Berlin, and not unilaterally, and certainly the Supreme command of all countries of anti-Hitler coalition”, — said the head of the Soviet government.
the Venue has now been selected by the Berlin district Karlshorst. At the same time Prime Minister UK Winston Churchill and US President Harry Truman rejected another request of Stalin — not to make official announcements about the victory before the entry into force of surrender, that is, before may 9, 1945 Moscow time. Leaders allied spoke on the radio with statements about the victory on may 8th. Churchill, in his speech hinted at the possibility of another official signing, as demanded by Stalin.
In the USSR at the Reims act was originally banned. After the act is signed in Karlshorst it was mentioned in Soviet and Russian historiography as “a preliminary Protocol of surrender”.
And Susloparov, which rashness could cost a career, Stalin was forgiven. A symbolic gesture was the inclusion in the composition of the delegation for participation in the procedure of signing in Berlin.
To decorate your own triumph, the Soviet side chose a two-storey building of the former canteen of the German military engineering school, where for several days the headquarters of the 5th shock army. As the memoirs of a member of its Military Council Fedor Bokov “Spring of victory” the Soviet generals declared: Reims Protocol is considered preliminary, the signing of this act will happen in Berlin. Accept the unconditional surrender of Germany was the one who took the capital of the Third Reich — the commander of the 1st Byelorussian front, Marshal Georgy Zhukov, also the Deputy Supreme commander of the allied expeditionary force Marshal Arthur tedder. And initially accept the surrender on behalf of the allies had intended he Eisenhower. However, Churchill dissuaded him from this step.
Soldiers of the 5th shock army was surrounded Karlshorst and the streets through which was to drive the British, Americans and French. Engineer parts blew up on the roads from Tempelhof to Karlshorst remnants of enemy fortifications and barricades, concrete caps. Tanks and bulldozers were clearing debris and roads. due trouble works were conducted and night when the light of car headlights.
“the Morning of may 8 was spring beautiful. Under the bright sun on the surviving trees blossomed post-its, in many places have already turned green grass, and the whole Karlshorst was filled with the smell of lilacs. Despite the early hour, the street was alive with anticipation. Strained buzzing tractors and bulldozers. Lined up in a chain, the Germans passed each other buckets of broken bricks, neatly stacked it to the side, sweeping the streets. The water line still did not work everywhere. From different parts of the city flowed multicolor outflows of refugees with wagons, carriages, bicycles. And next, moving columns of people of different nationalities, freed from captivity”, — described Sides of the situation on the ground.
Under the protection of British officers in Karlshorst was delivered to the German delegation, which had the authority to sign the certificate.
it included the chief of staff of the Supreme command of the Wehrmacht Wilhelm Keitel, the representative of the Luftwaffe Colonel General Hans Stumpf and Kriegsmarine Admiral Hans von Friedeburg. As witnesses the signatures were preparing to put General Carl Spaatz of the United States, and General Jean-Joseph de Latr de Lattre de Tassigny for France.
representatives of the anti-Hitler coalition entered the hall may 8, 1945 at 22:00 CET (midnight in Moscow). In addition to the main participants of the ceremony, the building was attended by the commanders of the Soviet units involved in the storming of Berlin, as well as journalists.
“All present turned their heads to the door where I was supposed to be the ones who famously boasted to the world about its ability to instantly defeat France, England, and later in one-two months to crush the Soviet Union, wrote Marshal Zhukov in his “Memoirs and reflexions”. First, slowly and trying to keep the apparent calm, crossed the threshold of field Marshal Keitel, a close associate of Hitler. Above average growth, in dress uniform, smart. He raised his hand with his field Marshal’s baton up, welcoming the representatives of the Supreme command of Soviet and allied forces. For Keitel appeared Colonel General Stumpf. Low, eyes full of anger and powerlessness. Simultaneously came Admiral von Friedeburg, which seemed prematurely old”.
the head of the delegation of Germany, Keitel presented the document about his credentials, signed by Chancellor Karl Doenitz. The Nazis asked if they had read the text of the act of unconditional surrender. After an affirmative response, the representatives of the Wehrmacht signed the document, drawn up in nine copies, three in Russian, English and German. Then was signed by the allies.
the contents of the document almost verbatim repetition of the text of the Reims act. In particular, it was confirmed during the cease fire may 8 at 23:01 on Berlin. In addition, it demands to cease hostilities and remain in their places were added, the requirement to complete disarmament and the transfer of weapons and military equipment for the allied forces. Was removed the introduction: “Only the English text is authoritative” and added article 6, stating: “This act is drawn up in Russian, English and German. Only Russian and English texts are authentic”.
the Procedure of surrender was completed on may 8 at 22:43 Central European time, or 9 may at 0:43 Moscow time.
One copy was given to Keitel, the other on the morning of may 9 was sent by plane to the headquarters of the Supreme command of the armed forces of the USSR.
“After the signing of Keitel stood due of the table, wearing the right glove and tried again to show off military wypraw��Oh, but this he failed, and he quietly stepped to her Desk, remembered the bugs. — At 0 hours 43 minutes may 9, 1945 the signing of the act of unconditional surrender of Germany was completed. I invited the German delegation to leave the hall. Keitel, Friedeburg, Stumpf, rising from his chair, bowed and bowed, and left the room. Behind them came their staff officers. On behalf of the Soviet Supreme command, I heartily congratulated all those present with a long-awaited victory. In the hall got an incredible noise. All each other congratulated, shook hands. Many eyes were full of tears of joy.”
the Meeting was closed at 22:50 Berlin (0:50 Moscow time). After all the formalities in the former canteen of the German military engineering College held a festive dinner. The celebration lasted until morning, and culminated in songs and dances. According to Zhukov, he did not resist, and “remembering my youth, danced “the Russian””. According to Bokova, in addition to Soviet Marshal energetically danced slender General de Lattre de Tassigny.
Zhukov also said in his memoirs that in conversations with British, French and American generals expressed a mutual desire to “strengthen forever the friendly relations between the countries of the antifascist coalition”. Dispersed and dispersed the participants of the ceremony to the sounds of cannon fire, which was made from all types of weapons to mark the Victory.
But as I remember that historic night General Sides:
But even before the friendly owners noticed that the some of foreign journalists began to take from the table bottle with the “Capital”. This General Nikolai Berzarin jokingly told Zhukov. He ordered to call our omniscient major Reicheld and inquired about the status of its reserves. Mayor reported that there will be enough for one event.
Soviet citizens learned about the signing of the surrender in Karlshorst from the message of the Soviet information Bureau on may 9 at 02:10 Moscow time. Announcer Yuri Levitan read the act of unconditional surrender of Germany and the decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council declaring may 9 Victory day. The evening of the same day an appeal to the people was made by Stalin. Crowned the case artillery salute 30 shots out of 1000 guns.