the Short reign of Peter III, which lasted only five months and four days, was marked by the event that had great importance for the whole of Russia. In February 1762 Peter III freed the nobility from compulsory service. One consequence of this legislation was the massive manor construction throughout the Empire: many of the nobles preferred the career of a quiet life in private estate.
This process lasted for a century, and left to posterity a rich architectural heritage in the form of nests of the gentry manor houses, parks, temples, official buildings. About the history of one of them — Lyublino estate, which is part of the Moscow state integrated art and historical architectural and natural landscape Museum-reserve, — in the material mos.ru and the Agency “Moscow”.
Among the early owners of the manor, known from the late sixteenth century, was Godunov Prozorovskii, Razumovsky, Urusov. The architectural complex, which has reached our times, was built by order of the retired Brigadier, Nicholas durasova (1760-1818), who bought the land around 1800.
In the biography in. still a lot of white spots. It is not even known what he looked like — there are no surviving image of a fabulously rich man who inherited 11 metallurgical plants in the Urals and a lot of land holdings in different provinces. There is only one witness, which indirectly mentioned his appearance. Visited Lublin in 1806 companion of Princess Dashkova Englishwoman Katherine Wilmot wrote:
He was not a native Muscovite. In Moscow Nikolay Alekseevich moved in the last quarter of the eighteenth century from Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk). The memory of the family preserved in the name Durasovskom lane, passing along the former border of their extensive city estate. Its center was luxurious three-story mansion with a gable and columns, built in the 1790’s by Matvey Kazakov on the order of the father of the future owner of Lublin. Today this building on Pokrovsky Boulevard, considered one of the best examples of Mature classicism in Moscow, is a national research University “Higher school of Economics”.
For first-class monuments of this style applies a three-tier main house, built on a unique for Moscow architecture of the plan — in the form of a Greek cross superimposed on a circle. The circle is composed of double row of colonnades of the open galleries.
an Unusual view of the Palace gave rise to the legend that the owner wished to perpetuate the receipt of the cross of the order of St. Anne, the form of which repeats the building. This explains the choice of the composition of the house. Version appeared on the basis of literary sources after the death in.. Not to say that he reall��there was no such award.
More than likely seen a reference to the work of the outstanding architect of the Late Renaissance Andrea Palladio and his most famous masterpiece — centric Villa Rotonda near Vicenza. Palladio has played a crucial role in the development of architecture of the XVII and XVIII centuries, arming many followers re-open them knowledge of the principles of ancient architecture, which he described in the texts and applied in practice.
As with everything related to Tarasovym, the name of the architect who built for him seven miles from the city’s Palladian Villa with a landscaped Park with a pond, it is impossible to call with confidence. Even the date of construction indicated, presumably in the range between 1801 and 1806 years.
In his memoirs, the famous chronicler of the XIX century Ivan Snegirev, who visited Lublin after the death of durasova, said that “the house is beautifully built architect. Yegorov”. As to find further references to the architect of that name in this period is not considered, which meant Ivan Yegotov (1756-1814) — author of “military hospital” in Lefortovo (now the Main military clinical hospital named after academician N. N. Burdenko) and demolished in Soviet times, the old Armory. Egotov was also one of the many architects who worked in the nearby estate of Golitsyn in Kuzminki, and in both estates of the decoration of the buildings used the same bas-reliefs.
According to another version, the authorship of the project belongs to Rodion Kazakov (1758-1803), which have a lot in common with Egorovym: both — students Vasily Bazhenov and Matvey Kazakov both went through architectural school at the expedition of the Kremlin buildings, have worked together, becoming architects. By the way, Egotov was married to the sister of Rodion Kazakov and could finish the construction in Lublin after the death of brother-in-law.
Great artistic value have restored the interiors of the Palace, which was intended not for living and for entertaining. The building carries the idea of the temple of art dedicated to Apollo, which was set up on the Belvedere, a statue of the deity once reigned over the surrounding area. Ancient stories dominate, and the internal decoration of the Palace, which was painted by a renowned decorator Domenico Scotti.
Central round hall (diameter of slightly more than 11 metres) dedicated to the morning. A sunrise reminiscent of the shape of the room, the parquet pattern with radiating from the center of the beams and the ceiling light, which shows the morning trip of the goddess Venus.
Domenico Scotti masterfully used the technique of monochrome grisaille, imitating architectural and sculptural forms. The walls of the round hall is decorated with trompe l’oeil: the seemingly three-dimensional columns are actually just painted. The sculpted layer is also two-dimensional. It is fromobrazenia the chariots of Apollo and the muses, of ritual sacrifice, allegories of music and dance.
the Round hall was used as a Grand dining room and was lit with chandeliers, sconces were added after the restoration in the 1950s on the model of the lamps of the Sheremetev Palace in Ostankino. Upstairs also housed the now-hidden orchestra niche thanks to its excellent acoustics, the music resounded throughout the Palace.
Light green symbolized summer’s day and was intended for dancing. Through the side doors could make a ceremonious round on circular galleries of the first floor during the Polonaise or cotillion.
the interior stucco — artificial marble, which was in fashion among the rich of the early XIX century and then was worth more than natural. A true masterpiece — the work of Scotty “the Feast of Bacchus on the island of Naxos”, made of canvas, which is then placed in the shade. On the walls — relief allegories of the arts and times of the year.
the spirit of the times reports collection table clock XVIII–XIX centuries presented in the Windows, and the statue of the Venus Italica is a late copy, cast from the original significant sculptor of the classical period of Antonio Canova.
Purple lounge coloured sunset sky, symbolizes the evening. The composite order columns divide it into three parts, making like a Park gazebo. Ceiling decoration and parquet allusion has just appeared in the sky, the stars and their reflection on the surface of the pond.
unfortunately, of the four original polychrome murals are painted on canvas and placed on the lower part of the arch, survived only one depicting the myth of Aktaion. The other three — “Bacchus and Ariadne”, “the trial of the nymph Calisto” and “Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne,” was performed at the surviving photographs in the 1950s.
gained fame first hospitable in the city, a great master and a man with a taste for entertainment, Durasov however, they were not sincere love. Poet and translator Mikhail Dmitriev, one of the contemporaries of the rich man, called him Satrap — that is, a tyrant, a despot, a tyrant. Not the most flattering feature.
In 1806 Durasov made in the estate of a serf theater that competed with the Sheremetev for the title of best in Moscow. The troupe consisted of 120 actors from the serfs, who studied the basics of dramatic arts right in the estate. The troupe was headed by the famous Moscow artist and teacher of the history of the serf theater durasova ended with the death of the owner, who had no family and heirs. Lublin has preserved rebuilt the theatre building, the theatre school and school for actors, and also greenhouse and other outbuildings.
In may 1818 the theatre was honoured with a visit by the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna. The owner has experienced a remarkable visit only for a month Durasov died in June at the age of 47 years.
Lublin inherited the sister of Nikolai Alekseevich. The next notable owner of the estate became the husband of her daughter fighting General Patriotic war and the writer Alexander Pisarev.
In the mid-nineteenth century the estate was purchased by merchant of the first Guild, the owner of Conan Goliaev (1822-1896), in which the Palace was rebuilt and the manor area was turned into a holiday village. The most famous tenant was Fyodor Dostoevsky, who in 1866 “was strengthened in Lublin in pleasant company.” Here, being next to the family with his sister Vera Mikhailovna Ivanova, he finished “Crime and punishment”.
Curious, but when Durasova in Lublin was not his temple. Galafeev filled this gap by buying at the Polytechnic exhibition in 1872, a wooden single-domed Church, which was consecrated in the name of saints Peter and Paul. In Soviet times it was dismantled.
the Mansion was seriously damaged during the famous Moscow tornado, 1904, the most destructive in the history of the city. Then the Palace of the lost marble statue of Apollo. Lublin who inherited from his father Nicholas Galafeev in Germany ordered a copy of “Big herculanean” of the Dresden Museum — the statue of a female figure in chiton and cloak, preserved in a Roman copy of a Greek original. Hoisted on the empty Belvedere, statue unwittingly catalyzed the legend about the cross of the order of St. Anna, in. — it began to see an Orthodox Saint, in whose honor was named this order.
In Soviet times the mansion was first turned into communal housing, then it housed the Institute of Oceanology of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and only since 2003, Lublin was transformed into a Museum.
In 2019 when landscaping archaeologists have discovered at a small depth marble female statue of the XVIII century. It learned the allegorical figure of “Silence”, which Politevich stood at the entrance to the Palace. After restoration it will return to its place.