Thanks to the film “zulaikha opens his eyes,” this name became a cult classic. About how the Russian name “Katya”. There seems a lot of Katyushas, and there is one and only- the one that “came out, singing a song about a gray steppe eagle”. Also and zulaikha. Not the heroine she and the sufferer. But as unearthed in the archives of the journalist “MK”, the writers with the name that I missed. Have cine Sulayhi serious competitor. Moreover, with a very heroic life. It Zuleykha was in his native Azerbaijan a symbol of “liberated women of the East”, which was able to achieve the impossible: he mastered the art of aircraft control. During the war zulaikha Saidmuradova was the only pilot of Azerbaijan, who fought with the Nazis.
taking up the story of the “real” Sulayhi your correspondent encountered a problem. Pre-war and military biography this is certainly an unusual woman in the public reference sources has been lacquered to a blinding Shine. At the same time, some episodes of its flight service out there somehow “retouched”. Rather, it is the consequences of the characteristic phenomena that existed in the USSR in the 1950–1970-e years. Then the stories about the participants in the war, their memoirs “combed” by a single “ur-Communist” template. As the main, ideologically-verified language-written and many pages in the book of memoirs “notes of a pilot” published in Baku in 1963 (although in some episodes seen sincere feelings and emotions of girls).
Therefore, the further story about how this actually existed zulaikha “opened my eyes”, sometimes have to cancel reservations on the detected inconsistencies and contradictions.
let’s Start also with reservations-the comment.
In a reference data character is called in Azeri style – Saidmuradova Zuleykha Mir-Habib gizi. At the same time, reading the wartime documents, meet other partly Russified version – Seyid-Mammadova zulaikha (Zuleika) Gabibova. Relatives and friends called her affectionately – Suhl.
Make an exception
She was born in the spring of 1919 (although preserved premium sheet set another year – 1915) in Baku in the family of a Bank employee.
the Girl with the early summer was drawn to the sky.
“I love the height… One Sunny April day our school teacher organized an excursion at the Baku airport. We, the seventh graders, all eyes staring at the aircraft. The first time I saw them so close, they seemed to me amazingly beautiful, unfathomable. Live winged creatures!”
in the Spring of 1934 Suhl with a few girlfriends decided to enroll in the newly established Baku aeroclub. The mother of this decision very surprised: “to Fly in the sky – unless it’s a female thing?” But the girl could not be stopped. She’s USP��shno has mastered not only the skills of flying on airplanes-“whatnots” of the time, but skydiving. In August 1935, the results of the 1-St all-Union rally of the paratroopers, she was awarded the qualification of an instructor-parachutist.
That “air” the success of the brave Komsomol girl, an activist, has attracted the attention of the inhabitants of Baku guidance offices. And then there was the tale.
“In Moscow arranged a reception on the occasion of the last 15 years anniversary of Soviet Azerbaijan. How happy I was when I learned that included in the delegation of the nobles of the Republic!.. What did I do? – ask myself. Well, the first parachutist. One of the first to fly on the plane. Someone took a… 21 Jan 1936. We in the Kremlin. Leaders congratulated in our face all workers of Azerbaijan with the 15th anniversary of Soviet power in the Republic of… Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin handed us the order. Under the arches of the ancient Palace of the thundering ovation. On my chest a new “badge of Honor”…”
In 1936, after the end of the course Saidmuradova began to work in Baku the club as an instructor pilot.
at the same time flying in her life and was a serious study: fulfilling the wish of his father, who wanted torby daughter received higher education, Zuleikha in 1938 he defended his diploma at the Azerbaijan industrial Institute and got the qualification of engineer-geologist.
However, the prospect of work on the ground, not carried away, and soon she decided on an unprecedented step: he tried to enter the air force Academy. Zhukovsky to the faculty of navigators.
“…I sent the statement… Soon the answer came. Remember: you pulled from the envelope a letter with the official stamp and the letters danced before his eyes. “Command of the air force Academy tells You… Women at the navigation Department will not be accepted…”
But stubborn zulaikha were not satisfied and appealed to the Central Committee of the Komsomol of Azerbaijan. They decided to help the activist-the order bearer. And sent a letter to the Commissar of defense Voroshilov. Work: Marshall allowed the girl, as an exception, to join the navigation Department.
In August of 1938 came the Moscow period of her life. The Academy Saidmuradova along with classmates-the men had mastered flying various types of aircraft – transportation “Douglas”, bombers, fighters. Practiced day and night flights… At the same time, continued promotion of “exemplary” Komsomolskaya Pravda on the public line in December 1939 she was appointed city Council member.
a Diploma from the air force Academy mladici Lieutenant zulaikha Saidmuradova received in may 1941. And a month later Germany attacked the Soviet Union.
“After graduation, I was appointed Navigator eskadrili fighters in the educational wing of the Academy. Zhukovsky. On the first day of the war the regiment was reorganized in combat and the armed aerial approaches to the capital. In the 20 days of October the first German offensive on Moscow was stopped. It was in those days decided my future military fate.”
the Famous Soviet pilot Marina Raskova managed to get Stalin’s permission to form three women’s regiments. To create the core of these new units, she called the other experienced women pilots to Zulayho Saidmuradova. So the young Azerbaijani has got a Navigator in the 586-th fighter regiment, which was formed at a base near Kuibysheva in the city of Engels.
“exclusive” women’s flight highlighted the new “hawks” Yak-1.
Military training was done for the winter and spring of 1942. Once the Navigator of the regiment zulaikha Saidmuradova almost died during the execution of the next flight. When landing it was discovered that her Yak came out one of the front chassis. All attempts to translate the ill-fated “leg up” in working with emergency mechanical devices have failed. The plane made circle after circle in the center of the runway, spending the last reserves of fuel… to Jump with a parachute? – Of course, saved, but will die then new fighting machine. And zulaikha decided to use the last chance is used the same way as the legendary Valery Chkalov in a similar situation.
“only one thing: stunts. To create such centrifugal loading that damn “foot” escaped from the iron grip of the castle. And I’m starting a fierce battle with its disabled shaft machine. I throw it in a loop. ‘Barrel’ follows the Immelman. My “Yak” roars down and abruptly shoots upward, tumbles through the wing…”
“Chkalovsky” emergency method worked: the chassis is still out.
“Right actress in the air!”
For a combat mission pilots of the regiment started from February 23, 1942. Area of?? operations has provided for them here, far away from “native” training airfield. On their fighters girls covered from the air echelons of the military and sanitary trains, conducted patrols over military installations in the vicinity of Saratov, guarded the most important strategic bridge across the Volga. Was and special assignments.
“in addition, we… lead a particularly important aircraft to the front line and inland. Pacing, or in other words – support and protection in the air aircraft with prominent military and civilian leaders – often been associated with long-haul flights…”
(some sources happened to find mention of the fact that C Saidmuradova allegedly involvedshaft even accompanied by a point at which Stalin was flying at the famous meeting of the “big three” in Tehran. However, it is definitely “too much”: as you know, the leader of the people went from Moscow by rail to Baku and from there just took off on the “Douglas” in the Iranian capital. So the “area of responsibility” Salahi and her fighting friends Stalin had passed in the parlor car lettered trains.)
At the end of summer the front close to Saratov, the Luftwaffe intensified here reconnaissance raids and bombing raids. The pilots of the 586th IAP has increasingly clashed with the enemy.
After the defeat of the Germans at Stalingrad, early in the spring of 1943, the regiment was relocated to the West – to Voronezh. The flight there and almost turned back for Saidmuradova death. Shortly after takeoff the engine of the Yak sinking, the fighter began to lose altitude. Zulaikha, assessed the situation, realized that the only chance to save themselves and the plane land on the ice of the Volga. This maneuver she did it, but after I got out of the cab, the girl saw with horror that around a mess of broken, already melting ice. Any minute a fighter could fail. Fortunately, the emergency landing saw her comrades in the regiment, and call for help. On the shore near the place of incident drove the tractor, hooked emergency Yak towline and pulled off the ice.
At the new location, near Voronezh pilots were waiting for a new test.
“the Airfield was in a terrible state: flooded by meltwater and also heavily mined. Sappers cleared a narrow strip with a length of 200-250 meters, and on this track we had to put his speed machine. Go wrong when landing, come out for restrictive red flags, I will probably run into mine…”
the air force Leadership tried to keep their “girlish regiment.” Therefore, zulaikha and her friends continued to perform tasks that are not associated with participation in the “hot spots” of the air war was covered from top moving columns of troops were patrolling, accompanied the most important aircraft. Another type of work – special delivery special couriers on the instructions of the Supreme command. To do this, the pilots had to “remember my aviation youth” and change the speed of yaks on the “plywood” Is 2.
Zuleikha later recalled of one such flight. To take the officer for particularly important assignments had very rainy weather. Meteorologists did not want to give “good” on the flight, but had “break”: the mission of the envoys was urgent. While in the air in an open cockpit, soaking wet, but the main thing – Saidmuradova managed to find their way in the primeval shroud and just brought the biplane to destination – failed navigational skills.
“the commander of the compound, coming to meet us, asked in surprise: “How was your journey?” I shook shoulders: “Flew as you can see.” He laughed: “Here’s a daring pilot! Right actress in the air!”
July 5, six pairs of fighters 586th IAP, led by the Navigator of the regiment Saidmuradova sent closer to the Kursk. These pilots took part in air battles during the Grand battle of Kursk, covering from German bombing important targets in the rear of our army.
in Late autumn of 1943, the regiment was relocated to the airfield Juliani in the newly liberated Kiev. Combative girls depressed: again, keep them away from the “real war”, will again have to engage in “routine air” – to patrol the airspace above the city, where only occasionally visited by “some cheeky German reconnaissance aircraft”.
But after a while they still had the opportunity to “kick the fascists as it should”. In early 1944 586 IAP took part in the defeat of the German encirclement at Korsun-Shevchenko.
“the Fighters of the regiment flew in reconnaissance flights. In addition, our Yaks were used as attack aircraft. We were shaving over the clusters of military vehicles, spraying cannon and machine gun fire, lit the German depots. In early February, the fighter has a new charge: air blockade “pot”. The Germans lost many depots of fuel, food, ammunition. The Nazi leadership sent to help surrounded the group of transport aircraft…”
In these battles, the expense of regimental victories added another six downed enemy planes. And Zuleykha was once the Savior of the whole units of the red Army.
during the operation at Korsun-Shevchenko, one of our infantry groups, fascinated by the attack is blocked in the “pot” of the Nazis, she was surrounded by. These hundreds of soldiers and officers were almost doomed to death: because they were running out of ammunition, and the help was late. That’s where help came from the sky – literally. Saidmuradova, sort out the situation, attacked the Germans with fire from guns and machine guns of his fighter. The Nazis flinch and stepped back, allowing our infantry to escape from the ring.
the Secrets of the Navigator
the Last period of military biography saidmuradova Z. the reason was “classified.” In most references indicate that she “celebrated the victory in Bucharest, with the rank of captain and Deputy commander of the 586th women’s fighter regiment”. And in the book “notes of a pilot” can be read such a streamlined phrase, the final story of the war days: “…Far beyond the field of the aerodrome, are at home in Bucharest. Here, in Romania, finished his military path 586-th fighter regiment of women.”
In fact, soon after the completion of the Korsun-Shevchenko operation Z. Saidmuradova ��have asztalos with the regiment. From March 1944 until the end of the great Patriotic war she served as assistant chief of the Operational Department of the headquarters of the 8th Fighter aviation corps PVO.
Why is there even a hint in the memoirs? – Can’t answer. Only, it seems to me that the text of the book with all these passages is the result of careful editing, to which she zulaikha has not had any relationship. Just order some party bosses a story participant in the war – a noble Azerbaijani woman, I decided to tweak, not paying attention to authenticity. It does not matter what actually happened, it is important that the book was “beautiful”!
And this applies not only to the history of its last military period.
What is a personal combat account of a fighter pilot Salahi Saidmuradova in battles against the Germans? In the book–the memoirs “notes of a pilot” there are descriptions of several episodes under Castoreum and Kursk, when she mated with his slave Mary Kuznetsova shot down “Junkers” at least two. However, in a combat chronicle of the regiment, drawn up by the researchers, mention of such victories could not be found. In most biographical reference publications about Z. Saidmuradova given very generalized information: during the war, flew more than 500 combat missions and has spent 40 air battles (but was found in the open press and other information about them below).
the Exact number destroyed Zulayho on the ground of enemy equipment not mentioned anywhere at all. The whole “maiden of the regiment” recorded on your account in addition to almost forty downed aircraft, 4 tanks, 20 vehicles, 2 anti-aircraft batteries… of Course, in this list there is a share of “earned” in battle regimental shturmanom Zulayho Saidmuradova.
In 1945, a brave pilot was awarded the order of red Star and Patriotic war. Last awarded “on set of merits”. This is evidenced by the text of the winner list, which is posted on the website of the “exploit people”.
“Seyid-Mammadova Zuleika Gabibova. Rank: captain. Position: assistant chief of the Operational Department of the Headquarters of the 8th Fighter air corps air defense… Year of birth: 1915… Party membership: member VKP(b) since 1941…. Since what time in red Army: since 1938
Comrade. Seyid-Mammadova before arriving at 8 IAK PVO worked as a Navigator 586 IAP… Flew airplanes Po-2, UT-2, the UTI-4, R-5, Yak-7, Yak-1. Flew 1215 hours… during world war II as a fighter pilot made 24 sorties, performing special tasks of command in support of critical aircraft near the front lines. Several times were leading groups of fighters at flights on major routes. Captain Seyid-Mammadova performs well in 8 of the IAC in the position of assistant chief of operations headquarters and is perfectly mastered and carried out in practice ��of basenote individuals combat crew command post of the corps. As an officer of the air force of the red Army, it has done a lot of fruitful work aimed at common cause, the final defeat of the Nazi hordes. Politically Mature, mentally stable. Party of Lenin-Stalin and Socialist Homeland betrayed.
Conclusion: For active and fruitful work on strengthening of combat readiness of the parts of the body in the period of world war II and military work, as a pilot at the front, a decent presentation of a Government award – order “Patriotic war 1st degree.”
June 12, 1945 Chief of staff 8 IAK PVO Colonel Korolkov”
the petition of the chief of staff was granted only in part: the decree of the USSR Supreme Soviet of 24 August 1945 captain Seyid-Mammadova Zuleykha Gabibova received the “Patriotic war” 1-St and 2-nd degree.
She was discharged from the army in the same victorious 1945.
he Returned to his native Azerbaijan. The only one there during the war, the Azerbaijani military pilot, order bearer immediately began to actively promote the party and the Soviet service. At first she worked as an instructor of the Baku city Committee of the CPSU(b). In September 1946 he was elected Secretary of the Central Committee of youth of Azerbaijan, and in 1947-m – Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan. Then nearly a quarter of a century – from 1951 to 1974, he held the post of Minister of social security of the Republic. After a few years working for the prestigious post of Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the Azerbaijani society for friendship and cultural relations with foreign countries.
Died zulaikha Saidmuradova in 1999.