a job Loss continue remains the most powerful crisis fear citizens, experts have found.

the Epidemic of the coronavirus was a powerful challenge for the labour market. After the introduction of the isolation work has lost almost 10% of the population. These data during the national Internet survey received experts of the higher school of Economics. 40% of study participants reported that after the beginning of the epidemic, they have reduced wages, many moved to a partial schedule, or go to “voluntary” unpaid leave. Although, as the authors of the survey, these methods cost reduction helped the labour market to adapt quickly to new conditions, job loss continues to remain one of the strongest crisis fears. Such concerns, said almost one in five, and the reduction of salaries excludes almost half of the study participants.

the crisis associated with the pandemic, turned to the labour market’s most serious challenge in years. If earlier the Russian economy was faced mainly by shocks on the demand side, it is now due forced lockdown of entire industries powerful blow received and offer. This is stated in the research center for labor studies and management at the expert-analytical NRU HSE, which in the second decade of may held Internet survey “Work and employment in the epidemic.” In it have taken part more than 5 thousand respondents from different regions of the country.

the Epidemic has led to significant losses in employment, analysts say “the Tower”. According to the study, after the introduction of the isolation work has lost almost 10% of respondents and over 30% of those who managed to save it, said that after the beginning of the epidemic lost somebody of the members of their families.

a new challenge for the labour market responded with a set of classic measures that have been used in previous crises. Thus, 40% of respondents said that after the beginning of the epidemic, they have reduced wages, and almost 20% are fully or partially deprived of bonuses. Much smaller scale of wage arrears is about 7%. “It is no wonder if to take into consideration which severe penalties are waiting for Russian company Directors in cases of late payments,” according to the study authors.

Quite active adaptation was and compression of working time: 11% of respondents were translated to incomplete working day or incomplete working week, and about 13% were sent to forced or quasiderivative leave (without pay or with partial compensation). For some enterprises, workers were forced to take sick leave, but such cases have accumulated less than 2%. However, many workers (16%) were forced for�� more than dekorativny period.

the leaders in the transfer of staff on part-time employment were the trade and service industries. Close to him was under construction, while agriculture, public administration and social security mechanism of temporal tuning used very rarely. Small businesses have used it about one and a half times more often than medium-sized or large: 15-20% versus 10-12%. Residents of large cities are faced with part-time work and forced holidays about one and a half times more often than those who live in villages or small towns.

of Course, various forms of crisis of adaptation could be used at the same time. Approximately half of the respondents experienced the effect of impairments any of the same type, almost every sixth Respondent — two, and every seventh — three and more. It is the latter group, faced with multiple adverse changes in the payment and working conditions, has suffered from crisis most strongly emphasized in the study.

“Thanks to the active price and time adjustment to the need for a quantitative adjustment in the form of a “reset” of the labour force was much less than it could be under other conditions,” according to the study authors. Simply put, people had to choose between bad and worse — the loss of jobs and reduced wages or part time employment.

although some experts think the latest measure of “hidden unemployment”, the authors of this term is not recognized, referring to the methodology of the International labour organization.

the Russian market, according to the survey, in terms of the use of the anti-crisis tools were conservative, said the General Director of Institute of regional problems Dmitry Zhuravlev.

— On this unique challenge as a pandemic, he says the traditional ways, the main of which is the reduction of wages. And all innovations are perceived as purely temporary and forced. And such conservatism is not accidental. Traditional methods have not exhausted its possibilities: why dismiss the man when he can pay less? — the expert explained.

However, as noted by Dmitry Zhuravlev, another innovation in the epidemic, the labour market still tested. Talking about the transition of employees into remote mode, which turned out to be covered by 22% of respondents. Here, the leadership belonged to sector information and communications technologies (ICT), where udalenku was transferred every second worker, and education, science and culture, where it affected every third. In other industries, the new regime did not cover more than 10-15%. Small, medium and large companies have used it about twice thicketse than micro-enterprises (employing up to 15 people) and self-employed: 25-30% vs. 15%.

the authors of the study in many branches of remote mode is considered as a forced and temporary measure, because its efficiency is difficult to assess until the end.

the Companies working in sphere of high technologies was more profitable to transfer the entire staff to work remotely, said the entrepreneur in the ICT sector Anton Chekhonin.

— In my experience I can say that the efficiency has not suffered. Companies from other industries have experienced problems in restructuring, but in the high-tech sector was inefficient to even consider an alternative in the form of a “holiday” because customers are not refused services. Of course, if possible, to transfer employees to remote mode, that the company did not lose revenue, he stressed.

According to the businessman, the alternative holiday should be considered when the employee is temporarily not paid by customers work.

associate Professor in the Department of Commercial industrial chamber of the Russian Federation “Development of human capital” Lyudmila Ivanova-Shvets believes that every organization and company based on the terms of the industry sector.

— If, for example, has closed all cafes and restaurants, management had no how to send staff on unpaid leave. For office workers easier and easier to go to udalenku. In areas where the labour supply is negligible and the high requirements for professional competences are trying to keep employees and choose the most appropriate options — save salary, offer udalenku, if possible, — said the expert.

But in areas that do not require high qualification, it is easier to get rid of such employees now and in the future find them to be just, she said.

although the restrictive measures gradually began to withdraw, the Russians continue to experience fears about their employment. So, 18% of respondents did not rule out job losses, and 48% — lower earnings in the future. Concerns about delays in payments was expressed by 12% of respondents who transfer to part-time work are 12% and 13% admit that they can be on forced leave.

At the same time to find a new job immediately or quickly counted only 25%, while 75% believed that his search will last long or very long.

Anna Kaledina