Get in the log the highest rank is the dream of every scientist. They say that even one article in these publications is recognition that a scientist has done something very important. Your theory about the origin of Saturn’s rings for more than 30 years, but it was overshadowed by other theories, and suddenly came to the forefront. What happened?

Vladimir Black: For 400 years since Galileo Saturn’s rings, there were various theories about their origin. Among them one of the most popular is gravitational theory that the rings formed from the debris of the destroyed asteroid. It suggested that the Soviet scientists M. A. gorkavyy and Friedman. So this, and other theories have been subject to examination when the spacecraft “Cassini” in 2004, flew to Saturn and began to study its rings. Obtaining data for a variety of reasons rejected and gravitational theory, and other ideas.

And preference is given to your theory?

Vladimir Black: No, he’s not directly confirmed, but said the most important data that me and my co-candidate of physico-mathematical Sciences Sergey V. Kapranov given the opportunity to amend our theory to propose a new version of the origin of the rings.

what is it? And what you helped Cassini?

Vladimir Black: At the time, we suggested that a crucial role in the origin of the rings made by two factors: the planet’s magnetic field and superconductivity of the particles that comprise the rings. How does it happen? Ice particles randomly move in deplanatum the cloud around the Saturn. Moreover, they are “dormant” superconductivity until, when the planet is created a magnetic field. And at the same time there was a force that began to drive the particles to the magnetic equator of Saturn, which formed them into rings and they were held.

To version in for 25 years, my colleagues treated fairly skeptical.

Vladimir Black: Right. Especially to the hypothesis that the particles constituting the rings have the superconductivity, although the space around Saturn, the temperature of the rings from -163 degrees Celsius to -208 degrees. And here to us came to the aid of Cassini. He found that the rings are composed of 7% carbon and 93% of the ice. But this is not enough. Scientists from Israel have shown that a sample of similar composition and proportions behaves as a superconductor of type II. We mathematically showed how such superconductors are on the equator of the planet and are held there. And held tightly by those “addresses”, which were originally, do not change the place of residence, not moved neither vertically nor horizontally. Here are very different effects, in particular, the Abrikosov vortices, for which he received the Nobel prize, and the equation of Landau-Ginzburg theory for overprovidewriting the latest was also awarded the Nobel. Our model allows to answer many questions that remained unclear. For example, why the particles of the rings are separated or why they are only planets located beyond the asteroid belt.

by the Way, why the Earth does not have rings?

Vladimir Black: for example, because the space between the Sun the asteroid belt is well warmed by our star, destroying superconductivity. Rings can only be on planets with a magnetic field outside the asteroid belt. This model complements the unified picture of electromagnetic interactions in the Solar system. It confirms the view of Nobel laureate H. Alfven, that in the process of the origin of the rings of Saturn can be incorporated the history of the formation of the Solar system at an early stage of its development.

Scientists joke, desiring the authors of the scientific theories that they were recognized in their lifetime. In this joke a lot of truth, as most of the known theories were first called heresy, then saying that this is what it is, and then it became a classic.

Vladimir Black: Is this theory another model or reality show the future research and data processing 13-year-old experiment “Cassini”. It is possible that the origin of the rings of the other planets has the same mechanism. Perhaps it opens a new direction in space exploration, for example, the study of the natural superconductivity in the Solar system beyond the asteroid belt and other objects.