I expect that we will hear accusations of nationalism, revanchism. But for us everything is clear. It’s our attitude and Outlook. Yes, we’re us. Not the Americans, not poles, not the Czechs, and citizens of Russia.

Drew attention to several provisions of the article of the President.

the Participation of the United States, great Britain in the militarization of Germany. The first reason is gaining control over her finances and industry and, accordingly, support the political regime that is able to provide such control. However, the story is not as easy as online banking: Hitler beat partners.

the Munich agreement. Signed the agreement with Hitler, Prime Minister Chamberlain, as Finance Minister, has sharply reduced funding of the military industry, and when suddenly the British elite understood that it is not able to defend the country, had to go to the humiliation with the intention of giving Czechoslovakia to turn your “partner” to the East. Churchill, on this occasion said that, avoiding war, the government went on the humiliation, but which will get humiliation and war. What happened.

the Soviet Union was willing to stand up for Czechoslovakia, was put on alert troops of the two military districts, but the British government, acting in its logic, has refused to support the Prague, forcing them to withdraw and Paris. Moreover, the President of Czechoslovakia E. Beneš indicated that if he uses the support of Moscow, his country will be destroyed, and all Europe will start a war with Moscow.

Rzhevskaya battle, with its enormous loss of life was a forerunner of the battle of Stalingrad. If Hitler managed to capture the Caucasus and the oilfields of Grozny and Baku and to block the Volga, which, besides oil, were the goods from Persia, the Germans could switch to a strategy of attrition. They would get new economic resources, would be able to build a defense in the North and proceeding to the development of the occupied territories.

in the Spring of 1942, the front line passed within 500 kilometers from Stalingrad, and more than 600 kilometers from the Caucasus. By August, the Germans overcame these distances. On August 4, was captured by Voroshilov (Stavropol). 8 Aug destroyed and abandoned oil fields of Maikop. 20 Aug commissioned Krasnodar.

on 28 July, Stalin signed written them the order of people’s Commissar of defense No. 227 “not one step back!”.

the Order was preceded by the publication in the newspaper “Krasnaya Zvezda” on 19 July, unprecedented hate of the poem of Konstantin Simonov “Kill him”. It reflects fantastically terrible spirit of those “last days”:

If the roads you your house

Where are you Russian fed was…

at the same time with the worsening of the whole situation in the South Rate, from 30 July to 23 August 1942, conducted an offensive operation in the Western direction (“Rzhev-Sychevka”) to smashth 9-th German army and to eliminate the Rzhev salient. In the end, the German defenses were breached, the Soviet troops came to Rzhev and eliminated the German bridgehead on the left Bank of the Volga. Three armored and infantry divisions of the enemy, who were preparing for the transfer to the South, has not been sent. However, without those divisions, the situation in Stalingrad was hard, and the chance to keep the city small.

In the future, Rzhev and Stalingrad again “United.”

the Rate was prepared by the murderous enemy operation “Uranus”, which proposed the idea of beetles was supported by Vasilevsky and Stalin. Training was conducted in secrecy. Telephone calls and written communications on the subject were forbidden. All information has a chance verbally. Reserve army brought to Stalingrad only at night.

Training took place in parallel with the operation “Mars” on the Western front near Rzhev. In the diary of the chief of staff of the Wehrmacht F. Halder on 24 September 1942 it says about it: “Amplified rail transport in the entire area in front of the front of army group “Center” to indicate that the enemy is busy regrouping large scale…”. Halder believed that the enemy is concentrating a new strike force in front of the entire front of the 9th army (F. Halder war diary. S. 884).

on 25 September Hitler lifted Halder the chief of the General staff because he suggested to stop (Rzhev!) the operation at Stalingrad.

the Soviet offensive began on November 19 with a powerful artillery preparation. On 20 November, in the twenty degrees of frost went infantry and tanks. On 23 November, the encirclement closed in area of Kalach. November 25, began the operation “Mars”, led by Zhukov. If she succeeded, it would have opened a direct path to Berlin. It was attended from the Soviet side 1.9 million people, nearly 3,500 tanks, over 1,000 aircraft, about 25,000 pieces of artillery. Soviet intelligence through radio games announced to the enemy that the Red Army will strike on 15 November at Stalingrad, and in the center. Therefore, in October-November 1942, the German command reinforced the Western direction is completely transferred to the 11th army Manstein, which was intended for the storming of Leningrad, and with the onset of the Kalinin and Western fronts – five divisions and two brigades from Western Europe, then another 10 divisions. Swinging Rzhev, Stalin sanctioned a terrible blow on the Volga.

Despite the fact that “Mars” was not crowned with victory, it had dire consequences for the German army, which is reflected in the decisive battles of 1943. The 9th German army for a long time have lost the combat capability. Therefore, the operation “Citadel” (Kursk), the Germans moved from may to July. However, in July the German offensive in Severe Kursk bulge quickly lost power.

against the background of the victory of Stalingrad operation of Rzhev was silenced in the Soviet historiography, as if it was something where it was not necessary to attract attention. But without it I go through the “miracle” on the Volga? In Stalingrad it was a question, as noted by the American General Douglas MacArthur, will the Germans to wage war against allies of ten years. And had Rzhev.

And last point. About the role of literature and culture in General in the Victory. It is also highly important today.