210 years old this week amazing building in Sukharevskaya area. This white mansion with a light colonnade, more suited to a Museum or the theater, but history decided otherwise — for more than two centuries there have doctors. In the beginning it was a free specialists of the hospital at hospice of count Sheremetev. Here now accept the most difficult patients physicians of Institute of emergency care named after N. In. Sklifosovsky Department of health of Moscow.
From the hospice of count Sheremetev to the flagship extra care in Russia: 95 years Sklif
Mos.ru tells how there was an unusual case, who is and who is treated here and what secrets the bicentennial of the wall.
it was the year 1810, in Moscow, solemnly opened the hospice of count Sheremetev, a place where they could simultaneously live and treated people with low incomes (or no). That was the idea of owner building with columns, count Nikolai Petrovich Sheremetev, a great lover of the theatre, the famous capital of the philanthropist and the Director of the Moscow noble Bank.
the First brick of the future “stone hospital” Cherkassy gardens he laid in his birthday, June 28, 1792. The decision to establish in Moscow hospital for the poor count, explained in a letter to the Emperor Alexander I.
For the development and construction of the project Maecenas invited the architect of Elizvoi Nazarov, a pupil of Vasily Bazhenov and Matvey Kazakov, a former serf. The building was initially built modest, similar to a conventional house. But that all changed in 1803.
Then, after a difficult birth died the wife of Nicholas Sheremeteva, Praskovya Kovaleva-Zhemchugova. Affected by the loss of the count decided to completely change the project of construction and of simple almshouses make a Palace of mercy. To do this, the benefactor invites the architect Giacomo Kvarnegi, who will build the future first housing Sklife — all the familiar building with two rows of white stone columns of the Tuscan order.
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Work Prodo��pity for more than ten years, before the end of the count Sheremetev did not live, died the year before.
the First occupants of nursing homes have become retired officers, petty officials, priests, and commoners. But assistance is not denied to anyone. Thanks to the efforts of Sheremetev on account of the institution were large amounts of money that was used to maintain not only the building itself but also its inhabitants. For example, from the money left to count, collecting a dowry for poor or orphaned girls, he left funds for the redemption of debtors ‘ prisons and the funeral of the poor.
For the first 100 years of existence of the hospice of count Sheremetev aid was received by about two million people. The amount spent on it exceeded six million rubles.
In 1812, the almshouse began to accept and treat wounded soldiers, for some time it was used as a hospital by the French troops. Increasingly, the building with columns was to perform this function: it helped the participants of the Crimean war of 1853-1856, the Russian-Japanese and First world. And in 1877, m in the army, which fought on the fronts of the Russo-Turkish war, went to the sanitary squad, consisting of hospital employees.
it is not Surprising that soon the hospice Nicholas Sheremetev began to call the Sheremetev hospital.
Special attention to the medical part of the work of the house of Sheremetev began to pay after the chief doctor here was Alex Tarasenkov. It happened in 1858. He literally rebuilt the hospital system began to strictly control the purchase and prescription of drugs, when the doctors began to conduct regular rounds and see patients.
In the seventies of the XIX century here was opened the “incoming branch” — free clinic. Appeared in the hospital operating rooms with the latest equipment, laboratory and x-ray machines, one of the first in the capital.
With the advent of Soviet power, the hospice and Church in the building of a future Sklif work stopped, but the hospital remained. And more than that — started-hour emergency admission. And in 1919, the city Council decides to create in the Sheremetev hospital the ambulance station.
After a four-year institution will receive the title of research Institute of emergency surgery and the name of Nicholas Copernicus. This will be the beginning of the history of the hospital, which has habitually called by Sklif. And where for emergency surgical care driven by the most severe and complex patients.
it is Interesting that Nikolay Sklifosovskiy Sklif in in was never. His name of the hospital was appropriated at the request of the collection of the Moscow doctors, many of whom attended the lectures of the famous surgeon.
On a plinth to the right of the colonnade of the main building you can find memorial granite plaque on it — the bas-relief and the inscription: “Here from 1928 to 1954 he worked about��essor surgery academician of the Academy of medical Sciences Sergey Sergeyevich Yudin”. A memorial sign appeared in 1967 as a tribute to the chief surgeon of the Institute Sergei Yudin.
At the beginning of XX century it was called the third attraction of the capital (the first two were the Tretyakov gallery and Red square). This brilliant doctor has made a major contribution to the development of military field medicine and traumatology. Over a lifetime, he made more than 17 thousand operations on the stomach, and that’s when Yudin sklif has become the main surgical centre in the country.
over the years, the first case worked the legendary doctors and scientists: Gregory Gerstein, Basil Krasintel, Vladimir Demikhov and others. Now at the research Institute are practices, in particular, a chief neurosurgeon of the Russian academician Vladimir Krylov and chief transplant surgeon of the Moscow academician Anzor Khubutia.
For two centuries came from corps and non-medical legend. For example, over the main entrance to the building, under the arches, Giacomo Kvarnegi placed inscribed in a triangle image. In this bas-relief of some fans of mystery and secrets see a Masonic symbol. Especially impressionable visitors claim that the curved at the whim of the architect of the corridors is haunted.
But without a touch of mysticism, the first building of Sklifa remains a unique monument of the Moscow classicism. Its interiors are a little like a normal hospital ward: the premises were decorated with white marble and light green of the Ural stone. In the left wing, on the idea of Kvarnegi a poorhouse, in the right hospital and the centre of the building occupied by Trinity Church. It did the painting of Domenico Scotti, he also belongs to the song “Tripotamos deity in glory” in the dome of the temple. According to legend, the face of one of the cherubim Scotty off with the son of count Sheremetyev Dmitry. And an angel with a tambourine the artist made it look like the wife of Maecenas Praskovia Ivanovna.
Two of the high relief on the walls of the temple “Resurrection of Lazarus” and “the massacre by Herod of the innocents” — the work of the prominent sculptor, academician Gabriel Zamaraeva.
Now sklif, of course, is not placed in a single housing. The Institute has over 40 research units, half of which are clinical. Out of more than 800 researchers and doctors are three the title of academician, two corresponding members of RAMS, six — honored workers of science of the Russian Federation, also there are 29 professors, 88 of 226 doctors and candidates of medical Sciences.
Each year doctors provide care for 67 thousands of patients — and the Muscovites, and inhabitants of other regions.
And in a building with a white colonnade situated the Directorate, the science and the lab. Here was organized by the Museum of medicine. In his exhibition includes authentic artifacts of the Stra��naprienko house, the Sheremetev hospital, ambulance station and Institute in the first years of its existence.