MOSCOW, may 18 — RIA Novosti, Alfia Enikeeva. Together with the paternal part of the genome and the child gets attached to it a methyl group, compounds that can influence the activity of individual DNA segments. Most often we are talking about genes, health, appearance and life expectancy. Parent of the more silent but it, apparently, is important for evolution.
Genetically any mammal, including man, more like the father than the mother, say researchers at the University of North Carolina (USA). Although both parents transmit the same amount of genetic material is stronger than paternal influence on the development of a child.
To such conclusion scientists came by studying the genomes of mice derived by crossing wild and laboratory populations. Specialists measured the levels of gene expression in different tissues, and then compared them with the copies of the parent DNA. It turned out that the genome derived through the male line, more active in 80 percent of cases. So, they largely determine what will be the offspring.
From the DNA of the father depends largely on the lifespan of his children, suggested by German researchers. The fact is that with age, any person can change the genes. For a variety of reasons (called epigenetic) — due prolonged stress, starvation, or radiation to the nucleotides join the so-called methyl groups — chemical compounds that affect gene expression. As a result, some become more active and others silent. It is clear that it affects the body of his father, but, as it turned out, some parts of the DNA, the offspring inherits together with methyl groups. And especially those associated with life expectancy.
the researchers observed two groups of mice. Some were born from young males, the other from the elderly. Animals from the first group was aging slower and died two months later than their peers by age parents.
Comparing samples from paternal semen and tissues of the offspring showed that animals conceived by older males, inherited epigenetic changes parents. And similar drawings of methyl groups were located on genes that affect lifespan and age-related pathologies.
the study’s Authors think it applies to humans, since the described mechanism is considered to be fundamental to all mammals.
However, American scientists claim that the advanced age of the father at the moment of conception, on the contrary, it guarantees his posterity a long life. They analyzed more than a thousand DNA of the people of the two generations. Telomeres — the end segments of chromosomes — later ��children, as a rule, were longer than their older brothers and sisters. And according to previous research, the longer the telomeres, the longer people live.
Also from fathers may inherit a predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, however, only sons. The fact that the genes responsible for propensity to heart attacks and strokes are most likely located in Y-chromosome.
Scientists from Leicester University (UK) have analyzed the DNA of three thousand Britons and found that Y-chromosome 90 percent of them belong to either haplogroup I or haplogroup R1b1b2.
Among the first carriers the risk of developing cardiovascular disease to 50 percent higher than all other men. This is probably due to the fact as Y-chromosome affects the immune system.
in addition, the father is able to pass on to their children of both sexes a tendency to schizophrenia. Moreover, the older the parent, the higher the probability to be ill.
a data Analysis of more than 87 thousand people showed that among those whose fathers were over 50 years old at the time of birth, three times more patients with schizophrenia.
According to the Finnish researchers, the growth of nearly 75 percent inherited from their parents. Australian scientists say even about 80 percent. This is how the child will be high, depends more on the father. As British experts have found, slim men are born higher children of both sexes. Age also affects the father — the older, the higher.
However, in the genome of the women still there are areas more active in the DNA of the descendants. We are talking about the eighth chromosome. Icelandic scientists have studied the genomes of a thousand triples “father — mother — child” and found mutations inherited from women.
According to the researchers, it is the eighth chromosome of the chimpanzee, but it is not the orangutans. The authors suggest that elevated levels of substitutions in this stretch of DNA has evolutionary importance and close relationship of modern humans with African apes line.
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