To the world race for the first human antibodies that neutralize the coronavirus and creation on their basis of a therapeutic agent, joined the Russian scientists from Institute of molecular and cellular biology, Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMKB) in Novosibirsk. At that time, as in China, the US and Europe, such studies are supported by the state, held since the start of the pandemic, our researchers have taken the first big step in the initiative order just two months ago.

What is neutralizing body against coronavirus and how they differ from not neutralizing? As explained “MK” molecular biologist Alexander Ivanov, in the rate of blood recovered a large number of different antibodies, which originate from B-cells (or B lymphocytes). Each antibody obtained from a clone of B-lymphocytes and “learns”, and then neutralizes any particular piece of foreign protein. In other words, in order to specifically block the Spike protein of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (it binds to human cell), you have a vast array of different antibodies to find one that will fight with him purposefully.

As it turns out, having a large sum of IgG level (a measure of antibodies in recover COVID-19), a person may again be infected because he may not be a proper amount of neutralizing molecules. Therefore, plasma for transfusion of patients do not take all the ill donors, but only those who have a high titer (quantity) exactly neutralizing antibodies.

They can be a lot. For example, in China, where the search for such powerful antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 began since January, it has already found 206 species, the strongest of which were neutralizing antibody CB6. About a hundred of neutralizing antibodies scientists found the USA, which in June announced the start of clinical trials of the new “most powerful”, according to them, the drug based on monoclonal neutralizing antibodies. (Monoclonal antibody — body derived from one clone of b-lymphocytes).

as for the Novosibirsk scientists, then, using the plasma of three donors received from Moscow, they were able to get 28 species of antibodies, of which only 5 appeared to be neutralizing, that is, prevents penetration of the virus into cells by blocking communications viral S protein with the cellular receptor АСЕ2.

According to head of the laboratory of immunogenetics of IMCB SB RAS Alexander Taranin, monoclonal antibodies have several advantages over donor plasma, in which they also present. First, by selecting them from the same plasma, it is possible to control their concentrations, and second, to protect patients from other infections, and, thirdly, – to develop antibodies in the right quantity in special bioreactors, regardless of the presence or absence of donor�� blood.

as for the drug, due to the fact that neutralizing antibodies are short-lived, only about three weeks, according to experts, it can be used either as prophylaxis to high risk groups (medical staff of hospitals or elderly persons) or one double introduction critically ill as stimulating the immune system means.

in Addition to protecting the health of Russians search of neutralizing antibodies is also of great importance for further study of the mechanism of protecting the body from SARS-CoV-2. So, still not clear the cause of very bad complications from the use of vaccines against coronaviruses. We are talking about the antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ASUI) — that is, strong infecting vaccinated people at the meeting with the actual infection.

ASUI occurs when specific antibodies (IgG) form of the imperfect, fragile complexes with the virus, without hindering and helping him to infect the leukocytes of the host. According to Taranina, which leads portal “Science in Siberia”, “the fact that some of the vaccines against coronaviruses of cats, pigs, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV has shown mixed results: vaccinated animals when meeting with a real virus die from an incredibly strong inflammatory response. Their immune system did not work as protection, but rather increased inflammation. For this reason, many experts have expressed serious concerns”. Expanding all antibodies against the new coronavirus “on the shelves”, the specialists are going to figure out which of them is more responsible for the increase of inflammation after vaccination.

help “MK: “In Moscow from the beginning of April for the treatment of patients with coronavirus infection was harvested more than a ton of plasma antibodies. Donors were 1788 ill residents. Of these, 215 citizens did it again.”