Yesterday his, frankly, deafening Martian launch rocked the scientific world China: heavy carrier “Changzheng-5” he has sent to Mars, interplanetary space station “Tangwani-1” (“Questions to heaven”). This is from three satellites Orbiter, lander and Rover. Chinese orbital probe designed for one Martian year (about two earth), a 240-kilogram Rover 90 Martian days. Experts emphasize: the same term was originally designed American Mars Rover Opportunity. However, he worked for over 14 years.
the First phase of the Chinese mission was successful: the device weighing 5 tons went on the calculated trajectory to Mars. If all goes well, then China will become the second country after the United States, whose intelligent robot careful on the dusty paths of the mysterious planet.
And on July 30, the start of another Martian American Perseverance. And here too there are “raisins”: on Board should fly first in the history of the Martian helicopter. As experts say, it’s just a little drone. However, it will allow us to understand the potential of helicopters at a distance of many tens of millions of kilometers from Earth.
What is most interesting? All three of the mission should arrive at Mars about the same time – in February 2021. So on one of the most attractive planets for mankind in the near future will be hot and crowded.
A Martian hype is easily explained: it was in July this year, opened with the most favorable window for flights to Mars with a ballistic point of view. A simpler – thanks to the proximity of Earth and Mars: this happens approximately every 2 years and 50 days. Depending on the initial speed of the flight duration varies from 260 to 150 days. And it is necessary to have time to use.
Recall: today, on the orbit of Mars the American probe Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and NAVEN, and on the surface of Mars – the Curiosity Rover and the stationary vehicle is Insight. Also circling around the planet, the European probe Mars Express and the Trace Gas Orbiter (the last two of the four scientific instruments created by specialists of the Russian space research Institute). Another camera in orbit around Mars Indian interplanetary station “Mars Orbiter mission”.
And the world’s first machine that got on Mars was the Soviet station “Mars-2”. The station was launched from Baikonur cosmodrome on 19 may 1971. Unfortunately, the entry angle into the atmosphere was higher than estimated and the parachute did not have time enough to slow down to landing. The machine crashed. In the same 1971 year was the world’s first and only Soviet space program, Soviet soft landing of the lander on the Red planet. It was a “Mars-3”. He started to transfer data already 1.5 minutes after primereniya, but the relationship ended after 14,5 seconds. Dust storm! The machine walked right into a Martian hurricane.
According to experts, in the history of Martian studies, two-thirds of all planned missions have ended in failure. The failure is not passed neither our country nor the United States nor Europe. The numbers are given: just to Mars was sent 44 missions. 16 of them were successful, 7 partly successful and 21 unsuccessful.
by the Way, the first Chinese Mars satellite “inkho-1” (110 kg) was actually associated workload of the Russian mission “Phobos-grunt” launched in November 2011 and burned up in earth’s atmosphere. Experts underline that the project was unique, and its relevance, he does not lose. No one had the courage to go there to pick up the soil from the surface of Mars. Russia has a chance. Yeah, didn’t work. “Still time to strategize will work”, say the optimists.
“Roskosmos” is trying to return to Mars with the European space Agency. In 2016, the Russian “Proton” was launched by the joint ExoMars mission to successfully deliver to planet orbiting Observatory Trace Gas Orbiter. But the lander “Schiaparelli”, developed mainly in Russia, crashed while landing. The next ExoMars mission has been postponed to 2022. This mission also will include a Rover.
According to many scientists, with the help of the red planet can be solved not only a serious scientific problem. The earth is not immune from global catastrophes. And Mars, as many believe, the most promising candidate for the role of a spare planet for humanity. However, cosmic radiation will become a major obstacle to manned missions to Mars, – experts are convinced. For example, this view is shared by the academician the lion Green. “To fly humans to Mars, I’m very pessimistic,” – he does not hide. In his opinion, the problems associated with cosmic radiation, will be relevant during the flight to Mars because of the large distances. More than six months, the crew will be in open space with all the charms of radiation from the Sun and cosmic rays.
however, a Stanford University Professor Scott Hubbard warns: alien viruses can enter the Earth through the rock samples from Mars. The scientist believes that removed from the surface of the red planet the stones have to be treated so, “as if they are infected with the Ebola virus”, until proven their safety. Although Hubbard makes a reservation: the probability of viruses from another planet using the rock samples is still very small – he said this in an interview with Stanford News.
the Professor also pointed out some measures that can protect the Earth. Among them, chemical treatment and heat sterilization of all mechanical systems of the ship. All returning astronauts would need to put ��and strict quarantine, as it did with Neil Armstrong after landing on the moon.
whatever it was, almost all the experts agree: not a technique, namely the people – the most vulnerable link in long-term space expedition. Flight to Mars will be fully Autonomous. He will continue in any case, even if the astronaut suddenly will become very bad. The earth will definitely insure, but the signal from distant space comes late almost half an hour. For extreme situations for very long. That is why the Board need to collect a truly unique body of knowledge, to continuously monitor the psychological state of the crew.
the Scientists estimated the risk of radiation exposure for an expedition to Mars and back, which will last two years. According to their estimates, the total radiation risk over the life of the astronauts, regardless of age, for the protection of a radiation shelter 20 g/sq cm will be 7.5% and the reduction in the average expectancy of life – 2.5 years.
the total size of radiation risk for the career of astronauts after interstellar flight and advanced to four semi-annual orbital flights (or two years) will be about 12%, slightly higher than the approved currently limit risk in career 10% for orbital flights in Russia.
But the idea of designers working. A contribution to the solution of problems trying to make even the students. So, some time ago members of the International space school at MSTU named after Bauman suggested the flight to the red planet inside the asteroid. It is assumed that the celestial stone will serve as a natural protection from the galactic rays.
what’s the point? Students consider: if you “ride” the asteroid and take refuge in him from the radiation, you will not need to spend a huge amount of fuel on the rise of radiation protection. According to the draft, the astronauts with the help of heaven “the bus” gets to the vicinity of Mars and then fly to the lander which will be sent to the planet in advance. It is clear that the participants in such an expedition will require a technology “implementation” of the asteroid. And I must say, are developed in the space research Institute.
– We often see that after landing, the astronauts bear arms, said in an interview “RG” Deputy Director of the Institute of biomedical problems of RAS on scientific work Valery Bogomolov. But on the same Mars who will do it? Therefore, the task is to find out the capacity of the crew after long months of space travel, to assess the possibility of motor areas, sensory systems for work in spacesuits on another planet. And what can be done to improve.
the Launch of China’s probe to Mars is associated with the human desire of knowledge of new worlds, but also has politicalcue subtext – demonstrates the technological status of the country, – said RIA Novosti head of the space policy Institute Ivan Moiseev. “If you take the early years of the space age, that there during the cosmic runs have been more politics now mission rather scientific. The leadership of the countries understand that science and its achievements increase the political prestige of the country. To such countries, with great respect,” – said the expert.
Analysts agree: the Martian and similar projects to inspire the youth and promote the national spirit. “Scientific projects are a symbol of the country’s relationship to the cosmos. It is no coincidence that Sergey Korolyov paid special attention to the missions to the moon, to Venus, to Mars. Now in Russia it is not. Without changing relations to space, important for the national spirit, success is not worth the wait. We need to change attitude”, – quotes RIA Novosti correspondent member of Russian Academy of cosmonautics named after Tsiolkovsky, chief analyst of the Association “Digital transport and logistics” Andrei Ionin.
Vladimir Bugrov, the developer of projects of expedition to Mars and the moon, the leading designer of manned rocket and space complexes for disembarkation to the moon and “Energy-Buran”
In 1962 Sergei Korolev, developing interplanetary program, submitted to the expert Commission is realistic the project of an expedition to Mars in which to send 3 people were supposed to gather in orbit of an artificial Earth satellite (OISS) total set weight 500 so relatively speaking, at 165 tons per person. Over the past half century, these data reduce failed. Even in projects focused on reusable electrical propulsion ships.