every year on the last Sunday of July Russia celebrates the Day of the Navy. More than 300 years of its existence in the country’s history left a lot of important inventions, decisive campaigns and, of course, heroic deeds. Some of them tell the exhibits of the Museum-estate of Izmailovo Museum-reserve “Kolomenskoye”, Biological Museum named after K. A. Timiryazev Museum of heroes of the Soviet Union and Russia and the State Museum and cultural centre “Integration” of a name of N. And. Ostrovsky.
Joint material mos.EN and the Agency “Moscow”.
the Official founding date of the regular Navy of Russia is October 30 (old style — October 20) 1696. On this day, the boyar Duma discussed the report of Peter I the conquest of the fortress of Azov and decided: “the Russian Navy be!”.
the 300th anniversary of this event on the Izmailovo island was a monument to Peter I-known sculptor Lev Kerbel. The place was not chosen accidentally: the current territory of the Museum-estate “Kolomenskoe” with the surrounding old ponds can be considered as the cradle of the Russian Navy.
It was here, in the former his father’s country residence, the young Peter I, crowned king at age 10, along with her older brother Ivan was discovered in 1688, the English boat that once belonged to his grandfather. Here’s what he said later in the Preface to the Naval Statute of 1720:
By order of the young Tsar in Moscow was found the carpenter, a Dutchman, who led the boat in good order mast and sails. He showed how to treat foreign vessel, adroitly maneuvering on the Yauza. He tried to stand up under sail, Peter encountered difficulties — the boat behaved awkwardly, rested on the shore. The Dutchman explained — narrow water.
“Then I moved it to Millet pond, but there is little advantage (i.e., success; from the French avantage — “advantage, benefit, profit”. — Approx. mos.EN) find, and hunting was my more. For I began to see where more water; then I declared pereslavskoe lake (thou most), where I, by way of promises to the Trinity monastery, the mother vybrosila; and then began to ask, and obviously, to there yard and the courts to do…”
the Izmailovo boat “Saint Nicholas” was later dubbed the “grandfather of the Russian fleet”. He started a mock flotilla, built in 1689-1692 years on lake Pleshcheyevo near Pereslavl-Zalessky, where the unfolding of the first battles of the young Emperor on the water. In the collection of the Museum-estate “Izmailovo” is reminiscent of the layout of the boat, and made in the early XX century photograph of the bot “fortune” Pereslavl fleet.
that the designs of the reformer stretched much further amusing flotilla, reminds ��ravuru the XVIII century “the Distribution Petrovsky fleet” from the collection of the Museum-reserve “Kolomenskoye”. It depicts the first exit in the sea in full strength, the young Baltic fleet, who was born during the great Northern war (1700-1721).
the Operation was called the Ice campaign and became part of the siege of Vyborg in 1710. Eight case of Admiral Fyodor Apraksin in March from the land blocked this Swedish fortress on the Karelian isthmus, moving from Kronstadt on the frozen Finnish Gulf. Power to make an independent assault Fedor Apraksin was not enough. Reinforcements in the form of the guards of the Semenovsky and Preobrazhensky regiments with artillery and ammunition were to come as soon as the ice melts.
it was impossible to Delay, because with his hand to the beleaguered fortress had intended to get a Swedish squadron. Trying to get ahead, the deployment of the Russian Navy began on April 25, once thawed the ice on the Neva, and after four days, 250 vessels gathered at Kronstadt.
According to tradition of that time, the fleet was divided into ship and galley, each had a separate command. The ice expedition was the first commander of the Norwegian in the Russian service Vice-Admiral Cornelius Cruys, the second is rear Admiral Ivan Botsis, a native of Dalmatia, who learned the basics of seamanship in Venice. But since the fleet was the Emperor himself, under his command were created by another detachment, which amounted to Navy is a small two-masted vessels which at that time was common in the North sea. In the campaign of Peter I under the name of rear Admiral Pyotr Mikhailov, called himself Emperor he was banned.
the Entire flotilla of the engraving numbered — the main court under the separate rooms, and auxiliary groups. Because of this the engraving is easy to identify the Imperial flagship, snafu “Lisette” — number 2 in the middle of the fifth vertical row from the left.
the Campaign was successful: somewhere way between the ice floes, somewhere slowly in pure water, losing only a few transport ships, the Russian squadron was ahead of the Swedish and arrived to Vyborg on 9 may. Peter with the rest of the ships then returned to Petersburg, remaining took part in the siege of the fortress, which surrendered after a month.
to Meet face to face with one of the most famous figures of the Russian fleet Admiral Fyodor Ushakov (1745-1817) in Biological Museum named after K. A. Timiryazev. Here is a copy of the anthropological reconstruction of its appearance, made by Mikhail Gerasimov was a famous Soviet anthropologist, a sculptor, the author of a technique of plastic reconstruction of the face, which allows you to recreate the human face by examining the topography and structure of the skull bones.
the Real image of the most successful Russian naval commander ruBeja XVIII–XIX centuries, which glorified his name during the Russo-Turkish wars and won 43 battles without losing a single ship, it took in the last years of the great Patriotic war. Figure Ushakov could not be better for the creation of the order of the heroes of the fleet. The matter was complicated by the fact that at the time was not aware of any authentic portrait of the invincible Admiral. There were only a few copies made with a certain lifetime portrait, but the obvious inconsistencies in the picture Admiral’s uniform, questioned the fact that it was painted from nature.
to Restore the historical image of the instructed Gerasimov — the effectiveness of his method of reconstruction has been scientifically proved and confirmed by many examples before the war. I had to find a destroyed grave of Ushakov in the territory closed in 1929 Sanaksar monastery. At the first examination, Gerasimov exhumed the skull revealed a discrepancy of appearance of the Admiral, his portrait image. Fotocamera skull and portrait of Ushakov from the Leningrad Central naval Museum named after Peter the Great confirmed the correctness of the anthropologist. It turned out that, although unknown portraitist and retained some personality traits of the Admiral, he too extended his face, obviously trying to give him a more aristocratic appearance, typical of formal portraits of the time.
So Fyodor Ushakov was among the historical figures of the past whose look was returned to Gerasimov. In addition to the great Russian naval commander, the list includes Yaroslav the Wise, Ivan the terrible, Andrei Bogolyubsky, Tamerlane and many other historical figures.
the Order of Ushakov of two degrees to be awarded to officers of the Navy was established on 3 March 1944, and in 1992 officially saved in the system of state awards of the Russian Federation.
At the State Museum — the cultural centre “Integration” of a name of N. And. Ostrovsky stored printed in 1943 year, the flyer on the black sea fleet sailor petty officer 2nd article Gregory Kuropyatnikov.
Future hero was called up for military service in 1939 and met the beginning of the great Patriotic war machine gunner of one of the guard boats at Sevastopol. Feat 22-year-old commander of the Department of minelayers patrol boats SK-065 Gregory Kuropyatnikov made on 25 March 1943. On this day, his boat was escorting the transport ship “Achilleion” with arms and ammunition for the defenders of Malaya Zemlya. On the way back the transport was supposed to pick up the wounded from this springboard, the defense of which lasted 225 days and ended with the liberation of Novorossiysk.
In the village of Divnomorskoe Soviet sailors attacked several dozen Nazi bombardero��payers. Kuropyatnikov met their barrage of machine gun, shot down several enemy aircraft, but there were too many — the crew of SK-065 suffered losses, the boat had lost speed and was holed in the hold. During the battle Sergeant shrapnel bomb severed his left hand, wounded in the head and chest, but, recovering himself, Kuropyatnikov again stood up to the gun, continuing to fire the surviving hand.
At some point, losing consciousness, the sailor found himself on a burning deck. The flames had already crept to the crates with smoke bombs, threatening to blow up a stock of depth charges. Wielding with one hand and teeth, Kuropyatnikov rushed to untie the boxes and one by one push them into the water and together with the rescue comrades managed to save the ship from imminent death. SK-065 sustained fight, and when he returned to the base, in its case count 1600 holes.
on 21 July 1943 for “exemplary performance of command assignments at the front against the German invaders and displaying courage and heroism” petty officer 2 nd article Kuropyatnikov was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union with order of Lenin.
Gregory Kuropyatnikov passed away in 1982. After the war he worked as a dispatcher. A leaflet with his image preserved and given to the Museum by a colleague of the hero-the man of the match, as evidenced by an inscription.
From the moment the USSR and the USA in the 1950s, began to enter into the composition of their fleets of nuclear submarines, in the rivalry of the two superpowers there was one more dimension scuba. The main measure of success of the submarine was the conquest of the North pole.
Arctic race took place with varying success. The first in August 1958, reached the North top of the Land under the water of the American “Nautilus”, but to surface among thick ice could not. In July 1962, Soviet submarine K-3 “Leninsky Komsomol” has carried out the surface near the poles, but not at the very point where the compass needle points only to the South. The Soviet submariners were also prevented by the thickness of the ice.
the Historical problem was solved a year later the nuclear submarine K-181 under the command of captain second rank Yuri Sysoev. Due to the discovered in the right place the polynya on 29 September 1963 in 6 hours and 45 minutes in the morning for the first time in history, rose to the surface exactly at the geographical North pole. And after six minutes the commander of the K-181 was the first man who was at the top of the planet, standing on the bridge of the submarine.
the Crew of the nuclear submarine hoisted at the North pole State and naval flags of the Soviet Union. To one of the flagpoles attached sealed canister with a note: “Another visit to the North pole by a submarine of the Navy of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 29 September 1963”.
Record-breaking Arctic trek K-181 under the ice lasted from 25 ��of Enterra to 4 October. In February 1964, the commander of the K-181 decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
the Main difficulty of Hiking in the Arctic was associated with technical difficulties of working navigation equipment — standard gyrocompass has ceased to operate when approaching the pole. The basis for solving everyday navigation tasks on a marine map is strip — the set of all graphic works, performed by a special tool. The Museum of heroes of the Soviet Union and Russia are the tools by which in the campaign paved the route to the North pole captain Sysoyev — his Navigator’s protractor and parallel ruler.