Life Margarita Rudomino is inextricably linked with the formation and development of its library. Together they have come a long way — from a cold and cramped room that was in the Cash lane to its own specially constructed building on Nikoloyamskaya street. Margarita, 52 years of work did everything to about the library recognized all over the world.
the First childhood memories Margarita Rudomino was linked with Saratov, although she was born in a small Polish town.
Several times with the mother of the young Margaret went to Germany and France, and then, when he entered the Saratov gymnasium, became a local celebrity — the other girls never travelled abroad. Friend could listen for hours to stories about Margarita other countries.
Carefree life ended when she was 14: first his mother died and almost immediately became a father. During her education came from my mother’s sister. New life bogey: girl feared that will have someone like a maid, like orphans in the touching novels of the nineteenth century. But fears were not confirmed: aunt fully shared love of languages, and therefore strongly encouraged the passion for the niece. Even more: one of them, Catherine Kester, created the higher courses of foreign languages and instructed Rita to do accounting and small library with them. Rudomino itself sometimes, at the same time beginning to learn English. After high school she took a job as a librarian in secondary school — there also used to be her mother worked.
In 1921, Margaret went to Moscow to enroll in the Romano-German Department of the faculty of social Sciences of Moscow state University named after M. V. Lomonosov (MSU).
In Moscow, was soon to be a new educational institution — neuphilologische Institute. It was assumed that when there is a big library, which is needed for the supervision. Decided that heads will be invited Margarita Rudomino — the young expert, which is well established in the Saratov library. She agreed, however, plans went awry: the Institute never opened. But the mood at work has not disappeared, and Rudomino aimed to reorganize the library. She had to Pouzivat thresholds of different agencies to get permission. She became convinced. And she replied: “No need, times are hard, they don’t want foreign books.” But in the end Rudomino won. So there neophilologica library — on behalf of the Institute. Full it opened in 1922.
Willing to work really was a little Rudomino, three librarian Yes cleaner. The Foundation joined their forces, carried the publication of the Central book Fund, which got the books of the former aristocracy. Margarita Ivanovna was discharged from Saratov in the Cash lane is all that we were able to allocate for the new library.
she was known to the writer and translator Kornei Chukovsky, interested, came. Before his eyes appeared ugly picture: dark, damp, frozen through books… And among them a slender girl, cutaways from the cold in some kind of outerwear. He became one of the regular readers. In his eyes, the Foundation has grown to order.
This number continued to increase slowly: in 1923, the library named after Ostrovsky gave about 12 thousand volumes of foreign literature, prescribed books and from Berlin. For they had to allocate a few rooms in the Historical Museum. It was another small victory. Neophilologica library became a place where he loved to gather. Arranged theme nights: come writers, translators, linguists, all of them lacked foreign periodicals. Rudomino quickly found out.
the fact that she was familiar with — a revolutionary, one of the founders of the Communist party of Germany. Asked for help, knowing that this influential lady regularly receives foreign Newspapers and magazines. Zetkin liked the idea. Rudomino later remembered her words:
At the same time important changes were taking place in the Rudomino personal life: she married editor and teacher Vasily Moskalenko. The couple took the double surname: Rudomino-and Moskalenko Moskalenko-Rudomino. They had two children — Marianne and Adrian. He was given her surname that was not interrupted.
In the library itself didn’t go smoothly. In 1924, a room in the Cash lane (along with an attic where she lived Rudomino) liked Anatoly Lunacharsky, he wanted to move there. The library was homeless and was temporarily closed until she gave little space Historical Museum.
In the same 1924 the reading room was renamed the State library of foreign literature. Now there is not only gave books, but in a year earned a few clubs, classes led by professional teachers. Rudomino carefully followed the developments in this area. The increased functionality has required further expansion. The library moved first to the State Academy of artistic Sciences, and then in the former apartment of the Professor of Moscow state University Yury Sergius. There was organized a reading room, bibliographic Department and facilities groups.
In 1926 there was another major event: on the basis of the library opened higher courses of foreign languages. And the Margarita Rudomino enrolled to the courses of librarianship at the faculty of academic libraries at MSU, visited with working visits to Germany and France, in parallel preparing his or her library for teachers and interpreters. She has to make about Bibliothe tech found out as many people as possible, organize enterprises mobile library for foreign literature. Many have agreed.
In 1928, the Foundation reading room was already — it was a publication in English, French, German, Polish, Italian, Spanish and other languages. And again the question arose about the extension. The next building was the building of the Church of saints Cosmas and Damian in Stoleshnikov pereulok.
the Library was 10 years old, when had already talked about it throughout the Soviet Union. In 1932 it was renamed the State Central library for foreign literature. Higher courses of foreign languages became so that became an independent Moscow Institute of new languages. Today it is Moscow state linguistic University (MSLU).
During the Stalinist repression was difficult. From 1936 to 1938 he was arrested three employees, found fault with the allegedly misfiled the state, was “ideologically harmful” editions.
Her repression is not affected, although in 1938 she was on the verge of one of the former employees of the library wrote on her denunciation. It has not gone further charges, and for the reading room stood the Board Glavnauka.
But it was good. For example, 1938 was included in the history of the library as the year when the Second Spanish Republic gave the collection of books in Spanish.
Margarita Rudomino did not stop the work of the library I. the Most valuable items she sent to storage beyond the Urals, and the reading room was turned into a center of anti-Nazi counter-propaganda. The most frequent guests were the military — they are taught to read in German, they translated the documents, which had managed to snatch from the hands of the enemy. The building was damaged during one of the raids, which had to move to a mansion in Lopukhinsky lane.
After the war, settled here, many of the trophy books. Rudomino visited Germany in 1945 and during the trip he spent six months together with the staff saved books from the devastated German libraries. In 1946 the library received the gift of the English from America. On the spot remained only part — most of the books were sent to regional libraries. Also Margarita decided to be part of the State publishing house of foreign literature, not to be left without government assistance. Soon the Fund was more than 400 thousand books, began to write periodicals from abroad. And again relocated, this time to the house in the street Razin.
In 1948 Rudomino has achieved the transformation of reading rooms in all-Union state library of foreign literature. Books used out of the Ministry, publishing houses and agencies. The founder had a clear rule: take the Fund with only the best, selection to conduct a very thorough man.
All this time the Margarita Rudomino dreamedbut of his own building for the library. The funds grew. It was important for her to gain confidence that no one else will take unawares at the most inappropriate moment with a request to move. Besides, there were rumors that the house on Razin street will soon be demolished for the construction of the hotel. The library itself could not close — she became too famous, too important.
Rudomino his made in 1953, issued a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers about the construction of the library building. And has even picked up the land — is quite remote. From his Margarita Ivanovna refused, and later wrote: “We offered land for the Falcon, in the Baltic street. There were vacant, so there was to build the library. And I realized immediately that if I give my consent, if I go with someone to consult, and the decision of the Presidium of the Moscow city Council will make now, that will be all over. This would mean closing the library.”
Long time looking for another place, there were some difficulties. Began to build only in 1961 in the street Ulyanov (now ul). The move began nearly four years. Margarita Ivanovna in a new house liked everything: spacious book store, 14 reading rooms and conference facilities. At that time in the library worked.
the Congratulatory letter she received from all over the USSR. One of them was. He is constantly watched, how are things in the library that he loved her in the days of its habitat in the Cash lane. In his telegram Chukovsky called Margarita Ivanovna “the mistress of the Palace halls, commanding the one hundred books in twenty languages”.
Started a new life. Rudomino began to go to frequent business trips to France. Its authority was recognized not only for our French colleagues: in 1973, the library was visited by representatives of the international library community who came to the 36th General conference of IFLA (IFLA international Federation of library associations and institutions). Margarita, being the first Vice President of the International Federation of library associations and institutions, represented the library of the USSR at the highest levels. In 1973 she received a life title, a year before the library was awarded the order of red banner of Labor.
In the same year Rudomino — sent to have a rest on pension. Her place was taken by Lyudmila Kosygin, the daughter of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Margarita Ivanovna grieved the loss of their offspring very seriously. Staff members and readers said: “Nothing was removed, effort and energy she’ll have to have another library”. Kosygin tacitly forbidden to mention the name of the predecessor.
Margarita Ivanovna passed away in April 1990. And in August, the library staff turned to the USSR Council of Ministers to assign the library.
Today, the Fund of Russian state library for foreign literature M. I. Rudomino with over half a million books. In addition, we opened a bookstore and a cinema.
in 2017 there are themed festivals, the most popular of these was the festival of the Francophonie (for lovers of the French language). The library has Rudomino Academy, where he taught Russian and foreign workers of culture, American Center, Center for Slavic cultures. Partners is a Foreigner — Bulgarian cultural Institute, Azerbaijan cultural center, Netherlands education center, Department of Japanese culture and others.
the Library is actively involved in city programs, such as the annual “library night”.
the 120th anniversary of the birthday of the founder in the foreign literature Library is planning to celebrate not only July 3. In the fall there are many activities planned to follow the schedule on the library website.