With the advent of the films and TV series, in which jewelry of past eras played a significant role, “Crown”, “Downton Abbey”, “Why women kill”, “Emma” and many others “Kommersant Style” has decided to understand the styles of jewelry and make a list of the basic features those that most often appear on the screens.Jewelry art as a form of talisman, body decoration and display social appeared almost simultaneously with the man. In the most ancient civilizations used organic and improvised materials over time the materials became more sophisticated, increasingly used gold and precious stones, and gradually decorations became objects that are worn for fun, beauty and expression of individuality.The middle ages (700-1300 years)middle Ages can be considered the period from the VIII to the XV century. The decorations of this time reflected the different social and religious beliefs, they were mostly of the privileged classes, and during the reign of the Gothic style in the XIV century there were strict rules, to whom and what types of decorations were allowed to wear. Decorations this time of stylistically experienced Byzantine and Gothic influence. Their richly decorated, and the inspiration for shapes and stories are scooped in architecture and embroidery. The most popular ornaments were brooches on their back side were the words that described what was depicted on the front. The later middle Ages characterize the abundance of precious stones, diamonds, flat cut diamonds and things-relics with spiritual meaning, in the technique of filigree and delicate metal work.The Renaissance (1300-1600)the Renaissance was a period of revival of classical and mythological subjects. Widespread lush, colorful jewelry with enamel, and the opening of trade routes brought a diversity to the range of colored stones. At the end of the XV century, became wealthy and middle classes of Italy and the fashion of wearing jewellery has spread to the whole of Europe that had a special effect in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603), known as the Golden age of English history.Elizabeth felt a strong passion for jewelry and especially loved the pearls, colored stones and allegorical motifs with animals. It was a time of portrait miniatures on hangers that were made in the form of carved cameos, or enamels, finely drawn. Appeared three-dimensional pendants in the form of animals, ships, or cupids, detailed symbolic motifs. Popular was an ultra-long chain. As the fashion was high stiff collars, jewelry made sure they stood out against the richly ornamented fabrics and can be worn over the collar, in the hair or sewn to the dress. Signet rings and a ring with four stones set in the form the quatrefoil is often worn on all the fingers at once. Widespread Baroque pearl. The abundance of jewelry well depict formal portraits of the time.Georgian architecture (1714-1830)Since the mid-eighteenth to mid-nineteenth century jewelry was once again mostly know and the higher strata of society. Products of this era were mainly done in the Rococo style, with fluffy bows, ribbons, and organic motifs. A characteristic technique is the combination of silver and gold. Jewelry is often created sets or Parure of several matching products that could be wear individually in different ways. A typical bright colored stones in flat cut or cut “rose”. To make the stones Shine brighter jewelers set them close to each other and enclose the foil, that helped to hide imperfections in the cut. Popular was the sentimental ornaments, portraits or images of the eye of a loved one or beloved, rings with poetic verses engraved on the gold rim, as well as lockets and bracelets, in which the first letter of the name of stone meant a certain word.Victorian style (1837-1901)Romantic period, when Queen Victoria had just married Prince albert, widespread sentimental medallions with motifs of hearts, knots, flowers, bows, Crescent and snakes. The Queen herself wore an engagement ring with a snake, symbolizing eternal love. This era was also marked by the industrial revolution and discovery of diamond mines in South Africa. Two decades later, when Victoria mourned albert’s death and wore mourning jewelry appeared black jade, onyx, deep red garnet, rings and lockets with initials. Fashion has been jewelry in the Etruscan, Greek and neo-Renaissance style. People began to travel more, in Italy there is a jewelry-Souvenirs with images of landscapes in technology micromosaic.Art Nouveau (1880-1910)the Period of art Nouveau was the artistic juxtaposition of the industrial age. Jewelers used precious and not precious metals combined with unusual stones and naturalistic motifs, mainly insects, birds and flowers. Sensual, ethereal female figures have become a recognizable sign of the time as finely detailed decorations in bold materials and with different types of enamel. The movement of art Nouveau began in France and spread throughout Europe and America, intersecting with other styles. The main time names in the jewellery of Rene Lalique, Falize, Georges Fouquet and Tiffany & Co.Edwardian style, or Beautiful era (1901-1915)the shortest period in jewelry art — the reign of the English king Edward III. French Rococo came back to Britain, and familiar motifs found reflected in a new style, more elegant, light and airy. The appearance of platinum has revolutionized the technique of setting diamonds in the jewelry. Style “a garland” with flowers and leaves in carved and engraved metal made jewelry like precious lace. The diamonds are old cut diamonds and natural pearls complements the monochrome-white look of platinum earrings, brooches and necklaces.Art Deco (1920-1939)the Beginning of art Deco style lead from the Exhibition of decorative arts in Paris 1925. Industrial, smooth, line, art Deco captured the new world with their forms chopped, white diamonds in platinum, inspiration fast speeds and skyscrapers, a melting pot of cultures from Asia, Africa and Egypt, stylized floral motifs and carved Indian cabochons. Bright rubies, sapphires, onyx, jadeite, lapis lazuli, quartz, combined with diamonds created a visual effect that inspired designers such as Cartier, rené Boivin, Raymond Templier and Tiffany & Co.Retro (1939-1950)During the Second world war, platinum and precious stones become rare raw materials and jewelers turned to nizhkarton gold, semiprecious and synthetic stones. Aquamarines, citrines, amethysts became fashionable as a Central stone in the ring. The spread was pink and yellow gold. After the war, the main subject of jewelry steel brooches.In the mid-twentieth century (1950-1970) there was a fashion for a cocktail party, and decoration became more extravagant. Three-dimensional, stylized animals, inlaid with semi-precious stones, leopards and Panthers Cartier, mysterious birds of Van Cleef & Arpels, Bvlgari snake. These houses and the Maison continued to surprise the world with their vision and innovation and the new designers Paul Flato, Fulco di Verdura, David Webb, Jean Schlumberger and Elsa Peretti has defined the look of vintage jewelry for a new generation.Over the next 40 years, the art of jewellery has undergone a lot of changes to technical terms, shaping and functionality. There are different directions and innovation, but entrenched one — individuality and personalization. Today you can mix metals, wear different styles together, layering necklace seven one another, to think about the jewelry as talismans and amulets, to give them spiritual and symbolic meaning — they will still be a form of self-adornment.By Ekaterina Ziborova
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