the Top of the first for Europe postwar summer marked an important meeting of heads of anti-Hitler coalition. It had a lot to define just emerged from war, countries and peoples. But on 16 July 1945 in the desert area of the U.S. state of new Mexico made a pre-emptive step – detonated a nuclear explosive device.
in Other words, detonated the world’s first atomic bomb. Instead, until chemical explosives (TNT, trinitrotoluene and its variants) to the first American “Thing” (from the English – Gadget) was used plutonium-239. This artificially produced material (in nature it is not) would be a great explosive power due to a chain reaction of fission of atomic nuclei and release nuclear energy.
the First bombs that were created in a lab at Los Alamos led by Robert Oppenheimer and Leslie groves, in recognition of the General groves, the chiefs of staff immediately began to search for the application. From a demonstration explosion on an uninhabited Atoll in the ocean, as initially suggested by scientists-Bombadil, the generals pragmatists strongly refused and chose four of the real object in Japan, which still continued the war.
the sight were: Arsenal city of Kokura (Japan’s largest center for military production and supply); Hiroshima city (as a center for the transfer by sea of the land forces and the formation of naval convoys); Niigata (major port, steel and refineries, fueling tankers).
And yet Kyoto is a cultural and industrial center with a population of about a million people in the past – the capital of Japan. The area of urban development of Kyoto assumed that the area of visible damage “would be within its territory,” and this, cynically reasoned generals, “will help to determine the impact force of the bomb.”
However, the inclusion of Kyoto in the list of intended targets for the atomic bombing did not support the then US defence Secretary Henry Stimson. “His argument, admits in his memoirs, Leslie groves, was based on the fact that this is the ancient capital of Japan, the historic city, a place for the Japanese has a huge religious significance. He visited Kyoto when he was Governor General of the Philippines, and this city shook his monuments of ancient culture”.
was Stimson himself in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, I don’t know. I once had a chance. And what happened to these cities August 6 and 9, 1945, now know all over the world. On Hiroshima, the Americans dropped an atomic bomb Packed with uranium-235, and called her “Baby.” And “Fat man”, which in three days burned Nagasaki, was one to one with the first charge, which was July 16, on a deserted air force base Alamogordo.
the News that “the birth went well”, RES��on changed the mood inside the American delegation in Potsdam. In recognition of the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, at first smiling and friendly poimali the hands of Stalin, President Truman suddenly became irritable and began to “show Russians that they do.”
Today, when from this event we are separated by three quarters of a century, will not be superfluous to remind you that since July 16, 1945, and before August 29, 1949, nuclear weapons had the United States only. In the years this monopoly was tempted to use it. In General the heads and staff cards were drawn the plans one darker than the other.
back in the days when the Big three met in Potsdam, the Pentagon repeatedly was going to the chiefs. These secret meetings have developed a fundamentally new military policy.
one of the statements the JCS said, “In the past, the United States was able to stick to the tradition never to strike until then, until you attacked him.” In the future, it was noted in the same document, the armed forces must be able “to surprise the enemy and destroy his will and ability to conduct war before he can do us considerable damage.”
This common military-political setting has found its practical expression in the directives of the chiefs of staff JCS-1496 dated 19 July 1945 and JCS-1477/1 from 30 October of the same year, the Directive JCS 1691/7 of June 30, 1947.
In March of the 46th hawk habits fueled Fulton speech has departed from the post of Prime Minister Churchill. By September of ‘ 49, when there was no officially known about the first nuclear test of the USSR, the concept of first strike nuclear weapons in case of war the secret Directive Truman national security Council-57 was included in the official military policy of the United States.
Data on which I rely, has led American physicists Mikio Kaku and Daniel Axelrod in their experiment, “United States: bid to win a nuclear war. The secret plans of the Pentagon”. Before the other with this book, freely published in English, were able to meet and even translated into Russian language in the Main intelligence Directorate of the General staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR. Met, translated from English, printed a certain number of copies and… supplied, each marked “For official use only.” And only five years later, in the Russian realities, it was decided to declassify special instructions of the chief of the 12th Main Directorate of the defense Ministry.
how fragile the brink of the world was long before the Cuban missile crisis, evidenced, for example, such recognition: “During the Korean war pilots of the U.S. air force has been endowed with authority to use tactical nuclear weapons. Commanders in the rank of captains and the majors themselves had to determine the situation reached a critical level or not…”
War on the Korean Peninsula, let us note, began in the summer of 1950. By the time the Soviet leadership has officially stated that the US monopoly on nuclear weapons no longer exists. But the truth is need to look in the eye. According to recently declassified documents of the Soviet Atomic project, in early 1950, our nation has had only a few instances of nuclear devices. At the pilot plant to KB-11 (nowadays – Russian Federal nuclear center VNII of experimental physics, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) by the end of 1949 had produced two “product 501” – similar to the first that detonated on 29 August 1949 at the Semipalatinsk test site tower. For the twelve months of 1950, collected in the same pattern nine more RDS-1, next year – already double that of eighteen.
But at this point the Soviet nuclear Arsenal significantly behind the us: already there by 1950 there were over four hundred nuclear bombs, and produced them commercially. Soviet scientists, designers, engineers and technologists at first had to be playing catch-up.
Visible and in some sense a milestone on the road to nuclear parity with the United States became the test of 12 August 1953 the hydrogen bomb. The Americans have announced such a trial almost a year earlier. But they, according to us experts, has blown up “the house with tritium”, that is cumbersome laboratory sample size of three story house. And in the Soviet Union tested a compact, almost ready-to-use combat unit: the first hydrogen bomb was tested by dropping it from an aircraft carrier.
Created in the end, the actual parity in nuclear weapons the US and the USSR/ Russia, underpinned by international treaties and bilateral agreements for many years remained a guarantee of strategic stability and was a deterrent from starting a new world war. But now this system of checks and balances exposed to new global challenges.
What happened to “birth in Alamogordo” for the entire postwar world order and as today trying to hold back the process of nuclear proliferation, analyzed together with the experts of the PIR center, scientists and diplomats.
recently, speaking at the online session, “Primako readings”, head of the Center for international security, IMEMO ran Alexei Arbatov expressed the warning that the world “can be dropped in the 1950-ies, when there was nuclear deterrence, but there was no system of arms control”. Then, reminded Alexei Arbatov, the world has reached an extreme point, and the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 was caused by the unrestrained arms race. “Only a miracle saved the world from disaster,” – said the expert.
And what we see now? Discontinued expeditionary travel between Russia and the United States under the Treaty on reducing strategic offensive arms. Postponed for a year the conference of the parties to the Treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. Washington announced the decision to withdraw from the Treaty on open skies, a growing crisis because of the position of the President of trump in respect of the settlement of the Iranian nuclear program.
moreover, according to Arbatov, in the United States at a serious level even talking about the withdrawal from the Treaty on comprehensive ban of nuclear tests. “He was imprisoned in 1996, his training took 33 years. This is the greatest achievement that since 1996, no country except North Korea has not conducted nuclear tests, and North Korea since last year stopped… But if you come the US will collapse, not only the Treaty, but the NPT, because these two contracts are very closely related,” warned the head of the Center for international security, IMEMO ran.
In many positions with him in solidarity and academician Sergei Rogov, head of the research Institute of the USA and Canada. In his opinion, if you don’t renew the contract start-3 or is not offered an adequate substitute, “that wiped out the regime of control over nuclear weapons, which existed for several decades and was the basis of strategic stability.” And without such agreements “will be a nuclear chaos, a game without rules”, when each acts according to their own notions and ideas, as it was in the beginning of the nuclear arms race.
“of Course, the termination of the start-3 Treaty is not the end of the world, – quotes the Interfax academician Rogov. But the absence of this agreement would have very negative consequences and may ultimately lead to the end of the world, if by this we mean a nuclear war.”
is there any alternative to this? Not to assume and control, and once and forever put an end to nuclear bombs, warheads and their carriers?
“in order to rid the world of nuclear weapons, there must be universal harmony, which, unfortunately, is unlikely,” – says the Chairman of the Board of the PIR Center and co-chair of the international club “TRIALOG” the General-the Lieutenant in resignation Evgenie Buzhinsky.
In support of his position he refers to past experiences and events of recent years. All conflicts, the actions of the US on the destruction of the existing international, political, trade, economic and other mechanisms, the increased military presence in Europe – all this hinders the process of General disarmament, he said.
“might look Like a plan of General disarmament? – asks Evgeny Buzhinsky, and he responds to it. Such a plan is already there – it’s article six of the NPT, according to which countries her husband.��existing nuclear weapons have the obligation to seek disarmament. Drive them in any time frame is meaningless and useless. Even if you set a goal to reduce nuclear weapons by a third by 2025, the slightest complication of international relations can fully stop the process. Difficulties in one of the “hot spots”, whether in the middle East or in Southeast Asia. In a regional crisis is likely to interfere key players: the US, Russia or China – there will be a clash of interests, which will stop the disarmament process. In this regard, I believe that full nuclear disarmament is at the moment impossible.”
the Expert of the PIR Centre, I remembered the scene from the TV series “Seventeen moments of spring”, where the hero of Oleg Tabakov says: “Mueller is immortal, immortal in this world of spying.” The same words to General Buzhinsky include nuclear weapons.
I was highly interested in testing according to the planned schedule, for he knew what significance the event may have in the negotiations in Potsdam. In addition, each extra day of delay testing meant an extra day of the war. And not because we’re late with the manufacture of bombs, but because of the delay of the Potsdam decisions will cause delay of response of Japan and, therefore, postpone the day of the atomic bombing.
From a purely technical point of view also it was desirable to test as quickly as possible, because every extra hour of stay of the electrical connections in very wet conditions increase the likelihood of misfires. Even more could suffer electrical connections in the devices and the approaches to them wires, which were made not as well as the electrical part of the bomb. In addition, each extra hour increases the likelihood that someone will attempt to interfere with the test. Our people were in a state of extreme nervous tension, and has not been excluded the possibility that any of them will not survive it. As a result, we Oppenheimer has agreed to postpone the trial for a day and wait another two hours.
Our preparations were simple. Each was ordered, when the bill will come to zero, to lie face to the ground and feet in the explosion, to close their eyes and hold their hands. As soon as the explosion happens, was allowed to get up and look through the smoked glass, all of which were equipped… I was lying on the ground between Bush and Komentom and thought only about what I do, if zero nothing will happen.
the Explosion occurred at 5 hours and 30 minutes. It was a feeling of very bright light, rising all around, and when I turned around, I saw familiar now to many a picture of the fireball. My first, and Bush and Conant reaction while we were still sitting on the ground, watching this scene, was a tacit exchange of handshakesmi.
Shortly after the explosion Farrell and Oppenheimer, along with others who were on the point of managing people returned to the camp. The first words of Farrell, when he came to me was: “War is over”. I said, “Yes, but after we drop two bombs on Japan”.
Leslie groves. Now it can be told.
In March this year celebrated 50 years as entered into force the Treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons (NPT). He was drafted by the UN to counter the potential danger of the spread of nuclear weapons beyond the “nuclear club”. Him at the time of conclusion of the contract included only five States: US, USSR, UK, France, China. Now in addition to recognized de jure nuclear powers of nuclear weapons and means of delivery, in varying degrees, acquired a de facto India, Pakistan, Israel, North Korea. South Africa from the development of military nuclear program voluntarily given, and already established Arsenal disposed of.
did NPT hopes that were pinned on it? The opinions of experts differ. Meanwhile, the UN was at the time the Report of the high level panel on threats, challenges and change. In it, in particular, stated that “in 1963, when only four States had nuclear arsenals, the United States government had forecast that in the coming decade will be from 15 to 25 States possessing nuclear weapons; others predicted that this number may even increase to 50”. Current knowledge suggests that only 9 countries have nuclear arsenals. “The non-proliferation regime – embodied in IAEA and the NPT itself – helped dramatically to slow the predicted rate of spread”, – concluded the authors of the report.
the Russian-us Treaty on reduction of strategic offensive arms (SNV-3) will expire at the beginning of next year, if Moscow and Washington will not come to an agreement on the terms of renewal. The agreement was signed by the two States in 2010. Under its terms, each party shall reduce its strategic offensive arms so that seven years after its entry into force and in the further their total quantities did not exceed 700 deployed Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), ballistic missiles on submarines (SLBMs) and heavy bombers (TB), 1550 warheads on them. And deployed and non-deployed launchers of ICBMs, SLBMs, and TB total should be no more than 800 each side.
the Agreement is valid until 5 February 2021, unless replaced before that date by a subsequent agreement. It can also be extended for not more than five years (i.e. until 2026) by mutual consent of the parties. Moscow urges Washington not to delay solveds question on the possibility of extending the contract and characterizes it as the gold standard in the field of disarmament.
Regular consultations on start-3 was held on 22 June in the Austrian capital. The delegation was headed by Deputy foreign Minister of Russia Sergey Ryabkov and the special representative of the President of the United States Marshall Billingsley.
the Russian Proposal is to extend the agreement for another five years and, thus, to prevent the total collapse of the system of arms control. However, the United States demonstrate the opposite: unilaterally withdrew from the Treaty on intermediate-range missiles, and recently said that leaving the Treaty on open skies. The fate of the Treaty on strategic offensive arms trying to link with conditionality, which Russia can not accept.
the publication used the expert-analytical materials of the PIR Center, “Primako readings”, SIPRI (Stockholm international Institute for peace studies), archives of Russian (Soviet) Committee “Physicians for the prevention of nuclear war”, and other open sources.