looked Like a steam tram on the Sparrow hills and in 1930-e years have moved a house on Gorky street? Video reconstruction of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and unexpectedly discovered autograph music unknown works of Dmitry Shostakovich. The funds of glavarkhiv Moskvy stored the real treasures of our history: millions of documents, records, photographs and other artifacts. From them we can learn how to look Moscow 50 and 100 years ago and how our ancestors lived.
the Main archive Department of the capital in its modern form appeared in 2003 on the basis of the Moscow city Association of archives. And in 2013, when it was created the Central state archive of the city of Moscow. He combined pre-existing multiple meetings. Today it is the largest archival institution in the capital.
“we Can say that the main goal of our work is to preserve the historical memory of the inhabitants of the capital and the whole country. Our data are available at exhibitions, in publications of archival sources and historical research. In addition, anyone can request the document through the portal of the Mayor of Moscow mos.ru or find it in the reading room Glavarhiva. Also we are working on the declassification and publication of archival documents, stored personal documents and archival collections that have historical and cultural significance,” — said the head of the Main archival administration of Moscow Yaroslav Onopenko.
Millions of documents related to the history of the city and its inhabitants occupy several buildings. A large part of the stock — materials from the second half of the eighteenth century to the present day. If you put them on a shelf, its length would exceed 100 kilometers in length it is comparable with Moscow, said Larisa Shadieva, Director of the Central state archive of Moscow.
to See the archives in the three reading rooms on Union and International streets. According to Larisa Shallaway, they are always a lot of visitors. Forced interruption happened due to the complex epidemiological situation, but archivists are ready again to open reading rooms as soon as you remove restrictions.
Most people are looking for in the archives the documents confirming work experience, various awards and relationships. “A significant number of people are turning to the archives on issues related to property matters. It is the decisions and orders of Executive bodies, necessary for the confirmation of the rights to objects of real estate: apartments, residential premises, buildings,” — says the Director of the Central state archive of Moscow.
From across the country come requests for birth, marriage and death of relatives who lived 100-150 years ago in Moscow and Moscow province. “Surprisingly, the documents of such venerable age still peeledbawany for legal purposes. This is required to confirm the familial relationship, such as registration rights to the burial plot,” explains Larissa Shadieva.
the archives are scholars and students: they are interested in the history of Economics, culture, religion. They learn the facts from biographies of famous people or find out about specific enterprises and institutions. Information searching researchers, historians studying the history of settlements included in the composition of Moscow and Moscow region. In addition, archives often required restorers, restoring old buildings.
more and more Muscovites are interested in the family tree. “The majority of people coming to the reading rooms with such request. We have records for noble families of the Moscow province, the posemejnyj list of merchants, burghers and revision lists. All very surprised at this title, and in fact, census tales is the results of the census. Before they were called revisions, and tales is a census sheet with information about people. The census was conducted for tax purposes until the mid-nineteenth century,” adds Larissa Shadieva.
to Find information about people help metric books of churches before 1917, performed the functions of a modern Registrar, personal Affairs of students and teachers of higher education institutions and confessional statements.
the staff of the archives — archivists — not just technical workers. Take to work of people with special education. “Archivists have to solve many diverse tasks — from submission of documents and account until create an insurance Fund in case of unforeseen circumstances and Fund use. Is the digitization of documents, the execution of a large number of queries, the service users in the reading room, preparation of exhibitions and publications,” — says Larissa Shadieva.
Among the employees of the Central state archives of Moscow a lot of young professionals well-versed in the latest technologies archives.
a Leading archivist document storage of personal collections in Moscow:
— since childhood I liked history. I loved to disassemble old photographs, read letters from relatives from the front, to study the old things of my grandparents. After high school I joined the history Department and during his studies he came to work in the archive.
I have been creating finding AIDS to the documents, study them yourself and help other researchers find information. In my work I enjoy the opportunity to deal with the materials of another era, with documents of famous people: scientists, writers, artists, architects, and politicians. They can find interesting personal notes of the authors, their references to current events.
Archives is the memory and the memory we need in the modern world. Man without history is doomed, in my opinion. Therefore, documents are needed for future generations were able to learn their history.
Among the millions of documents in the Moscow archives are truly invaluable to science. One of the oldest copies of the collection, for example — “the legend of the Foundation of the monastery in Katunskiy parish.” This is a copy of the monastery Synodikon of 1602, made in the early XVIII century. Since the original was lost in a fire in 1901, the document is a unique source of information about the history of the ascension of David desert.
17 archival documents included in the state register unique. This metric books of XVIII–XIX centuries with records of place of birth, baptism and marriage of famous poets, writers, historians and scientists, including Alexander Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, Nikolai Gogol, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Nikolay Pirogov and others.
the collections include genealogical books with the emblem of a kind of Pushkin and Lermontov, the case of admission to the University of Boris Pasternak, sketches of illustrations for the poem by Nikolai Gogol’s “Dead souls” albums with postcards, photos and articles about Anton Chekhov and many more.
the Archives study for many years, but still among the thousands of files and folders sometimes find something new. So, last year, the archivists found a previously unknown autograph of Gogol. The writer personally signed Assembly record about the birth of his godson Nikolai Yazykov.
“Any such discovery, any discovery in archives is not accidental. It is the fruit of long hard work. But, of course, the archive has a lot of secrets, undiscovered documents. Recently while working with the Foundation documents of the musician Vadim Borisovsky was discovered autograph music previously unknown works by Shostakovich”, — said the Director of the Central state archives of Moscow.
Old documents are stored in special conditions: at a temperature of about 16-18 degrees Celsius and humidity 50 percent. Especially stringent about fire safety. The documents themselves are put in folders of acid-free cardboard boxes, which are applied to special codes. This is an archived name helps you quickly locate the document. The most valuable items stored in separate rooms.
“For safety, we strictly follow. It is our main task — not only to use, but the main thing is to preserve documents for posterity,” — emphasizes Larisa Shadieva.
There are in archives and folders marked “secret.” Stored documents not available even to most archivists. Open them all after years by the decision of the special Commission.
In recent years, in the capital of glavarkhiv was declassified more than 11.5 thousand ��document period of the great Patriotic war. Is information about the work of the Moscow regional and city committees of the CPSU, staff of the partisan movement in Moscow region data on the production of defense products, local antiaircraft defence, building of gasoleros and much more.
“For declassification is a complex procedure. Each document separately considered by the experts, compiled a report which the Board collectively considers and makes a decision. If the information in the document is not secret, it is introduced into scientific circulation”, — explains the Director.
not only Declassified military documents. Recently, the secrecy was removed from the documents of the Moscow Prosecutor’s office for the years 1939-1959, and with some instructions, requirements and reports of the pre-revolutionary period. In particular, there was published an urgent secret telegram about the explosion in the Winter Palace in 1880, directed the Moscow Governor-General.
the Funds of the archive, which occupies several large buildings, is not only paper documents. Here is stored a huge number of movies, photos, audio and video, technical drawings and personal belongings. In personal meetings, for example, there are home appliances, clothes, furnishings, musical instruments, games. “We are not a Museum, but when we transfer personal funds, we take the totality of the documents and items that have kept people,” — says Larissa Shadieva.
the Fund architect Alexander Vlasov, for example, in addition to the drawings, there is a collection of engravings of the XVIII century. And in the collection of the artist Oleg Pavlov were works of his famous grandfather of Alexei Savrasov. the numismatic items: ancient coins, money of the Russian Empire, Austria-Hungary, England, Greece, and even a necklace of silver kopecks of the sixteenth century.
last year, the General records office and centres of public services “My documents” launched the campaign “Moscow — caring for history.” The participants greatly enriched the collection of historical items. Anyone could pass the storage of objects and documents of the great Patriotic war. From family heirlooms Muscovites gathered exposure to a virtual Museum. https://vov.mos.ru/ “It’s a helmet, tunic, tablets, binoculars, metal badges, patches, concentration camp prisoners, the ring of the grenade, duffel bag. Gave us a map of the General staff of the red army, which belonged to the Colonel of artillery Fyodor Leonov,” — said the head of the Central state archives.
an Entire division dedicated to photography. Keep over 300 thousand negatives from 1896 to the present. The oldest sights of Moscow of late XIX century. You can see the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, panorama of Novodevichy and Simonov monasteries, a steam tram on the Sparrow gthe ora. The collection and candid photos, for example the frame of the inauguration of the monument to Alexander II in the Kremlin.
“Of the more modern and interesting collection of architect B. Marcus. This is the colored slides 1960-1980-ies, which show historic mansions, monuments, urban historic buildings,” — said the head of the Central of glavarkhiv Moskvy.
Once on the archive shelves there are more than 4.5 thousands of film documents, Dating from between 1936 and 1992, and the same number of videos from 1988 to the present. The newsreel can be seen as moved house on Gorky street, was reconstructed Arbat square, conducted archaeological excavations in the centre of Moscow and met the world festival of youth and students.
Larissa Shadieva especially singled out video collection chronicling the rebuilding of the temple of Christ the Savior. In the 1990s the staff of the archival Agency weekly filmed the scene and were able to capture all phases of construction. To bold frames they even hired a helicopter and filmed the process from the air.
in addition, files are stored more than 13 thousand sound recordings — audio recordings on magnetic tape, compact discs and phonograph records. In the storage of audiovisual documents, there are materials from the personal collections of journalists (from performing artists to politicians), recording recitals and political events of the 1990s years.
Despite good care, any media sometimes in need of restoration. Of glavarkhiv in Moscow there is a great lab ensure the preservation of archival documents. There is a highly skilled art restorers can restore valuable artwork collections, sometimes collecting them literally in pieces.
a Second life here give old paper with creases, tears and fading text. Each year the specialists of the laboratory restored more than 200 thousand pages of archival documents. Last year, for example, through their hands passed the parish register of St. Nicholas Church on the Sands for the year 1850, which preserved the autograph of Nikolai Gogol.
Archives have been increasingly transferred to digital format. This makes the material more accessible. “We have huge volumes, to translate everything into a number is difficult, but the work goes on rapidly,” — said the head of the Central state archives of Moscow.
In the electronic form has already been transferred, digitised thousands of items. Archivists try to follow the latest developments in this area. They use high-tech equipment for the careful scanning, because not every technique is suitable for working with valuable materials. “It is necessary to scan documents without damage, while some is quite impossible to scan. Our equipment is very sophisticated, and specialplates of very high qualification,” said Larisa Shadieva.
the priority of the demanded documents. The fastest is the digitization of materials for genealogical research. In the figure, translate the documents of the authorities of Moscow, registers of births, revision lists tales.
plans to create a great place to live the electronic reading room. “To develop a special electronic system. In a figure transferred to inventory most recently used documents. On the website of the archive is already located about 2.5 thousand of inventories of archival files, which can be home to look, choose and then order the documents in the reading room,” — says the head of the archive.
“Our goal is to translate as many documents as possible online. But a very important task for archivists is still to preserve the most valuable original documents,” — says the Director of the Central state archives of Moscow.