in The case of the Coronavirus Sars-CoV-2 excellent “crown” for the Virus as well as our immune system is crucial. Because of these Spike proteins, the binding sits with the Sars-CoV-2 to the ACE2 Receptor in our respiratory and lung cells, binds.
there is, however, a peculiarity: In the normal state, the binding site of the Spike is protected by Protein, and for attacks from the outside inaccessible. Only shortly before the Coronavirus binds to the cell, it changes the configuration of the Protein, expands it and brings in a for the cell receptor Form fitting. This configuration change makes it difficult for the immune system, the binding site of the Virus with tyres at the entrance into the body suit and to produce suitable antibodies.
Previous studies of the Spike Protein of Sars-CoV-2 had shown that the binding site of other closely related coronaviruses like Mers and Sars are similar, but not identical. The suggested that drugs and vaccines against the predecessor viruses are likely to work against the new Coronavirus.
Sars anti-body to Sars-CoV-2
But there is another aspect that could be important for the development of new vaccines and therapeutic agents against Coronavirus is crucial: You must know where exactly the body against Sars-CoV-2 antibodies produced to the virus protein docking. “Our goal is to get to provide structural Information of the antibodies and their binding and to take advantage of the then, the development of vaccines against Sars-CoV-2 will move forward,” explains Nicholas Wu from the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, is together with his colleague Meng Yuan is the first author of the study. to get
this information, used in the Wu and his Team an antibody that was isolated after the Sars epidemic in the year 2006, a formerly with this Virus-infected patients. The starting point for a report from Chinese scientists, who had observed the beginning of this year, a reaction of this CR3022-called anti-body to the new Sars-CoV-2 was. In order to clarify how this is in spite of the existing differences between the two viruses is possible, have Wu and his colleagues deciphered the interaction of this antibody with the Spike Protein of Sars-CoV-2 for the first time with an almost atomic resolution.
The crystallographic analysis were Surprising. Because the antibody does not dock, as expected, for the cell binding used in place of the Spike Protein. “Interestingly, there is no Overlap between the epitope of the antibody and of the ACE2-binding site of the Protein,” say the researchers. Thus, these antibodies behave differently than most so far against Sars known. Meng Yuan and Nicholas Wu Coronavirus: a New point of attack identified
Instead, CR3022 binds to a different part of the virus protein, which differs between Sars and Sars-CoV-2, apparently only in four amino acids. This could explain why there is this cross-reaction of the antibody with two related viruses. Apparently, the protein is part of this anti-body is adapted for the corona virus is so important that he forms change when new Viruses hardly. “Thus, our study provides new insights into how Sars-CoV-2 of the antibody immune response can be attacked, and it reveals a hidden epitope in the Sars and Sars-CoV-2 have in common,” say the researchers.
Chance of a universal Coronavirus vaccine?
could The fact that the new Coronavirus has a body that resembles the old Sars Virus, now new approach for a vaccine or drugs. Because Tests prove that CR3022 prevented, at least with the old Sars Virus infection of human cells.
In the case of such In Vitro experiments with the new Coronavirus, this does not seem to work however, as Wu and his Team were now fixed. One of the reasons seems to be that the antibody-binding site is located only if the Spike-Protein unfold in the context of a normal infection in the body. As the researchers explain, this process in the case of some viruses, but not in vitro to understand. “Examples of antibodies which show no in vitro neutralization activity, but nevertheless in vivo to protect the influenza virus, the herpes simplex virus, Cytomegalovirus and also the dengue virus,” reports, Wu and his colleagues.
protect you therefore believe that it is quite possible that the CR3022 can protect antibodies against an infection with Sars-CoV2, although this has not worked in cell cultures. “For more studies, we need, therefore, suitable animal models,” said the researchers. Should confirm your guess, however, antibodies and other active substances, which attach to the binding of CR3022, Covid could help-19-patients, and also acute Virus exposed individuals at least a temporary protection against infection with Sars-CoV-2 offer.
In addition, the discovery of an apparently little changed from the part of the Spike Protein provides the Chance to develop, maybe, even a broad one against many, or perhaps all, of the corona virus acting as a vaccine: “While such a universal Coronavirus vaccine is not at the Moment, the most urgent goal, but it is for future Work is quite rewarding,” say Wu and his colleagues. “Because then we could be on the next outbreak of a new Coronavirus better prepared.”
source: Meng Yuan (the Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla) et al., Science, doi: 10.1126/science.abb7269 doctor warns of rubber gloves: “Hygienic mess on a large scale” FOCUS Online/Wochit doctor warns of rubber gloves: “Hygienic mess of major proportions”
*The article “Coronavirus: researchers discover new point of attack – a Chance at a Universal vaccine,” is published by Wissenschaft.de. Contact with the executives here.