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Vladimir, your theory about the origin of Saturn’s rings for more than 30 years, but it was overshadowed by other theories. And then suddenly, release. What happened?

Vladimir Black: For 400 years since Galileo Saturn’s rings, there were various theories about their origin. One of the most popular is gravitational theory that the rings formed from the debris of the destroyed asteroid. It is suggested that our scientists Michael gorkavyy and Alex Friedman. So this, and other theories have been verified, when the spacecraft Cassini in 2004, flew to Saturn and began to study its rings. The data obtained for various reasons rejected and gravitational theory, and other ideas.

Cassini confirmed the theory of the Russian scientists?

Vladimir Black: No, he did not directly confirmed. But said the most important data that me and my co-candidate of physico-mathematical Sciences Sergey Kapranov given the opportunity to make a change and offer a new version of the origin of the rings.

And what you helped Cassini?

Vladimir Black: At the time, we suggested that a crucial role in the origin of the rings played by two factors: the planet’s magnetic field and the superconductivity of the particles that comprise the rings. How does it happen? Ice particles randomly move in deplanatum the cloud around the Saturn. Moreover, they are “dormant” superconductivity until, when the planet there is a magnetic field. And at the same time there is a force which drives the particles to the magnetic equator of Saturn, which forms of them a ring and held them back.

To version colleagues reacted quite skeptical?

Vladimir Black: Yes, it is. Especially to the hypothesis that the particles constituting the rings have the superconductivity, although the space around Saturn’s rings temperature of minus 163 degrees Celsius to minus 208 degrees. And here to us came to the aid of Cassini. He found that the rings are composed of 7 percent carbon and 93 percent ice. But this is not enough. Scientists from Israel have shown that a sample of similar composition and proportions behaves as a superconductor of type II. We mathematically showed how such superconductors are on the equator of the planet and are held there. And held tightly by those “addresses”, which were originally, do not change the place of residence, not moved neither vertically nor horizontally.

Here are very different effects, in particular, the Abrikosov vortices, for which he received the Nobel prize, and the equation of Landau – Ginzburg, the theory of superconductivity, the latter was also awarded the Nobel. Our model allows to answer many questions that remained unclear. For example, why the particles of the rings are separated or almost��mu they are only planets located beyond the asteroid belt.

why the Earth does not have such a “sombrero” of the rings?

Vladimir Black: Because the space between the sun and the asteroid belt is well warmed by our star, destroying superconductivity. Rings can only be on planets with a magnetic field outside the asteroid belt. This model complements the unified picture of electromagnetic interactions in the Solar system. It confirms the view of Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven, in the process of the origin of the rings of Saturn can be incorporated the history of the formation of the Solar system at an early stage of its development.