Higher temperature – more damage
low-water periods in Kyrgyzstan – not anything extraordinary. They happened, happen and will happen. This is independent from the will and desires of man event. However, it is directly related to global climatic processes, which today who not only says. Unfortunately, the higher the temperature on the planet, the longer and more frequently will become dry periods in the Republic, causing the CU economy, especially agriculture, increasing the damage.
that this threat is real, Kyrgyzstan could not verify since 2008. In that year, as was officially claimed, due to adverse climatic conditions, the Toktogul reservoir, which is the largest in CU eponymous hydroelectric, filled with less than usual. The result in winter energy were forced to enter the country’s rolling blackouts.
Then the same problem come up several times during the next eight years. The only difference is that the government is not deprived of heat and light of ordinary consumers, but only restricted the export of CU produced in kilowatt-hours. So, for example, was in 2013-14. The same reason – a shortage of water in the rivers, especially in Naryn, which feeds the Toktogul reservoir.
Unusual mode and other moments
Experts-optimists argue that there is no need for concern. They say that an unpleasant situation has happened many times over the long history of observations, and always dry periods followed by seasons with heavy rainfall. However, there are several points that do not allow to agree with them.
first, starting in the middle of 90-ies of the last century, the Toktogul waterworks facility is operated in an unusual mode. The reservoir is intended primarily to provide moisture Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan in the irrigation period from approximately may to July. To do this, water should accumulate in the fall and winter. During the Soviet Union the way it was.
But after a gap of regional economic relations of the hydropower plant started to operate in the so-called energy mode, when the water is discharged in the cold season for power generation to cover the needs of the domestic market. This mode of operation makes the dam vulnerable to dry periods after the winter, the reservoir does not have time to fill and can not provide the irrigation needs of the neighbors.
second, in the country today, unlike the Soviet times, every year an increasing shortage of electricity. According to the JSC “Electric stations”, its consumption in CU is growing at about four percent per year. And new capacities are introduced – the country their money is no external investors to help�� not in a hurry because of too low tariffs for electricity to population and business. It is clear that in this scenario, any low-water period – it is not good. And if he still will take several years.
thirdly, – ay, Greta Thunberg is an urgent problem of global warming. No matter what, but it manifests itself today in all its glory. In summer, the temperature in the CD in recent years up to 50 degrees above zero and in winter in the mountains less snow falls than need to maintain normal water level in the rivers. Now, to some extent, saving the melting glaciers, but at this rate this will be enough, as it was estimated by scientists to a maximum of 2050-70 years.
These facts today, and forced to accept low-water periods in the country rather than as a matter of course, which comes and goes, but as a kind of “black mark” or using fashionable nowadays the terminology of “black swans”.
Collaboration with claims
meanwhile, the region in which there are such countries as Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, is one of the most vulnerable to the effects of global warming. “Today there is a rise in temperature, melting glaciers, reduction of water resources, and natural catastrophes such as droughts and floods occur more often,” reads the study by the world Bank (WB).
In the international financial Institute of stress: as a result of the economies of these States are already harmed.
“the Main vulnerability of the region to climate change that the developing countries largely depends on the state of natural water resources. More than half of the population of Tajikistan, for example, receive income from agriculture… In Kazakhstan, 66 per cent of the land prone to drought, and, according to forecasts, the grain yield in the Republic by 2030 could be reduced by one third, and by 2050 – 50 per cent… By the end of the XXI century desertification threatens half of the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic”, – noted in the study.
As suggested in the WB, in order to avoid environmental disasters will allow cooperation in the field of water resources. But, unfortunately, this is the area where today the bordering States has a reciprocal claims.
So, mountain Kyrgyzstan gives rise to many large and small rivers feeding the other countries of Central Asia. Part of them is of great importance to neighboring Kazakhstan, agriculture which depends on the conditions of transboundary waterways. Simply put – rivers formed by melting glaciers in the Kyrgyz mountains. Two of them – the Chu and Talas rivers, according to scientists, could disappear.
Kyrgyzstan insists that the neighbours had allocated enough funds for the maintenance and repair of infrastructure.tours, ensuring the supply of sufficient water volume in RK. Moreover, similar requirements apply to Uzbek authorities. Kazakhstan, in turn, interested in the fact that water was supplied in sufficient volume and in conformity with, but today is faced with the negative consequences of reducing the level of both rivers.
In Kyrgyzstan in 2017 the State program of development of irrigation (the PCG). Its main purpose – bringing order to the technical condition of irrigation and water distribution systems, equipment, introduction of modern methods of irrigation. According to the Department of water management and melioration of the Kyrgyz Ministry of agriculture, the programme will run until 2026, it is planned to allocate about 60 billion soms. As noted in the Department, particularly in the PCG reflected measures to strengthen control over the use efficiency of irrigated land, the exclusion their exclusion from agricultural use. “Private producers are advised not to wait for help from the state, and to invest in improved maintenance and operation of on-farm irrigation networks”, – noted in the Department.
Vladimir Lipkin, head of the hydropower laboratory, Institute of water problems and hydropower of NAS KR
the Toktogul reservoir while meeting the needs of Kyrgyzstan in electric power, but this does not mean that people can recklessly waste it. Water is a limited resource. From 2009 to 2014 electricity consumption in Kyrgyzstan increased by 47 percent. Thus increased load on the electrical network that we have is quite old. If we want to avoid accidents and rolling blackouts, you need to learn how to effectively and wisely use our energy resources.
Not hard to save, but to be wise energy consumers. This does not mean that you have to restrict your comfort. Fortunately, modern technologies allow you to have a lot of instruments without excessive costs. It is important to choose the right heaters, electric stoves, refrigerators and other appliances. The insulation of houses and apartments, also saves electricity by 20 percent.
Kyrgyzstanets, living in an apartment with a gas stove, without electric heating, with a large refrigerator, air conditioning, 14 lights, a washing machine, a microwave, a month pays 300 to 600 soms for electricity. Applying energy-saving technologies can reduce consumption by up to 200-300 kilowatt-hours, therefore to pay a penny to about 200 kgs per month.