Six weeks after the end of the great Patriotic war and a few days before the Victory parade, from 18 to 21 June 1945, Moscow hosted the first post-war show trial — “the trial of the sixteen”. In contrast to the political processes of the 1930s years was judged not Soviet dignitaries, and foreigners — the leaders of the Polish underground. “The trial of the sixteen” had a long history and far-reaching for Poland consequences.Split Polchik the end of the Second world war very seriously got up the Polish question. Old Poland no longer existed. The new, not yet created Poland was two much not matching the territory, two governments, two parliaments, two armies. Two political structures are very different saw the future structure of society in the future of the country. But decided it wasn’t them.The first government was established as a result of the flight of Poland’s highest authorities from the country after the German occupation in September 1939. From June 1940 it was based in London. The London government was ruled by the Polish underground state, that is, organizations that are secretly operating on the territory occupied by the Germans, the Polish armed forces in the West and a clandestine military organization, the Army. The government in exile, advocated the re-establishment of Poland’s pre-war political system and the pre-war borders (including ceded to the Soviet Union Western Ukraine, Western Belarus and the Vilnius region).New year’s eve 1944 in Warsaw was held a secret conference of the friendly Soviet Union political forces, chief among which was the Communist Polish workers ‘ party. The conference was formed Craiova glad Narodowa (LCC) — the next Parliament, and while alternative to the London government authority. The Chairman of the LCC was elected a Communist Boleslaw Bierut. LCC adopted a Declaration on Alliance with the USSR and the struggle against Nazi Germany and the decree on the establishment of its military organization, the Army Ludovit.London government on 9 January 1944, said the plea LCC and created his own future Parliament — Parliament of agnosti Narodowej (REN).In may 1944, a few representatives of LCC crossed the front line and reached Moscow. 21 July in the capital of the USSR was established the Polish Committee of national liberation (PCNL), who later was to become the government of Poland. On 26 July, the Soviet government recognized the authority of PCNL in the liberated territories. The residence of the first PCNL was the helm, and from August 1, Lublin.Stalin, Churchill and Tolstoyts: Charles Gorry, Hardouvelis could not last long, and the London government had tried to negotiate. July 30, 1944 arrived in Moscow the head of the Polish government in exile, Stanislaw mikolajczyk, accompanied by the Chairman RENN Millislava Grabski and Minister of foreign Affairs, former Ambassador of Poland to the USSR Tadeusz Romer.The first person he met mikolajczyk in Moscow, was the British Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Archibald Clark Kerr. The Ambassador advised me to accept the Soviet demands: to remove from the government the anti-Soviet-minded Ministers, to agree to the Soviet proposals on the border, to stop blaming the USSR in the shooting of captured Polish army officers in Katyn and to reach agreement on the future government of Poland with PCNL.Not listening to the Council on the negotiations with Vyacheslav Molotov, and then with Joseph Stalin, the Polish delegation did not want to make concessions on the question of the border, and not immediately agreed to talks with PCNL.On 1 August, on the third day of the delegation’s stay in Moscow, began the Warsaw uprising.From the conversation of Stalin with a delegation of the Polish government in exile in Moscow on 3 August 1944:”Tov. Stalin said that Churchill wrote to him that mikolajczyk wants to come to Moscow and asked whether he agreed, comrade. Stalin, to take Mikolajczyk. While Churchill stated that he believes that the main purpose of the visit of Mikolajczyk is to unite the poles, and expressed the hope that he, comrade. Stalin, to help poles in this case. He, comrade. Stalin agreed to do it. In its opinion, speech can go about a relationship between two forces relevant to Poland. This question is difficult to circumvent.Mikolajczyk replied that he does not want to circumvent the issue. He wants to be in Warsaw.Tov. Stalin replied that Warsaw from the Germans.Mikolajczyk said that he thought Warsaw would soon be released and he will be able to create a new government based on all the forces of Poland.Tov. Stalin says: “God Forbid that it were so”. Simultaneously the Soviet government has de facto relationships and contract with PCNL. We have to reckon with these facts.Mikolajczyk asked whether he understood this in the sense that the Polish government in London closed all the way to Poland.Tov. Stalin replied that this should be understood in the sense that before to hold talks with Mikolajczyk as the head of the Polish government, it would be good to do away with the existence of two governments — one in London and another in Chelm. He, comrade. Stalin, I agree that it would be good to join forces and create a provisional government. This would have to do the poles.”Visit the London government of Poland in Moscow proved futile. Much more important not only for Poland but for the whole of postwar Europe played another visit.October 9, 1944, arrived in Moscow for talks with Stalin, Prime Minister Winston Churchill. The conference of the two leaders of the British party has assigned the code name “Tolstoy”. Visit Churchill lasted until October 19. PEregularo the following issues were discussed: the entry of Soviet Union into the war against Japan, post-war future of Poland, the conditions of the armistice agreement with Bulgaria, a common policy in the Yugoslav question and the return of Britain to the USSR of all Soviet citizens liberated in Europe.Except for Stalin and Churchill at the talks was attended by foreign Ministers Vyacheslav Molotov and Anthony Eden, chief of British General staff field Marshal sir Alan Brooke, the U.S. Ambassador to the USSR Averell Harriman and head of military mission in Moscow, major General John Russell Deane. The talks were also attended by representatives of the PCNL and the London government of Poland. Agreement on the Polish question could be reached.December 31, 1944, the Krajowa Rada Narodowa adopted a decree on the transformation of the PCNL into the provisional government of the Polish Republic, and the post of the Chairman of the SCC was transformed into the presidency of the Republic. On 4 January, the Provisional government recognized the Soviet Union.At the Yalta (Crimean) conference of the leaders of the allied powers coalition 4-11 February 1945 discussion of the Polish question occupied more time than any other topic. The Soviet Union managed to defend its position in the question of boundaries: territorial losses of Poland in the East should have been compensated at the expense of Germany.At the conference Stalin said that it regularly receives information about the attacks of the Polish armed forces on the structure of the red army and murder of Soviet soldiers and officers. Churchill acknowledged that “the attack on the Red army is invalid”. With this position in writing and agreed to U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt.Photo: Crown/Mirrorpix/Mirrorpix via Getty Madethat Stalin received from the allies consent to the suppression of the Polish anti-Communist underground.On the penultimate day of the conference, the British delegation gave to the Soviet Ambassador to the UK Fedor Gusev “Project Poland”:”the New position has been created in Poland as a result of her complete liberation by the red army… Existing in Poland, the interim government must therefore be reorganized on a broader democratic basis c by the inclusion of democratic leaders from Poland itself and from poles abroad. This new government should then be called the Polish provisional government of national unity…That the Polish provisional government of national unity must make the commitment to hold free and does not let elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage by secret ballot. In these elections all democratic and anti-Nazi parties shall have the right to participate and to field candidates”.The US and Britain agreed to recognize the new Polish provisional government.Shatapatha diplomatic victory of the USSR in the Polish quesRosa, the Soviet side began the practical work on formation of the interim government of national unity of Poland. The Soviet leadership did not want to see in its composition representatives of the London government, created in London welcome enosti Narodowej and political parties that supported the government in exile, the National party (“Stronnictwo narodowe”), people’s party (“Stronnictwo ludowe”), Party of labor (“Stronnictwo prace”), Democratic party (“the democratic Stronnictwo”), the Polish socialist party (“Polish socialistic party”, (PPP)].8 March 1945 in the town of Brwinów by the NKVD arrested the leader of the National party and Vice-President are Happy enosti Narodowej Alexander Zverinsky.In early March, the leaders of the Polish underground received a letter from Konstantin Pimenov, the KGB Colonel, head of Department of counterespionage “SMERSH” of the 69th army, with the invitation to meet with Colonel-General Ivanov. It was the nickname of the Deputy people’s Commissar of internal Affairs Commissar of state security 2nd rank Ivan Serov, who took the 5 Mar as Advisor to the NKVD at the Ministry of public security of Poland. All the guests are guaranteed privacy and security.The former commander of the Armia Krajowa Leopold Okulicki and Vice Premier of the underground government of Stanislaw Jankowski negotiated in Warsaw, other members of clandestine political parties and REN — in Pruszkow. On 22 March, the people’s Commissar of internal Affairs Lavrenty Beria sent to Stalin and Molotov a special report from Serov:”In order to harvest in an irregular situation, the Vice-President of the London exile government of Poland Jankowski (aka chief delegate of the government in exile in Poland), as well as the underground leaders of the main political parties, which are based government in exile… we developed a legend of the meeting with the Vice President Jankowski to prevent it and the “AK” (home Army.— “B”) on the termination of various kinds of acts of sabotage in the rear of the front.After the warnings Jankowski requested a meeting with a representative of the front command for explanations on these issues. Us consent was given.March 17, Jankowski came to our address, where he was brought a number of charges in the ongoing sabotage by the “AK” in spite of the existing order on “dissolution” of the home Army.Jankowski tried to make excuses and finally put forward the question of withdrawal from the underground all the political parties that support his government. While Jankowski said he can arrange for a meeting of the leadership of these political parties with representatives of the front command, which can sodeysfor in their intention to come out of hiding…At these meetings, it was found that the leadership of these political parties has a desire to come out of hiding, but fears reprisals from the Lublin government and asks the front command to assist in those intentions. However, they are obliged to publicly announce the exit from the underground and simultaneously withdraw from the underground party members who are with them in groups of “AK”…Yesterday at the meeting, comrade. Pimenov with the Vice President Jankowski was “a plan for the forthcoming meetings with representatives of political parties”.This plan is designed for the removal of the leadership of five political parties, members of the Polish underground government, Vice-Premier Jankowski, as well as the withdrawal of the representatives of the parties constituting the underground “Parliament of agnosti Narodowej””.About the impending “withdrawal”, that is, the arrest, was informed the leaders of the Pro-Soviet Provisional government of Poland Boleslaw Bierut and Edward Osobka-Moravian. They asked anyone not to arrest, asking the time for negotiations with Moscow and the negotiations with the representatives of these parties to find out whether any of them are included in the composition of the future government of Poland.Serov’s report ended with the words “I Beg your instructions”.Jankowski and okulicki was arrested on 27 March, another 13 people the next day. All of them together with previously arrested Sveinson was transferred to Moscow and became the defendants in a show trial.Missing and agenciesare after “withdrawal” Stefan Korbonski, the ranking member of the underground Polish government, remains at large, said the government in exile about their suspicions that the leaders of the underground were taken to Moscow, there to judge. London government appealed to the Minister of foreign Affairs of great Britain Anthony Eden and U.S. Secretary of state Edward Stettinius. May 3, Vyacheslav Molotov acknowledged the arrest. Eden and Stettinius demanded the immediate release of the poles. Question about “the disappearance of 15 people,” was raised in the House of Commons of the British Parliament, and at the San Francisco conference, which discussed the creation of the United Nations.The answer was the TASS report of 5 may: “the situation is as follows… group of poles is not of 15, and from 16 people. At the head of this group is a famous Polish General Okulicki, the “disappearance” of which the British press, however, is going silent, due to the odious nature of this General. A group of General Okulicki and, above all, the General Okulicki, are accused of preparing and committing to the rear of the red army, acts of sabotage, took the lives of over 100 soldiers and officers of the red army.
This group is not “disappeared”, and arrested by the military VLastami the Soviet front and is under investigation in Moscow. This group has also been charged with the organization and maintenance of illegal radioperedach stations in the rear of the Soviet troops, which is punishable by law”.After the Soviet Union announced the arrest of the leaders of the Polish underground, Joseph Stalin gave the US Ambassador to Moscow, Harry Hopkins that we should not associate “the trial of the sixteen” with the support of the Communist government of Poland because the sentences will be severe.Photo: Tassara of internal Affairs Lavrenty Beria, and the people’s Commissar of state security Vsevolod Merkulov periodically reported to Stalin about the investigation, and then the preparation of the “trial of the sixteen (the”group Okulicki”)”. In their report dated may 31, was transferred to the court, the names of the state prosecutors and defenders, place of jurisdiction (“the so-called Oktyabrsky hall of the House unions, where a similar process”), established a timeframe for the completion of the investigation, awarding the accused of the indictment and the duration of the process (approximately three to four days). The report also stated: “the injunction to make on behalf of the military counterintelligence “SMERSH” with the approval of the military Prosecutor of the 1st Belorussian front and date them 10-15 March, i.e. a few days before the actual arrest of the accused. We also consider it appropriate to carry out the process, or at least part of it, in open court with the admission of foreign correspondents, which, in our opinion, will make a more favorable impression than if the whole process will be closed”.Processsource the media about the beginning of the process reported: “the 18th of June in Moscow, at a public meeting of the Military Collegium of the Supreme court began hearing the case of 16 of the organizers, leaders and members of the Polish underground, who, at the behest of the so-called Polish emigre “government” in London, conducted subversive activities in the rear of the red Army in the Western regions of Belarus and Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland.”The process was attended by foreign journalists. Here is what is reported by the correspondent of the Associated Press: “Sixteen leaders of the Polish underground, who was standing trial in Moscow, was accused today of involvement in the conspiracy to creation of the bloc of Western European countries, including the UK, Germany and Poland that was opposed to Russia in the “coming war””.The Chairman of the Military Collegium of the Supreme court of the USSR stated that the fifteen defendants pled wholly or partially guilty in the charges against them, including the murder of at least 594 of the Russian troops and terrorist and propaganda activities in the rear of the red Army. The prosecution said that the 12 poles under the leadership of major-General Okulickith, commandant of the Polish home Army, pleaded guilty to all the charges. Three others pleaded guilty to the charges. One has pleaded not guilty…Read deleese they were accused of having “acted on the instructions of the so-called Polish government in exile in London.” Was also charged with “negotiating with Germans”.In addition to official reports from the trial of the Soviet Newspapers printed also emotional reports from the courtroom.Charges by the highest number of articles were brought against General Leopold Okulicki. He was charged under article 58-6,58-8,58-9 and 58-11 of the RSFSR criminal code (espionage, terrorist acts and the causing with counter-revolutionary purpose of the damage to the transportation system, water supply, communications, and other state or public property, the organizational activity aimed at committing counterrevolutionary crimes).Stanislaw Jankowski, Adam, Ben and Stanislav Yassukovich was charged under the same articles, and Okulicki, with the exception of espionage.Read diesem others were accused of aiding and abetting the Commission of the above crimes (with no mention of espionage).Due to the illness of Anthony Payday the trial was postponed to a later date.Invalid of napadisilate: photo Archive of the magazine “Ogonek” / Kommersantu in September 1939 in occupied Poland there was an underground military organization, subordinate to the government-in-exile and was the main force of the resistance movement to the occupation.After two renamings since February 14, 1942, she was renamed the home Army (AK). Estimates of its population vary greatly — from 200 thousand to 600 thousand in 1944. Until the end of 1944 the main activity of AK was a struggle with the Nazi regime.After the liberation of Poland by the red army, the AK was officially disbanded on 19 January 1945. In order of General Okulicki generals AK said:Photo: B. Pushkin / photo Archive of the “Ogoniok” magazine / Commercante: mil.gauge in 1943 in the structure of the AK began to create anti-Communist military organization to fight against the Soviet occupation. Officially, this organization, called Niepodleglosc-NIE (“Independence”, just “No”), was created by the London government, on 14 November 1944 and liquidated by the NKVD in the spring of 1945.The main accused in the “trial of sixteen” General Okulicki was the head of the NIE. He was sentenced to ten years imprisonment. The leaders of the Polish underground government Jankowski, Ben and Yanukovich was sentenced to eight, five and five years imprisonment respectively. Alive from Soviet prison only got Ben. The other accused were delivered, as promised comrade Stalin, incredibly soft by the standards of Soviet yetbinding processes the sentences, a few people have even been justified.After sudatta: gurari Samarium / photo Archive of the magazine “Ogonek” / Commercantes a week after the verdict in the “trial of sixteen”, June 28, announced the formation of a new government of Poland. On 5 July he was recognized as Britain and the United States. 15 October, Poland signed the UN Charter.At the end of 1945, the U.S. Ambassador to Poland, bliss lane urged the authorities to allow the activities of the National party, arguing that “reduction in the number of political parties contrary to the spirit of the Yalta agreements and made in the Moscow agreement.”Instead of free elections, which were also discussed at Yalta, in 1946, in Poland a referendum was held. He had made three questions:Photo: wikimediaФактически poles voted for the trust or distrust of the Communist authorities. The Polish workers ‘ party and its allies have called three times to answer “Yes”, non-Communist party three times to say “no.”The referendum was preceded by the intimidation of the authorities ‘ anti-Communist activists. The vote was accompanied by large-scale fraud — ballot stuffing, destruction of ballots with “no” answers, incorrect calculation. The official referendum results were released twice. In 1946, it was announced that a “Yes” to all three questions are answered 68% of voters. Despite opposition protests and accusations of fraud in 1946, the Polish government declared the referendum fair and square. The allied powers (except the Soviet Union) called for democratic elections. In the parliamentary elections of 1947 were able to participate in only one legally operating in Poland, the opposition party — the people’s. Its supporters were arrested and killed. More than 409 thousand people, recognized as “anti-government thugs” were deprived of the right to vote. 98 opposition candidates were not allowed to vote. A large number of violations were committed during the counting of votes. In the end, “crushing victory” in the elections won by the Communists.As before the referendum of 1946 and elections of 1947 in Poland was arrived group of employees of the KGB of the USSR under the leadership of head of Department “D” of the MGB (production of means of cryptography, documents for operational purposes, examination of documents and handwriting) Colonel Aron Palkin. Colonels Palkin and Semyon Davydov, Advisor to the MGB of the USSR under the Ministry of public security of Poland, and their employees engaged in the provision of “correct” results of elections through the falsification of ballots and for the successful execution of the task were awarded orders.In 1948 with the merger of the Polish workers party and Polish socialist party was formed of the Polish Unitedtion, the working party, which will own the monopoly on power over the next four decades.Photo: wikimedia19 April 1990 the Plenum of the Supreme court of the USSR reversed the verdict of the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme court, dated 21 June 1945 on the “trial of sixteen” and dismissed the case convicted for lack of evidence.The official position of contemporary Polish and Russian authorities against Polish anti-Soviet underground is the opposite. For Poland, those who fought against communism and the Soviet Union in the last phase of the war and after, “damned soldiers”, the heroic fighters for an independent Poland. 1 March in Poland is celebrated as the Day of remembrance of the “cursed soldiers”. For Russia, these people are war criminals and terrorists operating against the red army in its rear, and preventing its struggle against the German troops.Alexey Alexeev Read more