the Great Patriotic war left 26.6 million human lives. So, the loss of the army amounted to 8.6 million people.
More than 2 million Soviet soldiers died liberating Poland, another million in Czechoslovakia and Hungary, more than 300 thousand – in the capture of Berlin.
Nearly 14 million citizens were killed in the occupied territories, and the lives of another four million civilians ended in the bombing and hunger.
In the war killed 20 million men and 6.5 million women. The result was not only disturbed the demographic balance, but 3 times the birth rate has fallen, that was the root cause of large-scale demographic crisis.
In the early 1960-ies of the small generation of “children of war” has entered adulthood. But by this time, urbanization has led to changing views on the family, and the youth was in no hurry to become parents, that is, increased age of first birth, and in the mass consciousness has formed a new family model, which brought no more than two children.
Material losses during the great Patriotic war amounted to one third of the total wealth of the country. “For comparison, the wealth of France during the war years decreased by 1.5% and UK 1%,” said Pavel Malkov. In the USSR destroyed more than 1,700 towns and cities, 70 thousand villages, destroyed 40 thousand hospitals and other medical institutions, 84 thousands of schools, colleges, universities, and research institutes. Has worn almost 32 thousand industrial enterprises, 65 thousand km of Railways and more than 4 thousand train stations. At least 25 million people lost their homes.
In 1941 was occupied by the most economically developed areas of the country, which caused widespread introduction of food cards. So, in 1942, rationed bread received almost 62 million people, and in 1945 – more than 80 million people, i.e. almost the entire population of the country. The rationing system was abolished in 1947. Most bread was supposed to work in munitions factories, and the metallurgical and chemical industries – 800 grams per day. Work hot and noxious plants stood out in the month 4.5 kg of meat and fish to 3 kg cereal grain and pasta products, and employees – 1,200 kg of meat and fish and 800 grams of cereals and pasta. In the siege of Leningrad these rules have been significantly less.
And in these conditions the rapidly growing military production. So, for the first 6 months of 1941 in the country made the 4800 tanks and self-propelled artillery, and in the following year there were issued more than 24 thousand, despite the evacuation of enterprises. All the years of the war it produced 102 thousand tanks and self-propelled guns. The cost of the T-34 has halved from 269 thousand rubles at the beginning of the war up to 135 thousand in 1945, and the PCA machine from 500 up to 148 rubles. The issue of guns and machine guns rose from 90 yuanh units in 1941 up to 2 million in 1944.
the factories had gone to the front men were replaced by women. In December 1942, women made up more than 50% of the number of workers in the airline industry. The same situation was in agriculture, where half of the tractor and combine were women. The personnel problem in the rear was solved, including by extending working time up to 10-11 hours, and involvement of teenagers and pensioners.
during the war 6-7 times decreased production of food products and consumer goods: footwear, textiles, garments. To pre-war volumes of consumer goods the country back only to 1953.
Since 1944, along with normalized trade shops began to open stores in commercial trade, where goods could be bought without cards, but they cost several times more expensive. For example, in 1944, 1 kg of butter in the store the normalized trade, according to Rosstat, cost 25 rubles, and in commercial – 750 rubles. While the average monthly salary of workers and employees in 1945 amounted to 43 rubles 90 kopecks, and by 1955 it had increased to 71 ruble 80 kopecks.
In Rosstat also recalled the post-war economic recovery. In no time the country came not just for the pre-war economic performance, but even exceeded it. So, by 1950 the gross industrial output of 1.5 times exceeded the figures of the military industry, and by 1955 this figure increased by 3 times.