Exactly 30 years ago, Russia became a sovereign. That day the first Congress of people’s deputies of the RSFSR adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty. It took the deputies were not aimed at the collapse of the Soviet Union, but hoped that through this document, the Federation will be able to defend their right to conduct independent social, economic and political life. Exactly one year later, this day was held first in the history of Russian presidential elections won by Boris Yeltsin.

on June 12 the Russian Federation celebrates Day of Russia. Earlier this holiday was called literally the Day of adoption of Declaration on state sovereignty of Russia, or simply the independence Day. Historical date, which is tied to this celebration — June 12, 1990, the day Russia adopted its Declaration of sovereignty, which irrevocably changed the history of our country.

the Collapse of the Soviet Union, a very long process, and although the fact this event was recorded on 8 December 1991 in the Bialowieza forest, the preconditions and even the beginning of the collapse have to say much earlier.

In 1990, the Soviet Union experienced a period of “perestroika”. The society showed the update query, the reforms, the desire to solve the accumulated socio-economic issues.

however, Moscow has experienced very tense relations with the Union republics.

the article 72th of the Soviet Constitution of 1977 said: “each Union Republic retains the right freely to secede from the USSR”. Moreover, article 76-th it was assumed that the Constitution of the Federal Republic “peculiarities” of the regions. However, in reality there is no serious constitutional norms are not considered, and the attitude of the Republican institutions and authorities — the Supreme Soviets — was, by and large, indulgent.

And yet, the restructuring has changed this order of things. Already in 1990, all the Soviet republics had virtually ceased to pay Moscow taxes.

two years had already began to flare up Karabakh conflict (the actual war between the two then the Union republics — Armenian and Azerbaijan SSR). And on 9 April 1989 the Soviet army and Internal troops forcibly dispersed the “anti-Soviet” opposition rally in Tbilisi.

Finally, on 12 June 1990 from the Union began to come out of the main and the greatest Republic of the RSFSR.

that day the first Congress of people’s deputies of the RSFSR adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty of Russia. This document proclaimed the supremacy of the Russian Constitution the law that was nearing its end the last months of the Soviet Union.

the consideration of the agenda item on the sovereignty of Russia deputies of the RSFSR began at a meeting on may 22. One of the initiators the adoption of the Declaration was the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Vitaly Vorotnikov.

“Why, it so happened that Holy, reverent name, the name which lived many generations of our ancestors, which they pronounced proudly, why this name, which has always been the symbol of ascetic work, great achievements, why is it faded? Why it hears a reproach to those who should continue and develop the traditions of a great nation? We must have all the attributes of real independence, their economic, political, cultural structure, not only its own flag, emblem and anthem, but its solid independent policy… I propose that the Congress adopt the Declaration of sovereignty of the Russian Federation, — said Collars from the rostrum.

Almost every regional group of deputies proposed a version of the Declaration. Then was created the ad hoc drafting Committee which presented the final draft of the document, having considered all offers. The adoption of the Declaration was preceded by several days of heated debate and discussion of each item. In General, the deputies introduced more than 200 amendments. Work on the document lasted until June 12.

that day the balance of votes was such: 907 — in favor, 13 against, and 9 abstained. The result of his long work, the deputies welcomed, applauding standing.

meanwhile, Moscow saw the purpose of the Declaration is not an irreversible collapse of the Soviet Union and the movement for change in society and politics.

In Parliament, he said, is also expecting a change, a push which will give the Declaration. “The mood at the time of the adoption of the Declaration was positive. The vast majority of the population and deputies were for the adoption of such a Declaration, because she was humbled restored Russia’s status, which has now become an independent state”, — said Isakov.

Declaration consisted of 15 items. The most pressing of these was paragraph 5, which said about “the supremacy of the RSFSR Constitution and RSFSR Laws on the entire territory of the RSFSR”. It was stated that “the acts of the USSR contradict to the sovereign rights of the RSFSR, shall be suspended by the Republic on its territory.” In addition, the Declaration guaranteed the Russians the “established rights” of citizens and Nations, established “the Republican citizenship of the RSFSR” and stressed the need for a new Constitution of the RSFSR.

This question created some legal conflicts as at the national level, and within the RSFSR.

“Well, said the autonomen, you see, as well as Russian laws priority over Federal laws Tatarstan, Bashkiria, Mordovia, and so on should have precedence over Russian laws. And so, the Russian Federation by this logic, he turned from the constitutional Treaty: the basis is not the will of the people, and the Treaty between the republics”, — said people’s Deputy of the RSFSR, and one of the authors of the current Russian Constitution Viktor Sheinis in an interview, “Yeltsin centre”.

the adoption of the Declaration on state sovereignty marked the beginning of an irreversible process of further deepening of the collapse. The example of Moscow was followed by the rest of the country. The parade of sovereignties.

6 August 1990, Boris Yeltsin pronounced his famous phrase: “Take as much sovereignty as you can swallow.”

in Parallel, the conflict between the center and the republics deteriorated further, “war of laws” has developed into a new stage. Defending the sovereignty of the RSFSR adopted a number of decisions limiting the application of Federal laws and Federal authorities on the territory of the Republic.

Exactly one year after the adoption of the Declaration on state sovereignty of Russia, 12 June 1991, was the first in the history of the RSFSR nationwide open presidential election, which saw the victory of Boris Yeltsin.

In the streets of Moscow there were thousands of people who were carrying a huge tricolour flag of the new Russia. 1 July 1991 it was declared a state.

Since 1992 June 12 was day, and in 1994 was declared a public holiday. In 2002 the holiday was renamed to “Russia Day”.