Why the mania the constant renaming that swept our country in the first years of Soviet power, became an unwitting continuation of the policy of Nicholas II? If she was a radical attempt of scrapping all previous system of Russian life? Why the city of Tsaritsyn was renamed to Stalingrad, despite the objections of the “father of Nations”? Who then prevented the name of Moscow and Novosibirsk as the current could become Ulyanov? The great toponymic about the Bolshevik revolution from the first days of Soviet power until the late 1930 years “” said the candidate of historical Sciences, senior researcher of the Institute of history, Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Andrei Savin.

the “Our Petersburg was renamed to Petrograd”

<a href = "": Why almost immediately after seizing power the Bolsheviks began to rename the cities and villages, and in them — the streets and squares? Can we say that it was an attempt to quickly change the cultural code of the Russian people — that is, a phenomenon of the same order as the reform of the calendar, the introduction of continuous weeks, the romanization of the alphabets of the Soviet peoples?

the Andrey Savin: to Begin with that rename, of course, was not the know-how of the Bolsheviks. Not to go far for examples, you can refer to the history of the Russian Empire during the First world war. At this time in the fight against the so-called “German dominance” the government has taken a number of discriminatory measures not only against the subjects of Germany and Austro-Hungary, but against the Germans who were Russian citizens. In the spring of 1915 were closed all German-language Newspapers, and in Moscow in may 1915, broke the infamous German pogroms.

Then throughout the Empire, a wave of renaming settlements and townships, which bore German names. For example, in Siberia changed their “enemy” the names of the German villages founded by the Russian Germans in the course of Stolypin’s resettlement. Asked the Minister of the interior Nikolai Maklakov in a secret circular sent to the governors in October 1914.

Well, the most famous example of getting rid of “nemetskoi” — rename the capital of the Empire in August 1914. To quote the poet Sergei Gorodetsky: “dawn stared for a long moment, // Her bloody beam is not quenched; // Our Petersburg was renamed to Petrograd // In one unforgettable hour.” By the way, the renaming of St. Petersburg, made in the heat of nationalism, welcomed not all. Art historian Nikolai Wrangel wrote in his diary on 1 September 1914, the day of the publication of the Imperial decree: “…It is absolutely senseless has primarily overshadows the memory of the Great reformer of Russia… Who hit the sovereign of this step is unknown, but the whole city is deeply outraged and full of indignation at this insulting stunt”.

a historian.RF

of But did the Bolsheviks in this case is not surpassed their predecessors?

Of course, the Bolshevik rename from the king was distinguished by the scale and radicalism. The Bolsheviks acted under the slogan of complete reconstruction of the old world. Another thing is that in the area of renaming they initially took a relatively balanced position. Yes, at the level of streets, squares and other elements of the urban and industrial landscape like factories and plants, cultural and educational establishments the change of the names was widespread.

Moscow Everyman Nikita Okunev, who became famous for his diaries, recorded October 1, 1918:

A careful observer, Okunev has noted in his diary on 19 September 1918 and one of the first renaming of cities in the Russian Federation: “…Now in a fashion different renaming that I didn’t stop to rename a city (suburb) Kukarka (Perm province.) in city Sovetsk. Though not very fluently, but cool!”

And yet the wave of renaming almost did not rise during the revolution and Civil war, not to mention the first years of the NEP, the level of mass changes of names of towns, villages and hamlets. To speak against this time of “trying to quickly change the cultural code of the Russian people” yet. The Bolsheviks showed from the very beginning, the intention, but could not yet implement it.

<a href = "Petition to rename the village Drumevo in Leninka"

of What prevented the Bolsheviks to organize the toponymic revolution in Russia in the first years of Soviet power?

Paradoxically, it was common sense and economic considerations. In March 1918 the NKVD of the RSFSR (utility of the NKVD during the Civil war and the NEP had nothing to do with the NKVD, established in 1934) is highly recommended places, given the difficult conditions of the Civil war, to be “to conduct any kind of renaming with caution and resort to them only if really necessary”. In their guidelines, the Commissioner has repeatedly stressed that “every renaming induces a number of large expenses,” leads to an inevitable confusion in correspondence and delivery of goods. Initiatives from the field about the renaming, citing a discrepancy between the old name “new spirit of the time” were found less response near the center.

For example, in 1922, the centre has refused a request by the Siberian authorities to rename the city of Novonikolaevsk in Krasnoobsk. In addition to purely logistical and economic reasons, was responsible for renaming the Administrative Commission of the Central Executive Committee under the leadership of Alexander Beloborodov (known as the person who signed the order of the Ural regional Council on the execution of the Royal family) R��conditioning pointed out in 1923 that the repeated recurrence of the same revolutionary titles in all counties and provinces diminishes “the credibility of already made renaming”.

As a result, in 1923, among the leaders of the people’s commissariats of the RSFSR broke a discussion to rename or abandon the practice. The Administrative Commission, which was the organizer of the exchange of views, considered that the renaming is justified in the following cases: the names of the “landlords or the names of the landowners”, the settlements named for the parish of (Christ, virgin Mary, Trinity, etc.), and in the case of “desire to honor the names of prominent leaders of the revolution, or to perpetuate the memory of the local workers who died for the revolution”. As “food for thought”, the Commission called the most characteristic of the motion, which was then on its trial: about renaming the train station Vitgenshteina Moscow-Belarus-Baltic railway station in Lenins’ke village Kolpashevo Narym region of Tomsk province — in the village of Sverdlovsk and the city of Kerens Penza province — in the Rebellious city.

with In the Soviet leadership, on this account, probably, had different opinions?

By mid-February, 1923, all of the Republican commissariats expressed his attitude to the problem of renaming. Narkomnats was considered “politically inconvenient” to prohibit the renaming of localities. A similar opinion was expressed by the PCJ, who felt the need to continue to change names, “contrary to the sense of the modern era”, those who answered “the revolutionary mood of the masses.” People’s Commissariat of education also supported the renaming, but with one significant caveat:

Most “technical” of the commissioners, supported by the military, believed that to prevent the renaming should only be under strict supervision and only in the most exceptional cases. As a result, in December 1923, the Presidium of the CEC of the USSR announced a new order renaming categorically forbids the change of the names of railway stations and settlements having post and Telegraph offices throughout the USSR. Rename the remaining settlements are allowed only in exceptional cases.

the for Example?

To mitigate the Administrative Commission at the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee at that time could only very dissonant name of the town. So, in November-December of 1923, the Central Executive Committee has considered the petition of the members of the cell of the Komsomol, asking to rename the village of Filippovskaya Scrotum parish Demyansk County Novgorod province in the village of Krasnaya Gorka. Consultant of the Central Executive Committee, noting that the name “propri��ICEE”, Telegraph in the village there, so the renaming would not conflict with the new rules, recommended support for the application of the Komsomol.

But even the extremely dissonant name of the village has not always been a guarantee of its renaming. It happened with the village Drumevo Borovichi County Novgorod province, where the people March 16, 1923, unanimously resolved “out of respect for the leader of the world proletariat comrade. Lenin to request the renaming of the village Drumevo on "Library"”. But the Administrative Commission of VTSIK on October 19, 1923, considered these motives are insufficient. In addition, as she noted, “as a result of odnoimennoy settlements in honor of comrade. Lenin creates confusion in the sense of a background character for the Central organs of the Republic.”

the “to Rename the Moscow "mountains. Ilyich"”

the Real wave of renaming threatened the Soviet Union after Lenin’s death in January 1924. Then the Petrograd became Leningrad, and the Simbirsk — Ulyanovsk. Judging by your research, and this thing could not be limited?

After the death of Lenin to the Central Executive Committee and the CEC of the USSR was sent thousands of petitions for renaming in honor of the deceased leader. Pretty soon all sensible people in the leadership of the USSR it became clear that validation of all these initiatives transforming the toponymic landscape of the country in one continuous “Leniniana”, which will cause inevitable chaos in the activities of bodies of power and administration. Aside from the potential significant costs associated with such number of renaming, it also would inevitably lead to the devaluation of the Lenin name.

As a result of 5 February 1924, was the resolution of the CEC of the USSR “About renaming of cities, streets, institutions, etc. in connection with the death of V. I. Ulyanov-Lenin”, according to which a renaming of a name of Lenin is strictly forbidden without prior consent of the Presidium of the CEC of the USSR. The results of the “Leninist” renaming turned out to be modest: 26 January 1924 Petrograd was renamed to Leningrad, 9 may 1924 Simbirsk was the Ulyanovsk, the town and the station of aleksandropol ‘ the Transcaucasian railway was renamed to the city and the station Leninakan.

The same decree of the Petrograd highway was renamed Leningrad and Petrograd railway station site, which had the name “Petrograd” in Leningrad. Renaming of Petrograd and of Simbirsk was logical and easily understandable, unlike the Armenian town who won in a kind of “all-Union lottery.” In addition, the name of Lenin was awarded in February 1925 the Rumyantsev Public library. It happened only after long bureaucratic ��of elocity, the Director of the library, Vladimir Nevsky had repeatedly to justify the feasibility of such a renaming.

the And countless other initiatives to perpetuate the memory of the leader of the world proletariat?

All the other “Leninist” renaming, including those already undertaken by local authorities, were rejected. Hard line was here sustained to the end. Not helped any links to the negative political impact of the abolition produced the renaming, as was the case with the telegram of Jan Gamarnik, who sought the legalization of renaming the Central streets of Vladivostok Svetlanskaya street named after Lenin and orders of the Saratov gubernia Executive Committee that the issue of renaming of the Ryazan-Ural railway in Lenin’s “the workers were excited directly” and “in practice in the psyche of the workers of the road has developed confidence in the fact that the road is now renamed Lenin”.

People responded to the renaming of Petrograd to Leningrad anecdotes. I already mentioned Nikita Okunev has reproduced one of them in his diary in March, 1924:

The artist Alexander Benois then, in March 1924, he wrote in his diary that Lenin was against renaming in his honor the former Imperial capital: that in the early 1920’s, the Lenin assured the St. Petersburg intellectuals, “sprashivala then already rumours about this name change, […] that will never allow that to infringe on the name given to the first Russian revolutionary.”

From major cities to Lenin in addition to Petrograd, Simbirsk, claimed Novonikolaevsk: February 1, 1924, adopted a resolution Sibrevkoma renamed novonikolayevsk in the Ulyanov, due to the fact that the old name “does not match the era of the Soviets.” However, the second attempt of the Siberian authorities to change the “Royal” name of the city was also unsuccessful, and by the end of 1924, the flow of requests for renaming in honor of Lenin dried up.

The rule according to which any “Leninist” renaming was to be approved by the CEC of the USSR or the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, continued to be observed until at least the end of 1930-ies. The loud echo of the campaign “Leninist” renaming was the statement of the joint group of the Tambov members of 216 people from 23 February 1927, which proposed to rename Moscow “in the mountains. Of Ilyich”. Intercessors “rightly believed” that “this name will tell the mind and heart of the proletariat than the obsolete and meaningless to the same non-Russian and have no logical roots, the name of Moscow”.

the “making the renaming of Tsaritsyn to Stalingrad”

the I Think by this time in the country, was made the first rename in honor of the new leader Stalin?

Yes, postanoulanem the CEC of the USSR of June 6, 1924 Yuzovka in the Donbas was renamed the city of Stalin (1929 — Stalin, now that the Donetsk city) Hughes County — in the Stalin district and station Yuzivka Catherine railway — station Stalino. But here we have to consider the following specific property of Stalin as a ruler: he was poslavska, especially in 1930-1940 as the main character and the leader of the Soviet Union, but often next to its name, called the names of other heroes and leaders representing all aspects of public and political life. From the leaders of the inner circle Stalin wanted only one thing — they had to be able to stage their own personal cults as cults of the second rank who had not questioned the ranking of the Stalinist system of power.

This, again, was the immutable law already in the 1930-ies and 1920-ies, Stalin positioned himself more as first among equals, which was reflected in the renaming in honor of zdravstvenih leaders. Thus, immediately following the renaming of Yuzovka, in September 1924, was followed by the decision to rename the city, County and railway station respectively, in Yelisavetgrad city, County and railway station Zinoviev (later he became the Kirov and Kyiv, and most recently Kropiwnicki).

the Stalingrad on the map of the country, perhaps it is no coincidence appeared a year after Leningrad?

The history of the renaming of Tsaritsyn to Stalingrad in this respect very revealing. The campaign to change the name of the city began in late 1924, the relevant regulations were adopted by the General meetings of labor collectives of the city. 16 Dec 1924 workers and employees of factory “Red October” resolved: “Two cities in the great Russian revolution are the outposts of her — Petrograd and Tsaritsyn. Like the Petrograd, which became Leningrad, we have to change the name of our city Stalingrad”.

In such a flattering interpretation to rename it reinforced Stalin’s ambitions for the role of Lenin’s sole successor. The corresponding decree of the Tsaritsyno city Council was made January 1, 1925. It cited the standard “revolutionary” the motivation of the rename: “worker-peasant government rejects as unnecessary all the remnants of the old and replaces it with a new one corresponding to the spirit of the great proletarian revolution. Among these legacies is the old name of our city — the city of Tsaritsyn”. Already on 10 April 1925 appeared the corresponding decision of Presidium of the CEC of the USSR about renaming of the city, province, County, parish and station.

of How it reacted to Stalin himself?

It is difficult to say whether Stalin was directly involved in the renaming of Tsaritsyn. Party ethics dictate in such matters, modesty, and Stalin showed her then at me��e public, to the extent necessary. Preserved his letter to the Secretary of the Tsaritsyno provincial Committee of the RCP(b) Boris Sheboldaeva, dated January 25, 1925. In it Stalin assured, “not sought and does not seek renaming of Tsaritsyn to Stalingrad” and that “if so you must rename the Empress, call it Leningradom or something else”. Then he added: “Believe me, comrade, that I seek no glory, no honor and would not want to create the opposite impression.”

Why Leningrad?

In honor of Sergei Minin, a Bolshevik before the revolution. During the Civil war he was a member of the revolutionary military Council of a number of fronts and armies, including the Tenth (Tsaritsin) army and the First Cavalry army.

Anyway, the mass renaming in honor of the past leaders had not yet come, more modest and more ideologically correct were renamed in honour of dead chiefs. It is no coincidence then, in September 1924, city, County and railway station Bakhmut was named in honor of prominent Soviet political leader Fyodor Sergeyev (Artem), who was tragically killed in July of 1921 (Stalin, as is well known, adopted and raised by his son). And in November 1924, the seventh anniversary of the October revolution, Ekaterinburg was renamed to Sverdlovsk.

<a href = "'t Sibirsk, namely Novosibirsk"

of What is the logic of the Soviet renaming then prevailed?

The overall result of renaming the settlements of the RSFSR by the end of 1924 looked pretty modestly — according to the Administrative Commission under VTSIK of the RSFSR, only since 1917 24 Sep 1924 it was renamed to 27 cities. And in the majority of cases was dominated by political and ideological motive: it is True — Alma-ATA, Temir-Khan-Shura — Buynaksk, Tsarskoe Selo — Detskoe Selo, Przhevalsk — Karakol, Yamburg — Kingisepp, the village of Romanovsky — Kropotkin, Ekaterinodar — Krasnodar, Tsarevokokshaisk — Krasnokokshaisk, Petrograd — Leningrad, pryshyb — Leninsk, the Moscow — Leninsk, Baronsk — Marksshtadt Petrovsk — Makhachkala, Holy Cross Prikumsk, Askhabad — Poltorack, Nikolaev — Pugachevsk, Tsarevo-Sanchursk — Sanchursk, Kukarka — Sovetsk, Gatchina — Trotsky, Simbirsk — Ulyanovsk, Romanov-Borisoglebsk — Tutaev, Eagles — Khalturin. In the whole Soviet Union “List of renamed places of the USSR” compiled according to the Administrative Commission as at 10 September 1924, included 64 names.

Until the end of 1920-ies the Soviet leadership still preferred to rather restrictive policy of renaming than permissive. From loud NEP renaming, it is perhaps worth noting the change of name of capital of Siberia. The third attempt of the local authorities finally managed to succeed. Instead of “stargazin��th” name of the last Russian Emperor, the city began to carry the name “Novosibirsk”. Here the main role played freshly baked Chairman of the Siberian regional Executive Committee Robert eikhe, who had persuaded the Administrative Commission of the Central Executive Committee that the city should not be called Sibirsk, namely Novosibirsk.

What else is important: the end of the 1920-ies was marked by the first audit politically motivated toponyms of the Soviet era. The CEC of the USSR by its decree of February 13, 1929 renamed city of Trotsky (village Ivashchenkove) Samara region Sredne-Volga region in Chapayevsk, and on 2 August 1929 the city of Trotsky (Gatchina) was renamed in Krasnogvardeysk, respectively Trotsky district of the Leningrad region — in the Central.

the As we know, despite all the restrictions, revision of place names and continued later, in the early 1930s. what criteria she passed?

First of all, according to the classical criteria of the 1920s: “strategiest”, religion and discordant old names. For example, in January 1930, Aleksandro-Nevsky district of the Ryazan area was renamed the Novo-Rustic, the town of Bogorodsk in Noginsk, Sergiev Posad, Zagorsk, the village of Dushegubka of the Kashirsky district of the Serpukhov district in Solntsevo village Papiha Dmitrov district of the Moscow district — in the Garden. In the same vein, in October 1931, the capital of the Volga German ASSR was renamed from Pokrovsk in Engels, and in February 1932 the dissonant name of goats, which by the time of the renaming of the city was almost three hundred years, was changed to Michurinsk. In March 1932, Shcheglovsk, supposedly named after “the former big fist Scheglova”, was renamed into Kemerovo.

However, the criteria of “stroriginal”, “religion” and dissonant with the development of the Stalinist “revolution from above” played in renaming a lesser role. Beginning in 1932-1933 in the USSR started a long period of praise and celebration of their own success. As a result, the use of neutral names became in Soviet toponymy uncommon, is increasingly the preference was given to personal names of the representatives of the Soviet-party elite and heroes who personified the achievements of “country of Advice”. In 1930-e years of the Soviet Union swept the real wave of renaming, and all the ethical, economic and logistical considerations were then firmly sidelined.

<a href = ""Chelyabinsk" in translation into Russian means "pit""

of what is it manifested?

If the naming “individual workers” settlements, as well as institutions, organizations and enterprises of Soviet importance, still required a positive decision of the Presidium of the USSR Central Executive Committee (read: Politburo), the naming of employees establishment��enum, organizations and enterprises of the Federal, Republican and local significance were a decree of the Presidium of the CEC of the Union republics. This decision, adopted in 1932, led to a mass renaming in the 1930-ies a huge number of organizations, enterprises and institutions, primarily the collective farms and state farms, named after the large and small “leaders.”

The already mentioned Robert eikhe, the Stalinist Governor of the West Siberian region, in his speech at the March 1937 Plenum of the regional Committee suddenly in a fit of self-criticism spoke of “the mania of renaming” of the collective farms in his honor and in honor of the Chairman of the West Siberian territorial Executive Committee Fedor Gradskogo:

As for the cities, in 1931, a new “revolutionary” name in honor of Stalin could get one of the largest cities of Russia — Chelyabinsk. In the summer of 1931 in the USSR Central Executive Committee had sent a telegram to the Chelyabinsk city Council, in which he petitioned for the renaming of Coba, “giving it the name of the city in honor of the leader of the party of comrade Stalin, who bore that name in the years of the underground.” Obviously, such a question could not be solved without the participation of Stalin, which eventually blocked the renaming.

This, however, did not prevent the authorities of the Chelyabinsk region in 1936 to try again to rename the city, this time in Kaganovichgrad. With a personal letter to Stalin on 19 September 1936, asked the first Secretary of the Chelyabinsk regional Committee of the CPSU(b) Kuzma Ryndin, which indicated that “"Chelyabinsk" translated into Russian language means "pit"”, and this retarded the name is obsolete and does not correspond to the “internal content” of this city for the five-year plans “from the old Cossack town merchant turned into a major industrial center.” Lapidary resolution of the leader read: “Against. I. St.”. Whether played the role of his linguistic flair or renaming of the city was Lazar Kaganovich clearly not in rank, but Chelyabinsk has retained its historical name.

Perhaps Chelyabinsk was not privileged to wear the nickname of the party leader, losing out in the competition for the name of Stalin, another giant of the first five — Novokuznetsk with its famous steel mill. Judgment of the Presidium of the CEC of the USSR about renaming of Novokuznetsk in Novokuznetsk followed on 5 may 1932.

of Who else, besides Stalin, tried in 1930-ies to perpetuate in the new titles?

The mass renaming of the 1930-ies were performed in honor of the three party leaders — Kirov, Kuibyshev and Ordzhonikidze. Every time in the framework of perpetuating their memory was renamed hundreds of enterprises, institutions and settlements, as well as a number of geographic features. In violation of all the established practice of renaming the same name ��was lucali several settlements at the same time. In honor of Kirov after less than a week after he was killed was renamed Vyatka, and from the Gorky region was dedicated the Kirov region. 27 Dec 1934, there was a symbolic renaming — from the map of the Soviet Union disappeared Zinoviev (formerly Yelisavetgrad) and instead of it appeared the city of Kirov. Because Zinoviev was given political responsibility for the assassination of Kirov, rename this looked like a Supreme act of justice. In honor of Kuibyshev was named from four cities, and at the time this renaming coincided with the “Kirov”.

Despite the outward observance of ritual, the campaign renamed in honor of Grigori (Sergo) Ordzhonikidze was less bombastic and massive, than in the case of the Kirov and Kuibyshev. The city was posthumously named after him, Enakievo (in 1928-1937 years — Rykovo) — cannot be attributed to a number of important cities of the Stalin era. The other two cities, named after Ordzhonikidze — Vladikavkaz and Bezhitsa — received their new names, respectively, in 1931 and 1936, even before the criminal death of the Stalinist Commissar. Perhaps the most major posthumous renaming in honor of Sergo was the appropriation of his name in March 1937 the North Caucasus region. During the life of Stalin Yenakiyevo and Bezhitsa were given back their historical names, former Vladikavkaz, was renamed to Dzaudzhikau and Ordzhonikidze Krai in Stavropol. Obviously, Stalin never forgave his colleague’s suicide.

From the “curious” attempts to rename the 1930-ies can be called an attempt of the leadership of the Mordovian ASSR to rename the capital of the autonomy Saransk in Capilars. As an excuse to rename the version installed was about Mordovian origin of Vasily Chapaev. The corresponding resolution adopted by the 3rd session of the CEC of the Mordovian ASSR 23 December 1935, read: “to Rename the capital of Mordovia mountains. Saransk in Capilars in honor of the hero of civil war V. I. Chapaev, originating from Mordovians”. To confirm his claim, the management of the Mordovian ASSR enlisted the support of the corps commander Ivan kutyakova, took command of the 25th infantry division after the death of Chapaev. In late February 1936 Kutyakov was in the Central Executive Committee sent the following telegram “Meet — Chapaev Vasily Ivanovich, a former division commander 25 ethnic Mordvin. The Corps Commander Kutyakov”. Perhaps the Kutyakov not sinned against the truth. Nevertheless, on 20 March 1936 the petition for the renaming of Saransk was rejected by the Central Executive Committee.

the “Why retained the title of Tomsk?”

the As citizens of the Soviet Union belonged to the regular countless be renamed?

In fact, each rename was to get formal approval, rather ttion “groups of workers and employees”, and the authorities considered public participation in the renaming as an important political action. True school loyalty of the Stalinist regime began renaming during the mass operations of the NKVD 1937-1938, known under the collective name of the Great terror. The repression of the Soviet elite revealed that in previous years the names of the latter-day “enemies of the people” was named thousands of streets, factories, plants, collective farms, state farms and settlements. Now there was an urgent need to rename them.

As an example, Nikolai Bukharin and Alexei Rykov. In March 1937 the Presidium of the USSR Central Executive Committee in response to a “request for a working and social organizations enterprises and institutions of Moscow” was renamed the Tuberculosis Institute. Rykov in the City’s tuberculosis Institute, Tram Park. Bukharin — in the Tram Park. Kirov Club streetcar named. Bukharin — in the club streetcar named. Kirov, Bukharin’s street Volochaevskaya street, Robotstrategy the plant. Rykova — in Robotstrategy plant # 2 and study them. Rykova — in technical school im. Kirov. Furthermore, Bukharin steklosojuz the Kursk region was renamed “name tov. Dzerzhinsky”, as Bukharin district of the Western region. A similar list can be organized practically in respect of all representatives of the “Lenin guard”, repressed during the Great terror.

Part of the population of the Soviet state supported and even actively participated in the process of renaming, often speaking with its own initiatives. In the years of mass repressions particularly “unlucky” Tomsk. Burning with righteous anger, but less educated citizens believed that the town was named in honor of the former leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Tomsky committed suicide in 1936. The anonymous author of the letter in “Truth”, “the Komsomol of the plant of the people’s Commissariat of defense industry,” wrote on 22 December 1938: “the Surname of the famous oppositionist Tomsky, the enemy of the Soviet people, still living in our country. Sadly, but true. Isn’t it time to put the question before the appropriate organ of our government to rename the city of Tomsk in the city with a different name. Very strange, why is there still preserved the name, the city of Tomsk? Maybe this is as it should be? I doubt it very much”.

the Funny.

In another case, alert the student of the Perm military aviation school. Molotov certain M. Shonin introduced a deception coincidence of the name of the opposition and the “Orthodox” Soviet figure. In his letter to the CEC of the USSR Shonin wrote in October 1937: “I think it’s necessary all the streets, called names of the enemies of the people Kamenev and Zinoviev, rename, all collective and etc. Moreover, there is an island in the North called enemy of the people Kamenev. I recommend to rename the name of the hero of the Soviet Union comrade Schmidt.” The Secretariat of the Presidium of the CEC of the enlightened student wrote that “the Islands located to the North, bear the name of Sergei S. Kamenev, who was a member of the government Commission on the rescue Chelyuskinites.”

But the author of another letter, a geography teacher from a secondary school in Chelyabinsk region P. I. Lemetti, there was nothing wrong. In August 1938 he informed the authorities about the discovery made in the study of the new administrative map of the USSR, published in 1936: “In the South-Western part of the island of the October revolution 95 degrees V. D. is Cape Gamarnik. I propose to rename the Cape enemy of the people in the name of hero of the Soviet Union comrade M. M. Gromova”. The letter of Lametti was forwarded to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, as a result, the Cape Gamarnik was renamed the Cape of Copper.

with That is, some alert citizens helped the authorities to clean up the map the names of the previous heroes who suddenly became “disguised enemies”?

Yes, but the most interesting began, when the same object had to change a few names for a short time, and every time, “teams of workers” had to approve. Illustrative example is the renaming of settlements and organizations, named “enemies of the people”, in honor of the “iron Commissar” Nikolai Yezhov. So, in late April 1938, the CEC of the USSR was renamed station Postyshevo Smelyansky district, Kiev region in the station. Yezhov. June 29, 1938 the Presidium of the CEC Kazakh SSR was renamed the ovtsesovhoza No. 500 Kamensky district of West Kazakhstan region. Isayev in ovtsesovhoza them. Yezhov. By the time of this decision, the former Chairman of people’s Commissars of the Kazakh SSR Uraz Isayev was already under arrest.

August 13, 1937, was one of the most high-profile renaming in honor of Yezhov: in response to “request of the Ukrainian Republican organizations,” his name was given to the “Dynamo” stadium in Kiev. After the dismissal and arrest, Yezhov all these objects again changed the name. As a result, for the young Soviet society began renaming tool to generate doublethink, loyalty, unwavering faith in Stalin and the party, as well as readiness to believe any version of history that was proposed by the government.