MOSCOW, 13 Jun — RIA Novosti, Vladislav Strekopytov. Recently, the European space Agency (ESA) reported that, according to satellite data, the largest magnetic anomaly of the Earth were in motion, divided into two parts and changed intensity.
Than it threatens humanity — versed RIA Novosti.
it is believed that the magnetic field is related to processes occurring deep in the bowels of our planet. The core of the Earth consists of metals.
the Central part of inner core solid and the outer liquid. due differences in temperature and pressure occurring convection flows of molten iron creates an electric current, and the magnetic field that protects the surface of the planet and all living things from solar radiation and dangerous cosmic radiation.
Roughly speaking, the Earth is a magnetic dipole, with its axis does not coincide with the axis of rotation of the planet. Deviation is 11 degrees, about as many divergent geographic and magnetic poles.
But the Earth is not a perfect dipole. The planet’s magnetic field is not uniform, there are anomalies caused by peculiarities of the deep structure and different magnetization of crustal rocks. The largest South Atlantic magnetic anomaly (YAMA), stretching from South Africa to Brazil.
the First of June 2009, the liner of airline of Air France, EN route from Rio de Janeiro Paris, disappeared from radar. Debris in the ocean is found only in a few months. According to one version, the crash happened due equipment failure in the area of YUMA.
where the magnetic field is all right, charged particles of cosmic rays and solar wind electrons and protons, slow down at a distance of 60 thousand kilometers from the surface, but closer to 1300-1500 miles they usually do not get. This is considered the lower boundary of the radiation belts. And only in the region of South Atlantic anomaly where the field is very weak, the radiation is approaching the Earth at 200 kilometers.
This is especially dangerous for low-orbit satellites and space telescopes — they are about this high. As a result of unprotected electronics can fail. So, in 2007, YAMA off American communication satellites Globalstar first-generation, and 2016 is out of order and broke the orbital x-ray Observatory “Hitomi” Japanese aerospace exploration Agency. Space telescope “Hubble” on South Atlantic anomaly transferred to the standby mode.
To study the planet’s magnetic field in 2013 ESA launched Swarm mission of three satellites, where all the signals coming from the core, mantle, crust and oceans, as well as the main parameters of the ionosphere and magnetosphere.
the Earth’s Magnetic field is strongest near the poles. The weakest in YUMA. Measurements of Swarm satellites have shown that the anomaly is growing.
the ESA Website reports that from 1970 to 2020 border YAMA shifted to the West at a speed of 20 kilometers per year, with a minimum field strength has fallen from 24 to 22 thousand nanotesla. According to estimates, due extensions YAMA the Earth’s magnetic field over the last two centuries has weakened by nine percent and now this process is accelerated considerably — the tension decreases five percent per decade.
a Few years ago YAMA began to form the second center a minimum of tension, and now the anomaly is almost divided into two parts — the Brazilian and Cape town. This means that soon may be another area of danger for satellites and space stations.
Scientists still cannot explain such a rapid change in magnetic field in this part of the globe. One of the versions:
Here at a depth of about 2900 kilometers is an area of dense rocks, which geophysicists call a province with a low shear rate, and geological superplume. Perhaps some reason these rocks in motion, which resulted in the anomalies.
In the last twenty years, the North magnetic pole is shifting too quickly. This creates serious problems for navigation systems of different levels — from marine transport to Google maps in consumer smartphones, as they are all based on accurate geo-referenced the magnetic pole that is indicated by any arrow of the compass.
Satellite geophysical data has allowed to explain this phenomenon. It turned out that here blame the anomaly, in this case — positive. One of such zones of strong magnetic field, resembling the shape of a drop, located under the Northern Canada, the other beneath the Siberian shelf. Canadian “drop” began to decrease, and the Siberian would increase, and the pole has shifted sharply in her direction.
In the 1960-1970-ies, NASA launched a series of satellites to study the Earth’s magnetosphere. Upon learning the results, experts from space flight Center Goddard has built a map of the surface magnetization, which marked only the anomalies related to the characteristics of composition of crustal rocks, without taking into account the dipole field of the Earth.
the map shows that more than thin and young oceanic crust is magnetized less than the thick and ancient crust of the continents. But there are nuances.
Local magnetic anomalies on the continents are associated with features top of the crust — depth of the crystalline basement or large clusters of iron species. Especially clearly distinguished Kursk magnetic anomaly (KMA) over the world’s largest iron-ore pool and magnetic anomaly of Bangui in Central Africa, whose origin remains a mystery to scientists.
Doctors found that prolonged human exposure to abnormally high natural magnetic field lowers the immune system, breaks system functions of the body and accelerates aging. But in risk group, not all residents of KMA (anomaly covers the Kursk, Belgorod and Voronezh regions), and only those who are directly daily contact with the magnetic ore, workers of the mining enterprises.
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