on 12 June 1990 the first Congress of people’s deputies of the RSFSR adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty, and later in honor of this event was established holiday – the Day of Russia. The document declared the sovereignty of the RSFSR, and also – no less important – claimed the priority of the Constitution and laws of the Russian Federation on the legislative acts of the USSR. After a year and a half of the Russian Soviet Federative socialist Republic (RSFSR) was renamed the Russian Federation (Russia). In 1993, the new country had a new Constitution.
– I was a member of the constitutional conference, I remember writing the Constitution in 1993 – said “RG” head of the state Duma Committee on science and education Vyacheslav Nikonov. – Then the controversy was not about our country and about how to make a particular article is similar to the Constitution of France, America, Germany. Arguing about the nuances, about legal issues, but actually about Russia at the moment, I can’t say that much thought. Yes, of course, the word “Russia” is mentioned, but in General, the Constitution as a document that protects national interests, was clearly weak.
If in 1993 the Basic Law has laid a basic, universal principles of government, the amendments-2020 bring a set of values is the continuity of history, the status of the Russian language as the language of the constituent people, the protection of historical truth, the special status of national culture. Concepts such as “patriotism”, “respect for elders”, “respect for human labor” and others.
– these articles describe how we represent the structure of our society that we believe to be right, just what is our national idea and purpose, – said in an interview with “RG” the head of Fund of development of civil society Konstantin Kostin. And this did not need to be ashamed of. And rather look hypocritical attacks, they say, why are these obvious value to register in the Constitution. And then these same people ask the question: what is our national idea and what the goals of the state?
here is a concrete example. “Everyone is obliged to care of preservation historical and cultural heritage, and preserve monuments of history and culture” is everything that is said in the current edition of the Constitution. And here is how the updated: “Culture in Russia is a unique heritage of its multinational people,… supported and protected by the state”. This so-called amendment Kalyagin – Matsuev – Piotrovsky. Another story: the state protects the cultural identity of all peoples and ethnic communities.
– the Nation is first and foremost the language, the culture, the heroes and the memory of all this, – said Vyacheslav Nikonov. – Therefore, the consolidation of traditional values and culture in the constitutional norms – indeed a solid Foundation for POPs��the creation of the Russian nation.
In a legally dry, but again, for the first time at the level of the Basic Law prescribes the connectedness of our history. It all started with the words in the Declaration-1990: Russia “is a sovereign state, created by historically United the people in it”. The Constitution adopted in 1993, a similar idea is only in the preamble. Now the amendment became the text of the Constitution and it sounds good: Russia is the legal successor of the USSR, it also recognizes the continuity of the development of the entire Russian state, United by thousands of years of history.
it is Worth mentioning that the initiator of the amendments was directed by Karen Shakhnazarov. “We have twice in this century have stolen our history: after 17-year – Russian Empire, and in the 90 years of Soviet history pushed. I think it would be right to tie our history into a single whole”, – he said in February at a meeting of the President with members of the working group on preparation of amendments to the Constitution. Vladimir Putin has agreed. “We need to get rid of these cliches – “white”, “red”, – he noted.
In the same logic – and a new provision on the protection of the rights of compatriots abroad, in the Constitution they are guaranteed support in the “preservation of the Russian cultural identity”. As noted at the meeting with the President of the writer Zakhar Prilepin, after disintegration of the USSR outside of Russia simultaneously was millions of people: it was not their choice, “and pretend that we forgot about them, is not correct”.
– Now in Russian outside of our country say, probably not less people than in Russia, – says Vyacheslav Nikonov. – Many compatriots living abroad, are citizens of the Russian Federation. Many of them are not, but all of them represent large Russian world that was split after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Soviet bloc. They have rights that also need to be protected. There are countries where the Russian language under threat. And the state should provide the opportunity to receive education in native language for those who want it.
Another example – “the land question”. Already in 1990 it was put: Yeltsin’s Declaration of sovereignty States that “the territory of the RSFSR cannot be changed without the will of the people expressed through a referendum”. Amendments-2020 is introduced, as expressed by Vladimir Mashkov, “concrete” prohibition on the alienation of the Russian part of the territory (with the exception of the demarcation of borders). Even “calls for such actions are not allowed.”
in addition, the amendments fix the principle of non-interference in the internal Affairs of the country. And in case of conflict of norms – the priority of the Constitution over international law. Emphasizes the role of Russia in the world: “the Russian Federation takes measures to maintain and strengthen international peace and security.” “A foreign land, we do not want an inch, but an inch of its not aboutwill tadim” this thought in the Constitution appeared,” – said Nikonov.
the Last paragraph of the Declaration-1990 States that it is the basis for the drafting of a new Constitution. Indeed, many of the principles, including separation of powers, “moved” to the Constitution in 1993. A further development has been the amendments to the Constitution of 2020, which will enter into force only if people will say “Yes” during the vote.
In the process of working on amendments was sound and not yet subsided disputes about the fact that this value framework can be included simply in the preamble of the Constitution. Which, they say, meaning to prescribe them as a rule of law. But the point is that they’re all about Russia.
the Constitution is a document that is accepted for a long time and reflects the basic value settings of the society, – suggests Konstantin Kostin. – Let’s not forget – we have a democracy is very young. Russia there are more than a thousand years, but modern statehood only 30 just executed. And we come to the natural period of generational change. Post-Soviet generation – those who were born and began active work in the USSR, gradually passing the baton to those born in the new Russia and for the next few decades will determine the future of the country. In this sense, it is essential to select and record the values that we take with us into the future, because they define who we are as a society and a country.