The President is a dictator, who ruled for two decades, shot and killed the head of intelligence services. The killer is arrested and hanged. After fighting in the capital came to power the military. In the country, declared martial law. Students hold peaceful demonstration for democratization and the lifting of martial law. In one of the cities speaking out against the government escalate into a rebellion, brutally and bloody depressed. This is not a political scenario of the series. This is one of the most tragic and the most important pages in the history of the Republic of Korea.City simbolizuje Korean city of Gwangju in Russia’s best known sports fans — it was there last year took the championship by water kinds of sports in which Russian national team won 16 medals. And for Koreans in Gwangju not just a name and a symbol. A symbol of the struggle against the authoritarian regime for democracy. The ratio of South Korean to the events that occurred in this city in may 1980, reflects his political views are about the same as the attitude of Russians to Stalin. To the right is inspired by Communist North Korea, an uprising of anti-social elements. The actions of the military against the rebels, in their opinion, was reasonable. For the left — a popular uprising, a key event in the struggle for transition to democracy. And the use of the army against peaceful protesters is a crime.The fate of many politicians, who held subsequently the post of the President of South Korea, closely linked with what occurred in Gwangju from may 18 to may 27, 1980. The wound inflicted by the Korean society 40 years ago, not healed up yet. Still not all the questions regarding those events, and received answers. In the first place — who gave the order to kill civilians.May 18, in the Republic of Korea — day of remembrance.Murder with a third popiskivanie Pak Jung Hee came to power in South Korea in a military coup on 16 may 1961. 13 June of the same year was created the Korean Central intelligence Agency (of KCRW), which was to fight the enemies — internal (opposition) and external (DPRK). In 1963, Park Jung Hee won the presidential election. The Constitution limited his tenure to two presidential terms, and he promised to leave the post in 1971. But after a referendum in 1969, he was permitted a third time to go to the presidential election. The last free presidential elections were held in 1971. Shortly after the victory on them Pak Jong-Hee announced the introduction of a state of emergency, dissolved the Parliament, suspended the Constitution and held a referendum which adopted the new Constitution. Her presidential term was increased to six, and the number of terms for one person was not limited. The next election — 1972 and 1978 — were posted��NY under the new Constitution. Both times Pak Jong-Hee was elected to the presidency by the electoral College, being the only candidate. He argued that Western-style democracy is not suitable South Korea, as the national economy is still not strong enough. During the reign of Pak Jong-Hee was marked by the growth of the economy, especially in the first decade (the”Korean economic miracle”), and political repression. In 18 years as President of Park Jung-Hee attempted several times.In 1968 the South Korean leader tried to eliminate a detachment of the North Korean army special forces. In 1974, a native of North Korea and a citizen of Japan, mun Se Kwang opened fire from a pistol during the President’s speech at the National theatre (one of the bullets killed the wife of the President, the terrorist was sentenced to death and hanged).In October 1979 the country was gripped by mass protests, the centers of which are universities in the cities of Busan and Masan. Hundreds of protesters were arrested in Busan and the surrounding area, martial law was declared in Masan curfew.Photo: Pool, AP26 October 1979 President Park Jung-Hee was shot in the Blue house (presidential residence) the Director of CCRU Kim Jae-Gyu. This happened after the Banquet, where the President told the head of the intelligence services for a lack of rigid methods of struggle against participants of the events in Busan and the opposition leader Kim young Heart. The criticism was joined by the head of the presidential secret service, who said that protesters and opposition should pressure tanks. Enraged Kim Jae-Kyu out of the room, and came back and opened fire. He was joined by several subordinates. Those killed were the head of the secret service, three bodyguards and the driver of the President, and the President himself mortally wounded and died later in hospital.Director of CCRU was hoping to get the support of the army, but I was mistaken. He was arrested by the chief of the security forces major General Chun Doo hwan. In addition to the head of KCRW was arrested and other persons involved in the assassination of the President. Kim Jae-Gyu was sentenced to death and hanged on 24 may 1980. Shortly before the execution, he said he hopes people now will live under liberal democracy. While in the condemned cell, he didn’t know what was happening in Gwangju.Change dictatorate: ARV the investigation of the assassination of President Chun Doo hwan was arrested on the evening of 12 December 1979, his main rival in the struggle for power, the army chief of staff Jeong Hwa Son, alleging that involvement in the conspiracy. Then in the center of Seoul, clashes broke out between army units: one went to the side of Chun Doo-hwan, and others remained loyal to Chung Hwa Son. By morning it became clear that won Chun Doo hwan. He became the de facto head of state, though officially it was from��President ran unopposed indirect elections only in August 1980.In the spring of 1980 in the country’s universities began to form student unions, which have become centers of the democratic movement. Across the country, a wave of demonstrations calling for democratic reforms, freedom of the press, the introduction of the minimum wage, and primarily the lifting of martial law imposed after the assassination of Park Jung Hee.The largest protest against martial law held on may 15, 1980 near the Seoul train station. In it have taken part, by different estimations, from 50 thousand to 100 thousand people.In April 1980, the Chun Doo-hwan led KCRW. On 17 may he tightened martial law in the country. Closed all universities, banned political activities, imposed tough censorship in the media. On the same day of KCRW raided a national conference of student unions, arresting about 2.7 thousand people. And the next day the uprising began.Rebelled goodfoot: 5.18 Memorial Foundation / AFPУтром may 18, about 200 students of Chonnam University in Gwangju gathered at the gates of the institution, protesting against the closure. The collision occurred students 30 military personnel of airborne troops, blocking the entrance.After the sit-in near the University, which was dispersed by the troopers, protesting students went to the city center. There are number of protesters increased to 2 thousand. The protesters shouted slogans: “Chun Doo hwan, go away!”, “To abolish martial law!”, “Cancel the order to shut down the University!”. To help the minority of the city police were sent to 688 troops airborne troops.Arrived, the military started beating everyone indiscriminately — as demonstrators or just passers-by. On the first day of the riots the police were delivered to 405 people, many of them with serious injuries. Rumors of the atrocities of war quickly spread all over the city. In the following days of student protests began to join the rest of the residents — men and women, of different age and social status.Authorities blocked leading to Gwangju road and turned off the telephone with the city.Photo: Arutam may 20 the number of protesters exceeded 10 thousand people, and in the evening reached 50 thousand protesters in the city centre was joined by the drivers of buses, trucks and taxis on the transport. They blocked movement on the Central street that led to the building of administration of the province of South jeolla, which was the capital of Gwangju. Before this building was going to mass spontaneous rally.The military used tear gas and then firearms. The number of dead and wounded steadily increased. Killed four police officers when �� established their cordon outside the local government was hit by a car.Read deligradska war reached a peak on may 21, when residents began to arm themselves to protect themselves from the violence of the military. The protesters broke into police stations and military arsenals and seized firearms and ammunition. In addition to the many rifles were captured even the two guns, one of which the students have installed on the roof of the medical faculty of the University of Jeonnam. The local police refused to help the army. By evening, military in the face of real resistance, left the city centre, and in the morning the next day went outside the city, taking him into the ring.A few days Gwangju belonged to the rebels. The social committees of students and citizens who provided aid to the wounded, organized the funeral of the victims, helped to pay the families of the victims. Was created the people’s militia. Committee members held talks with the army, demanding the release of arrested citizens, compensation for victims and to renounce the harassment of participants in the uprising in response to disarmament. The military demanded that the rebels disarm first. Most of the protesters decided to continue the fight.23 may when a group of local residents tried to leave Gwangju by bus, the bus was shot: killed 17 (according to other sources — 18) people. In one of the suburbs Marines by mistake opened fire, killing 13 people. Also by mistake, the military opened fire on the boys bathing in the pond, having decided that they want to escape from the besieged city. One child was killed.Big brother”the US is the only support anti-people tyranny established in South Korea. The USA helped the South Korean puppet regime to drown in blood the people’s uprising in Gwangju, allowing the use of subordinate American command troops of the Seoul regime to “restore order”. The US is actually occupying South Korea, put in power in this country clique pathological anti-Communist, and Chun Doo-hwan” (article Y. Kornilova, “Hypocrites!”, the newspaper “Izvestia”, June 10, 1980).Declassified in recent years, in accordance with the American law on freedom of information documents from the CIA, state Department and other government agencies of the United States confirm that, in 1980, unproven claimed by Soviet propaganda. The events in Kwangju important role is played US.After the Korean war in 1953, South Korea was on a regular basis placed American troops. Between the two countries signed an agreement on security established a joint command of the South Korean army and us forces in Korea.May 22, 1980, U.S. Ambassador to South Korea William Gleysteen said the foreign Minister of South Korea that the us army will assist the Korean army in the “establishment of order in Kwangju and prevent problems anywhere else”. He also said that the US does not want publicity of their actions out of fear that it might inflame anti-American sentiment in the Kwangju area.On the same day the White house held a summit to discuss the situation in South Korea. Participated in it: Secretary of state Edmund Mask, his Deputy Warren Christopher, national security, Donald Greg (former CIA station chief in Seoul) and Zbigniew Brzezinski, defense Secretary Harold brown, Chairman of the joint chiefs of staff David Jones and CIA Director Stansfield Turner.The meeting agreed that “the main priority is the restoration of order in Kwangju by the Korean authorities with the minimum use of force, without having to sow the seeds of future, more large-scale riots… once order is restored, we need to put pressure on the Korean government, particularly the military, seeking to allow greater political freedom.” Zbigniew Brzezinski described the U.S. position as follows: “In the short term, supported, achieve long-term political evolution.”In Seoul, the commander of us forces in Korea, John Wickham and Ambassador William Gleysteen came to the conclusion that the U.S. government should enable the Korean army to occupy Gwangju.The military operation to suppress the uprising in Gwangju wore a cynical title of “Great vacation.”Half past three in the morning on may 27 stormed the city with a force of five army divisions supported by tanks and helicopters. To win, the army took only an hour and a half. When the assault killed ten civilians For his involvement in the uprising in Gwangju was arrested by 1394 people. In conclusion, they were subjected to beatings and torture. 427 people were convicted, 7 sentenced to death and 12 to life imprisonment.Read careerstoday were also opposition politicians, including Kim Dae-Jung, who enjoyed great popularity in the province of South jeolla. For anti-government and subversive activities, he was sentenced to death, later commuted to life imprisonment.Long palatiw the first years after the uprising in South Korea was dangerous to speak about it out loud. Any books and articles in which at least passing reference to these events has passed strict censorship. In 1985 a book was published participant of the uprising Lee Jae Yi “Diary of Gwangju”, signed a false name to protect the author. KN��ha was banned by the authorities, but dispersed across the country in thousands of copies. The ban on the book was lifted only after the withdrawal of Chun Doo-hwan to the presidency in 1988.After returning to South Korea to democracy of the revolt was written many books and filmed a lot of movies. The most famous of the movies — “Taxi driver” was released in theaters in 2017.In 1988, the Parliament held hearings, the results of which the events of may 1980 and began to wear the official name “the Uprising in Gwangju”.In 1995 the National Assembly adopted a special law allowing it to prosecute the perpetrators of the military coup on 12 December 1979 and the Uprising in Gwangju, in spite of the lapse of time.August 26, 1996 for participation in a military coup, treason and bribery, was sentenced former President Chun Doo-hwan (sentenced to death) and also had time to visit the President, his political ally, Roh Tae-Woo (sentenced to 22 years in prison). Upon appeal in 2007, the sentences were commuted: life sentence for Chun Doo-hwan, 17 years of imprisonment for Roh Tae W. 22 Dec of the same year, President Kim young-Sam pardoned both in the name of “national reconciliation”.In 1997, may 18 was officially declared by day of memory. In the mourning ceremonies at the cemetery have repeatedly attended by the presidents of the Republic of Korea.Photo: ReutersВ may 2017 President moon Jae-In promised to launch an investigation to clarify the role of the government in suppressing the uprising.In 2017 the same year was published a memoir of Chun Doo hwan in which he denied that during the uprising, the army shot the inhabitants of the city with helicopters. Statements by a priest from Gwangju, who witnessed the shooting, the ex-President called a lie. Relatives of the priest gave to Chun Doo hwan a lawsuit accusing him of libel, and won. In February of 2018 was the first time officially confirmed that the army used helicopters to fire on civilians. Defence Minister song Yong Mu brought about this formal apology.In November of the same year a different Minister of defense, Jung Kyung Doo, officially apologized for the rape committed by the armed forces during the uprising in Gwangju. In the course of a government investigation identified 17 cases of sexual violence, including against minors and one pregnant woman. The investigation was launched in may 2018 after the participant of the event, Kim sung-OK said in a televised interview that she was raped by an investigator during questioning.May 12, 2020 has begun work the Commission on investigation of circumstances of the use of military force against participants of civil protests in Kwangju in may 1980. It is planned that the Commission will operate for two years with ��omonim extension activities for another year.Photo: YONHAP / EPA / Vostock Photo18 may 2020 at the cemetery in Gwangju, where are buried the victims of the events of may 1980, they held a memorial ceremony attended by South Korean President moon Jae-In. While in Seoul last weekend at the initiative of civil society activists column of about 70 cars drove through the city to the house of ex-President Chun Doo-hwan, urging him to apologize for the massacre in Gwangju and to cooperate with the Commission of inquiry into events in the city. In the back of a truck traveling in the convoy, it was found stuffed Chong, kneeling with bound hands behind his back. At the home of former President drivers together pressed on the horn, expressing their outrage.At the next session of the National Assembly (Parliament) of the Republic of Korea Joint ruling democratic party plans to introduce a bill on liability for insulting the participants of the uprising and the distortion of its history.Alexey Alexeev