Tolstoy’s novel in these times
country to holes deep saliste;
I think that itself became,
gazing into it, as in a mirror, she said.
Lines of the poet Boris Slutsky on “War and peace” I remembered when they studied 692-page volume “the Partisan movement during the great Patriotic war” – from the declassified documents of the Archive of the President of the Russian Federation (aprf), published by “Historical literature”. Immediately was reminded of Tolstoy’s arguments about “the cudgel of people’s war”:
“And the good of the people …who in a moment of testing, not asking about how the rules have the others done in such cases, with the simplicity and ease raises first a club and gvozdic it until, while in his soul the sense of insult and revenge is not replaced contempt and pity”1.
About the military achievements, valor and courage of the partisans, about their sacrifice, about the support provided to national Avengers of the population, says a lot. Declassified documents aprf allowed to see another side of the coin.
“In the initial period of the war, the NKVD tried with the red army to gain control of the guerrilla movement. …However, despite the efforts of the NKVD, in the leadership of the partisan movement remained organizational mess. This issue is a regional party committees, the regional Department of the NKVD, the political Department, the intelligence unit of the red army. Any coordination with the leadership of the partisan formations were absent”2.
Various institutions of the government wanted to supervise the partisans, to check their work and to talk to folk in the language of overbearing regulations. “The cudgel of people’s war” would be forced to act according to the rules, although nobody knew what should be these rules.
Deputy people’s Commissar of defence, army Commissar of rank 1 Yefim Afanasievich of Schadenko (1885-1951), for example, even proposed to create “the 1st Cavalry guerrilla army people’s Avengers”, a total number of 33 008 people3.
Stalin rejected this plan.
October 27, 1941, the battalion Commissar Ivan Antonovitch Ananiev, former assistant to the head of Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b), wrote a letter to the Supreme Commander of the shortcomings in the organization of the partisan movement
“as a result of the lack of a single centre for the management of this case was a spray of human forces, weapons, explosives, uniforms, etc. technical means are absolutely necessary for these purposes,”4.
Only 30 may 1942 by Decree of the State Committee of defense of the USSR № 1837сс was created the Central headquarters of the partisan movement. However, the organizational mess did not end there.
6 Sep 1942 G��state defense Committee established the post of chief of the guerrilla movement, which had appointed the Marshal of Soviet Union Kliment Efremovich Voroshilov. However, on November 19, 1942 the position of chief was abolished: “In the interests of greater flexibility in the leadership of the partisan movement and to avoid excessive centralization”5. The figurative expression of the famous guerrilla and the saboteur Colonel Ilya G. Starinov (1900-2000), “the Guerrilla front was “a front without command””6.
the pre-war miscalculations of Stalin and Voroshilov, the repression against those who even in time of peace, insisted on advance preparation of partisan bases; intrigue in the top leadership, the struggle for leadership and a long-standing rivalry between the first Secretary of the Communist party of Ukraine by Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev first Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist party of Belarus by Panteleimon Kondratyevich Ponomarenko7 – all this had a negative impact on the guerrilla movement.
But bureaucratic delays as is often the case, side by side with the mass heroism of the Soviet people behind the front line.
the correspondent of the newspaper “Sunday times” and radio company of the air force (bi-Bi-si), Alexander Werth was in the Soviet Union from July 1941 to 1946, and then on my own impressions, documents, and other sources wrote that, in his words, “human history” – the famous book “Russia at war 1941-1945”. In this book he very precisely said about the motives of the choice that makes the person who went to the guerrillas.
“it makes No sense to speculate on what the motive was most important at the time, when people decided to take this very dangerous step, as the departure to the partisans: unselfish patriotism, wounded national pride, the desire to get away from the Germans, from their repression, to avoid deportation to Germany, attachment to the Soviet system? All these motives have an influence, but the degree it obviously was different in different places.”
as sure Alexander Werth said, and about the partisan movement
“It’s not only the picture of the greatest of bravery and courage – and you need to be brave and courageous person to become a partisan, but picture a world where human life is valued incredibly cheap”8.
the Exploits of the guerrillas was paid for with the blood of civilians.
July 19, 1941 “In the village of zapillya, Rogachev district, German tank crews were pelted with grenades and fled, leaving the tanks and helmets. The village was then burned down by the Germans”9.
August 2, 1941 “Troop was killed by a German officer, derailed German train and killed 10 German soldiers bathing. For the Germans burnt the town of Osipovichi”10.
February 12, 1942 “In the farms birch, Komarovskogo the old town district of the Kursk region and in several other places in the Holyin the face of systematic destruction of cable telecommunication partisan detachments, the Germans establish a duty from the local population in line. On duty with full responsibility for the integrity of the connection, if damaged when duty threatens execution”11.
July 17, 1942 “At the end of June on the highway Mogilev – Bobruisk squad was arranged the attack on the convoy of cars. In battle 33 cars broken, killed 42 German pilot.
German authorities were again sent a punitive detachment, who had surrounded the village Borki of the Kirov area, burned it, and the population, including children and the elderly, were shot”12.
December 2, 1942 “In the village. Aleksakova Velikoluksky district of the fascist executioners kicked all the people on the street. In the presence of all shot the wife of a partisan, set fire to the village from all sides, forbidding to extinguish the fire and save the property. All the population of the village were left without homes and food”13.
the Policy of carrot were followed by the Germans with promises of gingerbread. “For the capture of guerrillas – a reward of 2000 rubles for the indication of the location of the guerrilla unit – 25 000 rubles bargain cows and pigs”14. (In the occupied territories continued circulation of Soviet banknotes.) It was a lot of money. During the war the red army in the ranks of the army, received a 20 rubles a month15. Before the war the average monthly earnings of Muscovites were 466 rubles, and the workers received 399 rubles, and engineering-technical workers – 741 ruble16. The people’s Commissar of the NKVD – 3500 rubles, the typist of the Central apparatus of the NKVD – from 500 to 700 rubles17.
the Guerrillas fought not for the sake of future benefits, awards, or money.
But since were talking about money, we should say: a year after the outbreak of war it became clear that according to the estimate of the National Commissariat of defense “funds to Finance the guerrilla movement is not provided,”18. And then the chief of the Central staff of the partisan movement at a Rate of the Supreme command by Panteleimon Kondratyevich Ponomarenko had made the necessary calculations and submitted for approval to the estimates for 20 sheets. Costs partisan movement from 1 July to 31 December 1942 was sought for 57 million 700 thousand rubles19. It was a very reasonable estimate. One day the great Patriotic war, cost the budget of the USSR more than 362 million pre-war rubles.
Ponomarenko took care of cash collateral partisans and their families. May 10, 1943, showing civil courage, by Panteleimon Kondratyevich wrote to Stalin:
“the Partisans-the farmers (and the vast majority of them) even though they are the partisans on equal terms with the partisans of the workers and servants or even take in the units of the command positions, benefits or monetary content��Anija from the state not getting. This situation led to complaints and in some cases can create undesirable mood.
…the Current system of material support of the guerrillas and their families does not fully meet the merits of the people’s guerrilla movement and, therefore, must be radically changed”20.
This issue was discussed a very long time. On 19 October 1943 signed a top-secret decree of Sovnarkom of the USSR No. 1139-348сс “About payment of salaries to officers of guerrilla troops.” The commander and Commissar of the detachment numbering up to 200 people were set to benefit 750 rubles per month. The commander of a large partisan connections – 1500-1800 rubles. The commander and political officer of the guerrilla unit (company, platoon, group) relied from 500 to 725 rubles21.
the salaries of the rank and file guerrillas-collective farmers was not provided.
But they also fought to the death.
Neither the cruelty of occupiers to civilians, nor generous promises have not reached their goals. The guerrilla movement behind enemy lines strengthened and broadened. From the report returning to the mainland the liaisons of the Communist party(Bolsheviks) of Ukraine:
“the mood of the population changed dramatically. When we went the first time, then everywhere it was felt that some people waiting for something, counting on the fact that the Germans brought the goods, etc. Now all with one voice declare that they are against the Germans. You will not find a single family that would be favorably treated by the Germans, with the exception of police and stewards. Literally the entire population opposed the Germans”22.
this conclusion was not an exaggeration.
the German command in their own skin experienced the power of “the cudgel of people’s war”. On 11 July 1943 the commander of the 61 infantry division of the Wehrmacht and professional military intelligence officer General Gunther the Krupp (1893-1981) made a disappointing conclusion:
“Stalin managed to turn the fight for the preservation of their system in the Holy Patriotic war, and thereby cause a Patriotic and religious sacrifice, the ability to which has long been one of the strongest characteristics of the Russian people. …Military occupation can’t conquer the revolutionary people, on the contrary, it only begins his conquest. The war against the revolutionary people is not only a military affair. We Germans, the only other Soviet Russian, revolutionary people, can best be understood. …Eastern campaign showed that our understanding of Bolshevism did not coincide with reality, not only in the assessment of its military power, but also in assessing its moral strength. …In our behavior in the occupied and occupied areas for the most part we did not take into account these facts and therefore met with rejection and resistance. …Inwar in Russia is not only in the military plane, but also in the philosophical and political planes”23.
February 3, 1944, the translation of this and other captured documents seized in the headquarters of the enemy, was directed at the disposal of Stalin’s favorite commander long – range Aviation Marshal Alexander Evgenievich Golovanov. Apparently Stalin liked “the gloomy German genius” of the German General and his philosophical view of the Great Patriotic war.
At the end of the war, the Knight’s cross holder Lieutenant General Gunther the Krupp never former member of the SS, became commander of the X army corps and the SS on March 6, 1945, he was captured by red army troops South of Shefelbine (now Polish Katowice). Was kept in Butyrskaya prison N 2 of the NKVD of the USSR, the Krasnogorsk pow camp No. 27 of the Ministry of internal Affairs of the USSR, the special object of N 5, N specrometer 3840 of the USSR.
Only the intervention of Stalin can be explained further in the highest degree favourable to the General philosopher of the outcome. The commander of the SS corps was not convicted in the Soviet Union and the relatively short time remained in captivity. The country won the war, and Stalin in the soul “humiliation and revenge” was replaced with “contempt and pity” to any one German General.
March 1, 1949, Lieutenant-General of the Krupp released and repatriated to Germany, where he died December 31, 1981
1. Tolstoy L. N. War and peace. T. IV. Part 3. GL. I. M.: Khudozhestvennaya Literatura, 1978. P. 385.
2. Mozohin A., Kudryashov S. Preface // The Bulletin Of Archive Of The President Of The Russian Federation. The guerrilla movement during the great Patriotic war. C. 16. Doctor of historical Sciences Oleg Mozokhin and candidate of historical Sciences Sergey Kudryashov – the authors of the magazine “Rodina”.
3. The Bulletin Of Archive Of The President Of The Russian Federation. The guerrilla movement during the great Patriotic war / Chief editor S. V. Kudryashov. M.: Historical literature, 2015. P. 100.
4. Ibid. P. 93. Major I. A. Anan’ev went through the war from start to finish and finished as the Deputy commander 680 th infantry regiment for political Affairs. He was wounded twice. Awarded five medals: Patriotic war of I degree (twice), world war II degree, the red Star (twice).
5. Ibid. P. 280.
6. Ibid. P. 17.
7. In November 1939 between Khrushchev and Ponomarenko there was a heated dispute about the establishment of new borders, which was forced to intervene Stalin. Stalin took the first two secretaries, saying, “Hello, hetmans, well, like a border? You haven’t fought? Started a war over borders? Not concentrated troops? Or agreed peacefully?”
8. Werth, A. Russia at war 1941-1945. Part six. // https://www.litmir.me/br/?b=129851& p=130
9. The Bulletin Of Archive Of The President Of The Russian Federation. The guerrilla movement during the great Patriotic war. P. 31.
10. Ibid. P. 42.
11. Ibid. P. 117.
12. Ibid. P. 170.
13. Ibid. P. 359.
14. Ibid. P. 166.
15. Ibid. P. 119.
16. Moscow after the war. 1945-1947. Archival documents and materials. M: Mosgorarkhiv, 2000. P. 363.
17. Of the political Bureau and the public security organs. / comp., introd. article, comments. O. B. Mozohina. Moscow: Kuchkovo pole, 2017. P. 496.
18. The Bulletin Of Archive Of The President Of The Russian Federation. The guerrilla movement during the great Patriotic war. P. 166.
19. Ibid. P. 168.
20. Ibid. P. 526.
21. Ibid. P. 566.
22. Ibid. P. 118.
23. Ibid. P. 617, 618.