June 6, birthday of Alexander Pushkin, the celebrated Russian language Day. In honor of making the excursion into the history of national alphabets. The most remarkable copies of old textbooks from the collections of museums of Moscow — in a joint material mos.ru and the Agency “Moscow”.
Allowance literacy began to appear in Russia with the beginning of printing. The first was the alphabet of Ivan Fedorov, published in Lviv in 1574. Today, its copy is kept in the library of Harvard University. In Moscow, the first primer appeared in 1634, through the efforts of Basil Borzova-Protopopov, who used Fedorovskoe the alphabet as a model. Printer, came from a family of the priest, his contemporaries called “podyachev elementary things.”
Until the mid-nineteenth century, the alphabet was based on bakosurtanal system, according to which memorize first letters, then syllables, and then words. For cramming the alphabet printed in straight, reverse and mixed orders, have led the lists used in the language of two – and three-letter syllables, names, numbers, and punctuation. Was alphabets and information on declension, conjugation and the passive voice. The text part was prayer.
the Word “alphabet” had two meanings: first, it was the alphabet (tracing from the Latin, formed by the letters “AZ”, “Buki”), and secondly, a training manual. The second value is also in the course of the word “primer”.
Explanatory illustrations in Russian alphabets was not until the late seventeenth century. They first appeared in the primer of the Chudovsky monastery hieromonk Karion Istomin. This masterpiece of book illustration, which used a variety of paints and gold, made in luxurious handwritten version of the king’s children. One folio in 1692, was presented by the mother of Peter the great, tsarina Natalia Kirillovna (Naryshkina), to teach her grandson Alexei Petrovich. The following year, the same primer was presented to the Queen Praskovia Feodorovna (Saltykova), wife of Tsar Ivan Alexeevich, the elder brother and co-ruler of Peter. The beautiful book of ABCs studied the king’s daughters.
the Main part of the primer was 38 sheets of the old Church Slavonic alphabet. In the upper left corner of each sheet painted figural initial, presented “images of human and other animals, or any guns in different positions, so that the names of things so far was the initial letter in their alphabet”. Next are the spellings of the letter — printed uppercase and lowercase, cursive, and counterparts in Latin, Greek, and Polish alphabets. Below are images of things and animals whose names start with that letter — an amazing innovation for the time. In the bottom of the page — moralizing poems Istomin with the words on the same letter.
the Names of the artists who worked on illustrations��, unknown.
In 1694 in Moscow appeared the printed version of the primer of Karion Istomin, prepared by the Carver of the Armory Leonty Bunin. Subsequently, it was repeatedly reissued: for example presented on the photo copy from the collections of the Moscow state integrated art and historical architectural and natural landscape Museum-reserve has seen the light after 1719.
Under Peter I in 1708, was the first reform of the Russian alphabet. The resulting civil font for printing secular books were much clearer Church Slavonic poluustav, which had a handwritten roots. The Cyrillic alphabet, managed to survive the beginning of printing, this moment was only used for Church books.
it is believed that progressive monarch personally participated in the creation of a new typeface, which was developed based on Western European samples. New Amsterdam was called the alphabet because the first set of “contraption of Russian letters” were cast in the capital of the Netherlands. First printed with their help, the book became the textbook of “Geometria slavenski surveying,” that is, “Geometry, in Slavonic surveying” (1708).
the Language reform of Peter excluded accents, and some letters of the Cyrillic alphabet, introduced the letter “e” and Arabic writing of numbers. All these innovations found a place in the widespread book, “the honest mirror of Youth, or Indication for worldly manners, collected from various authors” which appeared in St. Petersburg in 1717. One of the surviving copies today, is in the collection of Moscow state integrated art and historical architectural and natural landscape Museum-reserve.
the Book was opened a grammar section, which included “the image of the ancient and the new script of the Slavic printed and handwritten”, the enumeration of two – and three-letter syllables of the Russian language, and “Morality of the Holy Scriptures alphabetically beaten” (alphabetically beaten — so are listed in alphabetical order. — Approx. ed.). Even in the section were Arabic numerals and Cyrillic signs, which, prior to the Petrine reforms were recorded.
the Second part of the tutorial was a tutorial on etiquette, to ensure the popularity of this publication. It was collected the tips boys and girls regarding behavior at home and in the light in accordance with the norms of life of the nobility of the epoch of Peter I.
the First Russian educational and satirical tool for the younger generation was released in St. Petersburg in January 1815 split pictorial alphabet “a Gift to children in memory of 1812”. The Museum-panorama “Borodino battle” has an instance of this curious publication.
it is PR��called “Derbenevskiy ABC” — named for the graduate of the Imperial Academy of arts Ivan Terebenev, who became famous in the era of the Patriotic war of 1812 caricature of “flying leaves,” intended to raise the morale of Russian soldiers and civilians. Sudden death of the artist from the disease in 35 years coincided with the advent of “Gift children” at the bookstores.
the ABC consisted of 34 sheets, each was hosted by a cartoon, made in the technique of etching and hand painted watercolour. All subjects connected with the war of 1812. 32 of the 34 cartoons were copied from earlier originals Terebenev, one story was borrowed from the founder of a Russian caricature of Alexei Venetsianov and artist Ivan Ivanov.
Each letter of the alphabet corresponds to a caricature. The pictures were accompanied by rhymed couplets of the satirical kind, which began with the letters from “a” to “z”. In the case of letters like “s” — their text, on the contrary, came to an end. The author of the couplets, presumably, was himself Terebenev.
At the turn of XVIII–XIX centuries in Russia, a new type of an illustrated alphabet, in which the main role was played not the letters, and image. Typically, these alphabet did not contain texts, except for brief captions. The illustrations were United by a single theme, selected for each letter of the alphabet and were located in the appropriate order. An example of such an alphabet out of 37 colored sheets with images of representatives of different Nations kept in the State Museum of A. S. Pushkin.
most of the figures in growth, in pairs (male and female) and traditional household items. Here is the “Greenlanders”, “wild Canada”, “pentagone”, “the inhabitants of New Holland”, “Unalaska”, “eskimo of Labrador”. Probably, their image could be used as a tool in geography.
Ethnographic topic came into Vogue after in 1776-1777 the years there have been highly appreciated by Catherine II the work of academician of the Imperial Academy of Sciences and arts of the German scholar Johann-Gottlieb Georgi’s “Description of living in the Russian state peoples and their everyday rituals, faiths, habits, dwellings, clothes and other memorable objects”. This work was also reflected in a variety of porcelain figurines in the series “peoples of Russia”, which was produced in various factories until the revolution of 1917.
the Original alphabet in the Russian style, conceived as history in pictures, created in the early twentieth century Elizabeth Boehm (Endaurova nee) is one of the first women in Russia who received professional art education.
a Graduate of the drawing school Society for the encouragement of artists have achieved recognition in different areas of fine art. First�� her hobby became popular in Russia since Catherine II silhouettes. Unlike the masters of the past, she did not cut them with scissors from black paper and painted on stone, and then made impressions. Was issued 14 albums of silhouettes BEM, which was repeatedly reprinted.
Enthusiasm for her “babies” publicly expressed such artists as Ivan Kramskoy and Ilya Repin. The last one gave her as a sign of respect my art. On the reverse side of the canvas, he left the inscription: “Elizabeth Merkurieva BEM as a token of my deepest admiration for her talent. Her “little black” I love many, many “little white””.
Watercolors Boehm won medals at international exhibitions, was purchased by Peter Tretyakov and other collectors. And when her brother Alexander became Director of Maltsov crystal factory, she proved herself as the author of sketches of objects of art glass.
the Source of inspiration of the artist was the world of children. Wide popularity was brought to her book illustrations, as well as over three hundred cards, done in the style, which is called sentimental realism.
Regular customer Elizabeth Merkurieva was printer Ivan Sytin — largely thanks to his drawings böhm won the national love. Sytin published mass books and other printed materials in large print runs, using for it the works of the best artists of his time.
the Last big project started to lose vision of the artist was a watercolor alphabet, the customer which in 1911 made a major publisher Ivan Lapin.
it was Planned that ABC will be published in five parts in six illustrations each. Altogether four issues (24 letters), last one — after the death of Elizabeth Boehm.
In the 1920-ies “ABC” twice, was published in Prague in the form of a series of postcards for the children of Russian immigrants. Some leaves are kept in the Museum of the Russian Diaspora.
In 1918, Soviet Russia was reformed spelling, as reflected in the change of spelling and the deletion of certain letters “Yat”, “feet”, “and decimal”, “izhitsa” and “EPA”. Its aim was to increase literacy. The reform was prepared in tsarist times, formally announced by the Interim government, but has always been associated with the Bolsheviks, who carried out these conversions.
in the Fall of 1919 was created the campaign “Soviet alphabet” of Vladimir Mayakovsky. It was meant to be going on front of the red army, which explains the great rarity of this 30-page edition on thin paper. One of the few surviving copies are now represented in the State Museum of VV Mayakovsky.
Each letter of the alphabet, a caricature made up of one or more ��human figures were consistent with a topical ditty of two strings. Each line begins with that letter. “There was such sharpness, which for beauty are not very suitable, but for which the trenches were very good,” — later recalled Mayakovsky.
the Poet not only invented the poetic text, but also did all the drawings and hand-lithographed them in typography at the Stroganov school. Several thousand copies were painted by the author himself, who helped his Muse Lilya Brik, and artist Ekaterina Turova. “This is a truly handmade at the time of the ominous encirclement of the Soviet Union. His work this book is made” — so your creation is characterized by Mayakovsky.
From the point of view of decorative art “of the Soviet ABC-book”, on the one hand, was a reference to the traditions of the woodcut, on the other — a manifestation of the avant-garde. It is made in the style samopisnaya books Russian futurists, who strove for a unified technique of text and image.
History of things. Considered the favorite walking stick of Vladimir Mayakovsky Brothers and sisters Mayakovsky, Yesenin and Gogol. Five stories from the museums
“the anti-religious alphabet”, one ideological textbook, created colleague Mayakovsky, master of poster and caricature Mikhail Cheremnykh. With the poet he crossed paths while working on the famous “rosta Windows”. The first issue of the groundbreaking magazine poster, which quickly responded to the burning themes of the satirical poems and drawings in the fall of 1919 was completed Cheremnykh, and he was soon joined by Vladimir Mayakovsky, Mikhail Volpin, Basil Khvostenko and other writers and artists.
by the Way, in 1922, Cheremnykh became one of the founders of the humorous magazine “Krokodil” in which the artist’s works were published before his death.
In 1933 he illustrated “the anti-religious alphabet,” which, as the name suggests, was a reflection of the state policy of the USSR against the Church. Today, the alphabet Cheremnykh instance stored in the Museum of Moscow.
Each letter of the alphabet corresponds to the colored drawing, and through hero is a smiling boy in budenovka with a red star. The drawings are signed by thematic couplets of two or four words beginning with the same letter: “come on, brothers, gods of fear”, “the Bells end, kui, Smith”, “Interfere with the power machine of power”, “Holy pastors proletarian patch”, “Storm shamans — a gang of charlatans”, “the Kingdom of the churches — the Kingdom of chains” and other. The author of the signatures was the artist’s wife Nina Cheremnykh.
In the biography of a leading Soviet cartoonist was another interesting episode that is worth mentioning, although it is not associated with fine art. In the spring of 1918 in Moscow, the question arose about fixing the chimes Spasshell the towers of the Kremlin damaged during urban fighting. To the revolutionary events of chimes played the hymn “glory to our Lord in Zion” and the “Preobrazhensky March”. Vladimir Lenin expressed the wish that after the repair instead of them sounded proletarian tunes — “the Internationale” and “You fell a victim to a fatal struggle…”. To reconfigure the chimes could not find a specialist. A person who has managed to cope with the task, was Mikhail Cheremnykh — he from youth was fond of music and even at one time dreamed of becoming an Opera singer.
History of things. As was defeated and restored favorite car of Lenin