October revolution, civil war, dictatorship, famine, destruction, the construction of socialism and the rejection of it, banditry and separatism, which ended with the collapse of the state. Survived a multiethnic country. Guess its name. Hint: first letter is “C”.First договорившиеся1 July 1960 was proclaimed the independence of the Somali Republic from the two colonial powers from the UK and Italy.A new independent state emerged as a result of the merger, the Trust territory of Somalia under Italian administration (former Italian Somalia) and gained independence five days earlier on 26 June 1960 the state of Somaliland (former British Somalia).The next release of African countries from colonialism were warmly welcomed by the Soviet Union. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev sent a congratulatory telegram to the Prime Minister of Somalia Abdullahi Issa.At the celebration held on 1 July in Mogadishu, the capital of the Somali Republic, was attended by a Soviet delegation headed by Minister of the USSR Nikolai DIGEM. The correspondent of “Izvestia” Stanislav Kondrashov transferred to Moscow: “the Holidays always end quickly. This quickly passed and the first real holiday of Somalia. Taking a commemorative photo albums and stamps issued before independence Day, dispersed foreign delegations. Removed the flags, removed the lights, and Mogadishu became small and quiet, not the capital, the African city. On the street again poured the Italians in short pants, and shirts untucked. Mogadishu and the poor has risen again to their miserable huts on the hill-Bur-Carole, where, it seemed, it was easier before the deadline to make a way to heaven. But now, we know that it increasingly will descend to earth, descend into the center of Mogadishu, feeling that she is the master of this city, and the whole of this land, whose name is pronounced so soft, delicate and melodious Somalia”.Together with the emergence of a new state emerged and its territorial claims to the neighbors. Three areas mainly populated by ethnic Somalis, not part of the Somali Republic. In 1948 Britain handed over Ogaden to Ethiopia. Part of Kenya, which in 1960 was still a British colony, was part of the Northern frontier district and, historically, the southern part of the Somali region Jubaland. The Somali family clans deer apply to the people of Issa, one of the two main peoples that inhabited French Somali Coast, which had the status of overseas territory of France.Before the granting of independence to British Somalia, the UK government promised that all Somali-populated areas will be part of a single state. However, this did not happen.In 1962, the greatBritain has spent in the Northern frontier district of Kenya, a referendum in which the majority voted for annexation to Somalia. But Kenya gained independence in 1963, gave the Northern border district neighbors. In the region there is an insurgency, supported Somalia. The Kenyan government called the rebels “shift” (bandits). The armed conflict lasted until 1967, when the rebel forces were finally defeated by the Kenyan army.Setback for Somalia and ended the border conflict with Ethiopia in Ogaden.In 1966, violence erupted on the French coast of Somalia. In 1967 there was a referendum on the future of the territory. Issa voted for independence with the hope for subsequent connection to Somalia. Afar — for it to remain part of France. Defeated supporters of the preservation of the status of overseas territory. Somalia accused France in massive violations and falsifications during the referendum.Support from the Western countries to neighbouring States has forced Somalia to seek a strong ally. 11 September 1960 established diplomatic relations of Somalia with the Soviet Union. By the end of the year, the staff of the Soviet Embassy in Mogadishu consisted of about 300 people.The first pommeranian of the Soviet Union and Somalia has developed rapidly. In April 1961, in Mogadishu was visited by a Soviet delegation headed by Minister of the USSR Mikhail Lesechko. He has brought to Moscow the message of the Somali government requested the economic and technical assistance and the provision of long-term credit on favorable terms. After a month in the Soviet Union arrived with the official visit of the Prime Minister of Somalia, Ali Abdirashid Shermarke. He laid a wreath at the mausoleum of Lenin and Stalin, made a tour of Moscow, visited Leningrad, Tashkent and Baku.During the visit, Shermarke was signed an Agreement on economic and technical cooperation between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Somali Republic.The Soviet government agreed to grant Somalia a loan in the amount of 40 million RUB (1 RUB was equal to 0.987412 grams of pure gold). Within this amount, the Soviet government agreed to help the Republic of Somalia in developing agriculture through the organization of three state farms (crops and cattle breeding farms and a school for the training of agricultural experts, cotton with irrigation facilities and agriculture oilseeds), in the construction of a dam with a hydroelectric power plant with a capacity of 25 thousand kW, seaport, three food industry enterprises in geological prospecting for tin and lead, as well as in drilling water wells for the needs of livestock and the construction of other objects. In addition, to Fundtion of works of the USSR in Somalia promised to supply the Soviet goods in the amount of 7 million rubles. Repayment of loans and interest payments had to be at the expense of deliveries to the Soviet Union of Somali goods, including cotton, oilseeds, raw hides.In 1962 in the Soviet military schools were accepted for training the first 50 troops from Somalia. The Soviet Union provided Somalia a loan of $32 million to modernize the army and increase its population.In August 1963, Abdirashid of Cermark again came to Moscow. Before that, he had to give up us military aid, saying the United States has offered him the worst weapons than they provided in Ethiopia. About the best weapons, the Prime Minister was able to negotiate in the USSR.Photo: Yuri Abramochkin / RIA Novosti 1964 in Somalia began to arrive in huge quantities of Soviet military equipment: fighter planes, the MiG-15 and MiG-17 transport aircraft an-12, Il-28 bombers, helicopters Mi-8T, T-34, T-54 and T-55, anti-aircraft, armored vehicles, cannons, howitzers, mortars, Kalashnikov rifles, Makarov pistols, the UAZ-462, GAZ-66, ZIL-131, “Ural-375”.Built airfields, landfills, and other military installations. The military construction involved, Soviet specialists with the participation of local workforce.In 1965, the Soviet Union began to create a Somali trade and the Navy. Built a new pier in the port of Berbera, the number of merchant ships in ten years has grown from 3 to 20 (Soviet freighters came in Somalia and after unloading remained there, replacing the flag on Somali). The Navy received more than 20 torpedo, patrol and landing craft.Photo: V. Ryklin / RIA Navstivene education in the Soviet Union received more than 3 thousand Somali officers.In Somalia there were hundreds of Soviet military and military technical advisors. In different years the Ministry of defence in the country was visited by about 4 thousand Soviet soldiers.In 1966, Moscow was visited by the President of Somalia Osman Daar, who was accompanied by the Ministers of foreign Affairs, defence, trade, education.The following year, Daar, lost the presidential election, became the first ever African head of state who voluntarily departed from his post. The new President was Abdirashid of Cermark. Arrived in Somalia for a return visit to the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Nikolai Podgorny already met him.But the presidency Shermarke was short-lived. In 1968, near the car he was driving from the airport, a grenade exploded. Then the President escaped death. But October 15, 1969 during a visit to the city of Laas anood guard standing on duty outside the guest house, which stopped Cermark, shot him with the rifle.Already more than half a century the reasons for this result.SPC remains a mystery. The most popular in Somalia, the explanation that he gave himself a murderer, a relative of the President. He said that Cermark treated him badly. Also there were suggestions that the murder of the President of Somalia could stand or the Soviet Union (who fought against the American influence), or commanders of the Somali army (rushing to power).20 Oct funeral Shermarke. According to the laws of Somalia’s new President was to elect the Parliament. In the capital Mogadishu were rumors that parliamentarians staged an auction for the sale of votes. Favorite was the businessman Hagi Mussa Bogor willing to pay for their election 55 thousand shillings (about $8 thousand at the exchange rate at the time).Voting did not take place. In Mogadishu there was the October revolution. Exactly a year later, in hindsight, was officially named a bloodless military coup, the head of which stood the commander of the army major General Mohamed Siad Barre.At home the first of the October revolution the October revolution of African approved. “In Somalia there is no working class, because the industry is in its infancy: there are almost no settled peasantry, and even the bourgeoisie in the modern sense of the word is missing. The local bourgeoisie is small or compradors and merchants, or those who profited by plundering the state Treasury. The only organized force in the country was the army, in whose ranks were many progressive-minded officers. They were at the forefront of the national revolution,” wrote from Mogadishu correspondent of the newspaper “Pravda” Vladimir Ermakov.The great October Somali revolucian a coup came to power, the Supreme revolutionary Council (BPC). The country was renamed the Somali Democratic Republic. VRS has assumed the powers of the President, Parliament, government and Supreme court. The Constitution was suspended. Political parties are banned. Members of the deposed government, headed by Prime Minister Mohammed Egal arrested and charged with corruption.The head of the VRS was Siad Barre. In addition to his Council consisted of 20 soldiers and 4 policemen.On the first anniversary of the coming to power of Siad Barre announced that Somalia will go towards the construction of socialism. The festivities were attended by a member of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee Dmitry Polyansky.Somali version of socialism was called “scientific socialism”, it combined the ideas of Marxism and Islam. Barre borrowed provisions not only Marx and Lenin but Mao and Mussolini. “Socialism is not a religion but a political principle,” explained Barre.The head of the VRS was declared Victorious leader on the posters he was depicted next to Marx and Lenin. Large editions were printed the quotations of the leader.In full accordance with Lenin�� teaching in may 1970 the new government of Somalia adopted the decision on the nationalization of foreign banks and companies as well as companies with mixed capital. In response, the US and Germany announced the cessation of humanitarian assistance to Somalia.Two years after the coup VRS twice found traitors in their ranks. In 1970, the first Vice-President of the VRS and the SDR, the state Secretary of internal Affairs JAMA Ali Korshel was accused of treason. In jail he stayed until 1975, when he was released, he went into business.Photo: SomaliWiki / WikipediaОдин of the leaders of the coup, Lieutenant Colonel Salaad of Kadie, a graduate of the Moscow red banner Military Academy. M. V. Frunze, was officially proclaimed “father of the revolution.” In 1971, Kadie, by the time a Brigadier General and second Vice-President of VRS and SDRs major-General Mohammed Inase and the Colonel in resignation, the chief port city of Marka and the owner of the pharmacy the Dila Abdulkadir was charged with the preparation of the attempt on the life of Siad Barre. All three were publicly executed. In the book of the British historian Christopher Andrew “Mitrokhin Archive II, The: The KGB and the World”, published in 2005, it is stated with reference to the so-called Mitrokhin archive that Cedie was a KGB agent, working under the alias of “Operator”.In 1971, the Siad Barre announced the intention to establish a political party and to give her authority. In the same year he first visited the Soviet Union, where in addition to Moscow, has visited Tashkent and Volgograd. During the visit, an agreement was reached on the construction of the Juba river dam with irrigation canals and a hydroelectric power plant on the supply of equipment for the development of agriculture and on cooperation in the development of fisheries and improving the radio broadcasting system in the Somali Democratic Republic.In July 1974 the SDR has arrived with official visit the Chairman of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet Nikolai Podgorny. Comrade Barre was awarded the distinguished guest the highest award of his country — the Grand cross of the order of the Star of Somalia.During the visit between the USSR and Somalia signed a Treaty of friendship and cooperation for a period of 20 years.For the Soviet Union, Somalia was of interest not only as a platform for the spread of socialism, but also because of its location in the horn of Africa. In Berber has a database of ships of the Soviet Navy and the airfield that can take any heavy long range aircraft. The Siad Barre formally declared the need to eliminate all foreign military bases in the Indian ocean.In addition to military advisers in Somalia worked thousands of Soviet civilians.Unwritten Somali language acquired a written language: the official became modernized Latin alphabet, which was developed by the linguist Shire JAMA Ahmed, who studied in the USSR. The country began campaign for the elimination of illiteracy, secondary education became universal and compulsory. All civil servants were ordered for six months to learn to write in Somali. Due to the Soviet geologists were discovered deposits of oil, uranium, precious metals. With Soviet help, began to develop the health care system. In Somali ports were built for oil storage. In the city of Kismayo, the largest in Africa the meat. After the drought of 1974-1975 Soviet Union has helped in implementation of the program of resettlement of nomads from the most affected areas of the country.24 February-5 March 1976 in Moscow took place the XXV Congress of the CPSU. One of the foreign guests was Siad Barre. Returning home, he promptly established the promised five years earlier the party.Somali revolutionary socialist party (SRSP) was established on 1 July 1976. At the first constituent Congress was disbanded the Supreme revolutionary Council, and appointed Siad Barre President of the Somali Democratic Republic.The Somali ruling party was created on the model of the CPSU, Politburo, Central Committee, an article in the Constitution that says the leadership of the party in solving political and economic problems of the country. The symbol of the party became framed by palm leaves hoe and sickle symbolizing the Alliance of workers and peasants against the background of the national flag — blue with white star. The Secretary-General of SRSP was the comrade Siad Barre.According to the Soviet model was established and the fighting force of the party Committee of the Somali national security (NSS). In September 1970, was published the law on national security, which the secret service had the right to arrest and detain indefinitely anyone who expresses critical views against the authorities. Also without a warrant of arrest to apprehend anyone who could pose a threat to national security. In creating the Somali intelligence services played an important role of the Soviet specialists. A senior adviser’s Advisory unit at the NSS from 1971 to 1975 he was the Colonel of KGB of the USSR Fedor Kudashkin. For his services in this position, he was awarded a diploma of the Chairman of the KGB Yuri Andropov and the order of the Star of Somalia. The main prison of the national security Committee in Mogadishu, popularly known as “Godka” (“Hole”), mentioned in the reports of the human rights organization Amnesty International in connection with the use of torture.Somalia has become a major ally of the Soviet Union in Africa. In December 1976, comrade Mohammed Siad Barre congratulated comrade Brezhnev’s 70th birthday. But in 1977, a sound of thunder.Whirlwind razvod 1974 in Ethiopia was overthrown the monarchy. Came to power, Mengistu Haile Mariam, turned contacts with the United States and took a course of rapprochement with Moscow. Ethiopia was declared a socialholisticheskoy country. In 1977, Haile Mariam launched a mass terror against “enemies of the revolution”, which killed, according to various estimates, from 100 thousand to 500 thousand people.The situation in Ethiopia decided to take advantage of Siad Barre, to fulfill an old dream of personalized — to return the Ogaden to home port.24 July 1977 the Somali army without declaring war, invaded Ethiopian territory. At the end of August Siad Barre has caused a short-term visit to Moscow, hoping to agree at least on the neutrality of the Soviet Union in the Somali-Ethiopian conflict, and even better — on the new Soviet military supplies. Barre held talks with the Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers Aleksey Kosygin, foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee for ideology Mikhail Suslov. The General Secretary of the CPSU Leonid Brezhnev did not meet with the Somali Secretary, he spent vacations in the Crimea.Barre failed to agree on anything. By late summer, most of the territory of Ogaden came under the control of the Somali military.In October, arrived in Moscow on an unofficial visit already Ethiopian leader and asked for military assistance.The Soviet leadership faced a difficult choice, which of the two allies to support. The choice was made in favor of Ethiopia: the Soviet Union had promised her military support. The operational group of the Ministry of defense of the USSR in Ethiopia was headed by first Deputy commander of land forces General of the army Vasily Petrov. Many army commanders with the Somali parties were familiar with him at the Academy named after Frunze, where Peter taught.Photo: V. Runov / RIA Новости13 November 1977 Siad Barre announced the termination of the Soviet-Somali Treaty of 11 July 1974. All Soviet military advisers were asked to leave the country within seven days, the Cuban — 24 hours. From the Soviet Union in the form of the response was exiled Somalis studying in military schools. In January 1978 the Somali government withdrew from the Union all students of civil universities.Soviet experts working in Somalia, of the best friends instantly became the worst enemies. Evacuation of Soviet citizens took place under the control of sailors and Marines. Property of the USSR was declared confiscated. Siad Barre refused to return to the Soviet loans. The country ceased to build socialism.Colonel-General Grigory Borisov, the chief military adviser in the SDR, perfectly familiar with the organization of the Somali army, after the expulsion from Somalia was sent to Ethiopia to help her protect the Ogaden.Promptly to Ethiopia from the Soviet Union via Iraq and the people’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY) were moved more military equipment than Somalia received about�� The Soviet Union for all years of friendship. Arrived in Ethiopia about 1.5 thousand of Soviet military instructors, 18 thousand Cuban volunteers and 2 thousand volunteers from southern Yemen.In early 1978, the Ethiopian-Soviet-Cuban army General Petrov began a major offensive, and by mid-March cleared the Ogaden Somali troops.Photo: E. Gabrielyan / TASSTHE the fighting killed about 40 million people in Ethiopia (including 25 thousand civilians), about 20 thousand Somalis, 130 Cubans. Died and went missing 33 Soviet soldiers.After the defeat in the Ogaden and the gap with the Soviet Union Siad Barre refocused on military cooperation with the United States. Instead of Soviet warships in the ports of Somalia to visit U.S. Navy ships, and the Somali bases began to use American military aircraft.Everything went wrong for cenopopulations of Siad Barre during the offensive in Ogaden was at its peak. After the defeat in the war, his credibility plummeted.9 APR 1978, a group of soldiers under the command of Colonel Mohamed Osman Irro attempted coup. According to the CIA, in the action against Barr was attended by 24 officers and 2 thousand soldiers were involved in 65 tanks. The coup was suppressed on the same day. The conspirators were tried by a military Tribunal. 17 people were sentenced to death and executed. Siad Barre was accused of conspiracy by the Soviet Union and Cuba, calling them “the new imperialists”.One of the conspirators, Colonel Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (military attaché to Somalia in the USSR from 1965 to 1968), managed to flee the country. In Ethiopia, he, along with Hasan Ali the World was organized by the Somali salvation front (SPS). It was the first organization that seeks to overthrow the Barre regime. In 1982 through the merger of SPS with two other organizations emerged the Somali democratic salvation front (SDFS). In 1981, a group of Somali immigrants in London organized by the Somali national movement (SNM). Soon SND moved its operations to Ethiopia and began to conduct operations against Somali regime. In early 1987 the Somali immigrants in Rome have established the United Somali Congress (USC), at the end of the year in Ethiopia appeared its armed wing.In Somali society is of great importance of the clan structure. There are five families of the clans: the Darod, dir, Isak, Hawiye and rahanwein. In the first years of independence, the civil service and the army in Somalia was dominated by the representatives of the family clans and the Hawiye clan majerten from the family clan Darod. Siad Barre came to power, has repeatedly said that he would fight with “Klansman”. Was officially banned even the traditional greeting “what clan are you From?”. He Barre tried to rely on members of their own clan, the Marehan, the clan of his mother’s Ogaden clan and one ��z-law dolbahante. All three clans belong to the family of the Darod. “Ruling” clans called reduction MOD.Among the clans, pushed from power, has strengthened the spirit of opposition. The participants of the coup of 1978 and the members SDFS were representatives of the clan majerten. SND was founded by representatives of the family clans Isaac. The USC was created by the representatives of the family clans of the Hawiye.The beginning of the end of the Barre dictatorship was an accident. May 23, 1986, the President of Somalia was in a car accident. While he was recuperating, a struggle for power. Feeling that he was losing control of the country, Barre stepped up the fight against the opposition.Loyal to President Barre of the elite army unit “Red berets” and paramilitary “Pioneers of victory”, consisting mainly of representatives of clans MOD, since 1987, turned the terror against representatives of the opposition clans.In April 1988, Mohammed Siad Barre and Mengistu Haile Mariam signed a peace Treaty, under which both ceased to support the rebels-separatists on the wrong side. Peace Treaty strengthened the position of the Barre in the fight against groups who lost their Ethiopian military assistance.But the main victims were civilians belonging to the “enemy” clans”. “Red berets” were systematically destroyed wells, depriving people of the clan majerten and their cattle of water. From thirst has died about 2 thousand people. The clan lost 50 thousand camels and 10 thousand cows, 100 sheep and a thousand goats. Every military operation SDFS the authorities meet the punitive operation against civilians.On the family clans and Isaac was deployed real genocide (in the literature you can even find the term “the Holocaust in Hargeisa”). The “final solution” of the issue with family Isaac suggested in a secret report the Barr, his former bodyguard, who became his daughter’s husband, General Mohammed said Hersi “Morgan”. One of the recommendations of the report was to “make uninhabitable the territory between the army and the enemy.”The entire population of the North of Somalia was perceived as accomplices of SND. Government forces burned farms, killed livestock, poisoned wells, destroyed water storage. The military terrorized the local population was arrested with the purpose of getting ransom from relatives, raped women. Suspected aid to the rebels were shot. At the end of may 1988 as a result of shelling and bombing from the air was virtually wiped off the face of the earth captured by the rebels from the DNS of the city of Hargeisa and Burao (the second and the third largest city in Somalia).In the South of the country, including in Mogadishu, the regime struggled with the family clans of the Hawiye and the USC mass killings. “Red berets” shot anti-government demonstrations. July 6, 1990 after the football match started an impromptu rally. The fans started to yell at the Siad ��Arrah and call it “Ceausescu”. One of the bodyguards opened on crowd fire from the machine (according to various estimates, were killed from 7 up to 56 people).In may 1990, 114 (the number of Suras in the Quran) public figures and former high-ranking civil servants published a Manifesto calling for the democratization of life in the country and hold free elections. Demonstration in support of the Manifesto was suppressed. 46 the signatories were arrested by order of the Barre and in a show trial in July was sentenced to death. The court building was surrounded by a crowd of thousands of demonstrators protesting against the verdict. Barre did not dare to give the order to disperse and ordered to release the prisoners. The President took refuge in the bunker at the military base near the airport.In the late 1990-th power of the USC led a successful attack on the Somali capital. January 19, 1991, they entered the capital. January 26, Siad Barre fled. Collapsed his regime that lasted for 21 years. And with it collapsed the country called Somalia. In the area where she once was, years anarchy.And eternal Pauperum large-scale consequence of the collapse of the state was a famine in 1991-1992 claimed the lives of 300 thousand people. For the delivery and distribution of humanitarian aid and end the civil war in Somalia was introduced by UN peacekeepers.May 18, 1991 in the North of Somalia was declared independent state of Somaliland, is still not officially recognized by the international community.In 1998, appeared in the East “Autonomous state” Puntland. Somaliland and Puntland there is a conflict over the ownership of districts of Sanaag and Sool, where there are oil deposits. These territories have come and gone “independent”, but gravitating to one side or the other of the conflict state.In the South of the United Somali Congress appointed the new President of Somalia, Ali Mahdi Mohammed. This appointment was dissatisfied with the Chairman of the USC graduate of the Frunze Academy, General Mohammed Farah Aideed, has also laid claim to the presidency. The fighting continued. In conflict were drawn and UN peacekeepers. Aideed felt that the UN operates on the opponent’s side. His men began to attack the peacekeepers. The United States sent in Somalia special forces to hunt for General Aideed. October 3-4, 1993 in Mogadishu was a battle between Aideed’s forces and American special forces. 19 American soldiers were killed that influenced the decision of the administration of U.S. President bill Clinton to withdraw us troops from Somalia until 31 December 1994.In March 1995, Somalia was dominated by the UN peacekeepers. 15 June General Aidid declared himself President of the country, but the international community continued to recognize President Ali Mahdi Muhammad. In 1996 Naris��this President died from battle wounds.At the turn of the century armed struggle for spheres of influence in Somalia was quiet a bit. Clan groups have managed to divide the territory among themselves. Began to have a structure that aspires to be considered by the government. In Arta (Djibouti) in April–may 2000, a peace conference was held, during which was announced the establishment of the Transitional national government of Somalia. The President was elected the graduate of biological faculty of Moscow state University Abdulkasim the Salaad Hassan.In awasa (Ethiopia) in March 2001, was established the Somali reconciliation Council and the restoration, bringing together representatives of several groups, among which was the son of the late General Aidid, Hussein Aidid.Replaced the Transitional national government came the Transitional Federal government of Somalia (TFG), which lasted from 2004 to 2012. It was recognized by the international community, but in fact controlled only part of Mogadishu. The TFG President was elected Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed.For the period of existence the TFG was the flourishing of piracy off the coast of Somalia. In 2010, the total amount paid to pirates in ransom for captured vessels amounted to $238 million hijackings off the coast of Somalia has virtually stopped in 2012 as the result of anti-piracy operations on land and primarily due to the organization of the international armed guards at sea. Over the past eight years were captured only one ship, and he was released without paying the ransom.Photo: Farah Abdi Warsameh / ARV 2006 the situation in Somalia has deteriorated. This was due to the appearance on the political scene of new major forces — the Union of Islamic courts (UIC). To counter the ICU, the leaders of the clan groups and secular businessmen formed the Alliance for the restoration of peace and counter-terrorism (AVMBT). All the leaders of the Alliance were Ministers of the Transitional Federal government.In may 2006 in Mogadishu were bloody battles between the SIS and AVMBT. In early June, the Islamists declared that the capital is under their full control. For the first time in more than a decade have earned an international airport and seaport, and the city had removed the debris. Under the control of ICU also fallen city of Hobyo, Harardheere, Kismayo.The President of the TFG Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, made the unpopular decision: he appealed for help to Ethiopia. In Somalia, Ethiopian troops entered. SIS announced Ethiopia Jihad. The battle in the town of Baidoa, which lasted from 20 to 26 December, ended with the defeat of the Islamists. On 20 December the TFG forces and the Ethiopian army took Mogadishu unopposed. Ethiopian troops were to leave Somalia “within a few weeks”, but was delayed until January 2009.The successor of the Union of Islamic courts became the new Islamic grouping “Harakat al-Shabab al-Mujaji��in”. Shortly after the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops from Somalia in 2009, the civil war in the South and centre of Somalia broke out again and continued until today. In anti-terrorist operations on Somali territory were involved, the armies of Ethiopia and Kenya. 1 Sep 2014 with the help of us drone was destroyed, the head of “Al-Shabab” Ahmed Godan. His successor was appointed Ahmad Umar. For information leading to his arrest, the U.S. state Department offered a reward of $6 million,”Al-Shabab” continues to control part of the Somali territory. The internationally recognized government of Somalia also controls part of the territory. In the North — independent Somaliland, in the North-East is Autonomous, but loyal to the Central government Puntland. Part of the territory is under the control of other groups, whose joint control, it is unclear whose control, anyone’s control. Political map of Somalia is similar to a patchwork quilt, patchwork form which is constantly changing.In mid-June 2020 Djibouti hosted the next round of talks between the leaders of Somalia and breakaway Somaliland, but no agreement on them has not been achieved.Alexey Alexeev