the Military situation in the Ukrainian SSR were announced on the first day of the war – June 22 1941, in accordance with the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On declaring certain areas in the USSR’s military position.” The next day, June 23, was declared a mass mobilization on the territory of military districts, including Kiev, Odessa and Kharkiv. Mobilization was subject to military service who were born from 1905 to 1918, inclusive.
on June 29, 1941 all party and government organizations frontline areas was sent to the Directive of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b) and SNK, indicating, in the shortest possible time to hold a “mobilization of all our organizations and all forces of the people to defeat the enemy,” here for the first time it was said that at the outbreak of war “addressed the issue of life and death of the Soviet state, talking about the peoples of the Soviet Union a free or enslaved”1.
decisions taken by the Central authorities in Moscow, supported by regulations adopted by the local party organizations. In this publication we present a number of documents of the Communist party(Bolsheviks) of Ukraine and local levels taken before and in the first days of the war, revealing different aspects of the mobilization policy.
These materials were declassified in 2010 in connection with the 65th anniversary of the Victory and have never been published before. Selected papers of the records still remain in secret storage.
the Process of translating civilian companies to military production, which began even before the war, illuminated in the resolution of the CC CP(b)U and SNK of the USSR from June 10, 1941 on the transfer of certain factories and construction sites in the introduction of the people’s Commissariat of ammunition people’s Commissariat of arms of the USSR (Doc. N 1). On the eve of the war, in may-June 1941 – Kiev, the Central Committee took several important decisions about the training: on the selection and secondment of workers of party committees on collecting military training (6 Jun)2 to provide engineering and technical personnel and skilled workers of Management of the engineering troops of the Kiev special military district (may 20)3 etc.
of Particular interest are documents on the ground in the first days of the war, in particular, the resolution of the Dneprodzerzhinsk city Committee of the CP(b)U of 22 June 1941 on the tasks of party organizations in the war period (Doc. No. 2). From the text it is clear what a broad range of complex tasks necessary in the shortest possible time to solve in the city, which is already two months later – on 23 August – will be occupied by the Nazis.
this category of documents include the decision of the Bureau of Vinnitsa regional Committee of CP(b)U dated 25 June 1941 about the work of the collective and state farms during the war. In connection with the departure to the front almost the entire male population of the main work in the rear, both in the city and in the village, fell on women (Doc. No. 4). Another resolution of the Vinnytsia obkom was made in connection with the performancem V. M. Molotov about the invasion of German troops in the USSR (Doc. No. 3). Vinnitsa is captured by the Nazis less than a month after the outbreak of war on July 19.
the Most recent document in the collection – the resolution of the Poltava regional Committee of the CP(b)U dated July 3, 1941 on progress of mobilization (Doc. No. 5). Here will be summed up preliminary results of the first weeks of the war, gives specific figures for the mobilization of the population and economic resources, focuses on specific aspects of the fight against the enemy on the activities of the local air defense, the combat parachute assault of the enemy, etc. Poltava will be occupied by the Nazis on September 18, 1941
Published documents are stored in RGASPI in the list of documents of local party organizations “Special folder” (F. 17. Op. 42).
Documents are reproduced with preservation of stylistic features sources, in accordance with accepted rules of spelling and punctuation. Detected typos are fixed and not specified.
Publication was prepared by the Deputy chief of Department of using of documents of rsasph candidate of historical Sciences Alexander LUKASHIN.
June 10, 1941
1. In accordance with the decree of Sovnarkom and the Central Committee of the CPSU(b) on June 6, 1941,4 the Chairman of the Kharkiv regional Executive Committee comrade. Svinarenko5 and the Secretary of the Kharkov regional Committee of the CP(b)U tov. Yepishev6, the Chairman of the Dnepropetrovsk regional Executive Committee comrade. Naydenova7 and the Secretary of the Dnipropetrovsk regional Committee of CP(b)U tov. Zadionchenko8 immediately transfer the Kharkiv sewing factory to them. And Dnipropetrovsk after Tinyakov sewing factory to them. Noncomformity Volodarsky, the Soviet Union, obliging them in two weeks to pick up Narcolepsia SSR room instead transferred Noncomformity garment factories.
2. To oblige vols. Svinarenko and Episheva immediately transfer Narcomanias USSR book factory of people’s Commissariat of the USSR in the mountains. Kharkov, trampark of Narkomprosa of the USSR in the mountains. Kharkov.
3. To oblige vols. Naydenova and Zadionchenko immediately transfer Narcomanias Soviet furniture factory narkomles of the USSR in the mountains. In Dnipropetrovsk.
Secretary of the CC CP(b)U
RGASPI. F. 17. Op. 42. D. 419. L. 69. Original. Typescript. Signed M. A. Burmistenko – autograph.
June 22, 1941
after Hearing the information Secretary of the CC KP (b)U tov. Sidorin on the mobilization and the task of party organizations, Bureau of CC of CP (b)U resolves the following:
to Consider the main tasks in this period, the party organizations of the city: the political mobilization pursued by providing maximum assistance to the recruiting office in a timely turnout mobilized to the recruiting station and deliver cars and gaztransport at drop-off points, as well as the conduct at induction and atmocnych points of mass-political work among the going into the red army and Navy.
transition of industrial enterprises on the performance chart of the current military orders for the production of special products according to the orders of the commissariats.
the Conduct of party political work among all city workers, aimed at ensuring the organization and discipline of workers, high vigilance.
1. To oblige company Directors to develop and ensure the implementation of organizational enterprises, in factories, factories, industrial plants and institutions, aimed at the smooth operation of their security tasks of the party and government.
2. To bring in full readiness of vehicles, part of the horse, subject to delivery to the army. To ensure that the supply of vehicles and horses in perfect condition.
3. To enter a special access mode at the enterprises, taking measures to strengthen their protection, particularly of special facilities, and vital centers of the enterprises and the city.
4. To oblige the party Secretary to assist the Directors in their activities to ensure the operation of enterprises.
5. On the basis of deep mass political work to achieve high levels of vigilance and discipline among the workers of the city.
6. To lead the socialist competition of workers to perform the tasks of the party and government of high productivity, honest and selfless work to provide everything for the victorious Patriotic war against bloody fascism.
7. The Chairman of the Executive Committee of the city Council of the tov. Gregory, the chief of city Department of the NKVD comrade. Kovalev to take measures to fully uphold the revolutionary order in the city, lead to a state of combat readiness of forces and means of air defense police11, paying special attention to blackout city and businesses.
8. To oblige ZPK12, the secretaries of primary party organizations to conduct workshops and institutions meetings about the tasks of workers in connection with the attack of the German fascist troops on the Soviet Union.
9. At 8 o’clock in the evening to convene a meeting of secretaries of party organizations on the issue.
Secretary of the CC KP(b)U Sidorin
RGASPI. F. 17. Op. 42. D. 425. L. 137-138. Original. Typescript. Signed A. E. Sidorina – autograph.
June 23, 1941
the Bureau of regional Committee of CP(b)U notes that after the speech at the microphone Deputy Chairman of the Council of people’s Commissars of the USSR and people’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs comrade. V. M. Molotov, in all districts of the region on the enterprises and collective farms held rallies and meetings of workers, farmers, intellectuals, in which the workers demonstrated their loyalty to the socialist Homeland, the Soviet P��apitalist, the Bolshevik party and comrade Stalin.
the District Committee, city Committee of CP(b)U launched a massive propaganda work to explain the objectives put forward in the speech of comrade. Molotov workers and farmers through the party activists and agitators.
However, the level of political work conducted by the district committees and the city Committee of the CP(b)U among the masses is still low and does not meet the requirements of the present.
a) a Very poorly publicized facts of voluntary entry into the ranks of the red Army, the issues of replacement of spare production designed by the young people and women;
b) Unsatisfactory conducted political work among the urge in the villages on the route and especially on Assembly points, as well as insufficient attention is paid to the work among the families of the massage;
C) is Not raised to the proper level the operation of the clubs, movies, radio. Some of the district committees of the party did not take measures to stop all kinds of provocative conversations;
d) paid Little attention to the promotion of the practical work of enterprises of industry, transport and agriculture.
the Bureau of regional Committee of CP(b)U resolves the following:
1. To require the Secretary of the Communist party Committee and head. departments of propaganda and agitation to highlight the best of comrades from the party of the asset to systematic leadership and conduct political work to clarify the treatment of the Soviet Government among the population and especially among families call upon and drafted into the red Army.
2. To offer the district committees and the city Committee of the CP(b)U the entire political educational work carried out in close connection with the resolution of production and economic tasks of the enterprises, collective farms and state farms.
3. To oblige the Department of propaganda and agitation of the regional Committee, district committees and the city Committee of the CP(b)U the pick of the best teachers of educational institutions and promoters of a group of lecturers to give lectures on the topic:
a) about Soviet patriotism.
b) about the heroic past of our Motherland.
C) about heroic victories of the red Army
d) on the international situation.
d) on the strengthening of military and defensive power of our homeland, etc.
4. To draw the attention of the secretaries of the district committees and the city Committee of the CP(b)U on the need for the full popularization of facts of voluntary entry of citizens into the ranks of the red army, designed the replacement of spare women, elderly and young people in production positions.
5. The secretaries of the district committees and the city Committee that special attention be paid to timely release of district and wall Newspapers, their coverage of practical issues related to the treatment of the government. Lead, also in good condition clubs, theaters, radio and other polychromaticity and focus in their political work.
6. To oblige the head of onlineprevent tov. The war to ensure the smooth operation of the entire network of cinemas and movement, showcasing the first films of the military-Patriotic content.
Secretary of the regional Committee of CP(b)U Mishchenko13
RGASPI. F. 17. Op. 42. D. 419. L. 140-141. Original. Typescript. Signed G. K. Mishchenko – autograph.
June 25, 1941
In order to successfully carry out the farms of all agricultural work and obligations to the state in war, the Bureau of regional Committee of CP(b)U resolves the following:
to Oblige the Communist party(Bolshevik), Executive committees of district Soviets of people’s deputies, Alltemated, heads reiseportale and Directors of MTS are:
1. Urgently to replace the departed into the ranks of the red army collective farm chairmen, head. farms, accountants, head. warehouse team leaders, field teams and other managers of the collective farms proven and experienced farmers, widely put forward in this work of women activists.
2. In the next 2-3 days to review all collective composition of field crop, livestock, and other teams to produce the necessary rearrangement of the workforce, adding to the brigade of the first farmers outside teams. Departed the ranks of the red Army grooms, satara, workers on machines – to be replaced by other experienced farmers, having with them short-term seminars. To highlight the driving dynamics maximum number of women.
3. Until 1 July to complete the training of harvesters, and at the same time, to alert the reapers, laborate and other sweepers. To ensure every harvester solomokopnitel. To allocate service combines the best people, and create fuel reserves with the expectation of ensuring the smooth operation of combine harvesters and other harvesting machines tractor-drawn throughout the entire period of grain harvesting.
4. Given the ability to reduce the volume of many works that are scheduled to execute at the tractor pull, organize and prepare the maximum amount of simple means of production – KOs, sickle, horse-drawn threshers, horse drives, horse legs and hand diggers for podkovki sugar beet, sleds for transportation of beet, etc., correctly distributed between the farms. Arrange to use at harvest training heifers and steers for work in Yarm.
5. To conduct in a short time hlebosdachi state and threshing, build all farms covered current, prepare for svojeobraznaja grain drying sheds for air drying and a simplified dryer, using the huts, sheds and other facilities. Simultaneously with obmolota loaves to organize additional cleaning and drying of grain, providing a smooth transportation brought to the set condition of bread in a delivery state and in kind to the MTS.
6. For the protection of crops, barns and livestock farms from sabotage, to organize in each collective farm round-the-clock armed guards from trusted farmers, providing them with saddle-horses for driving round fields and buildings. To bring in full readiness of all fire-fighting equipment: fire extinguishers, pumps, barrels, buckets, hooks, sand, shovels at the combines, threshers, etc.
7. To prevent the plundering of bread, as well as ensure proper payment of farmers for the fulfillment of the plan of the yield to organize in the strictest accounting of the crop in each farm to the teams by putting proven farmers.
8. For wide involvement in the field work of mothers, to organize in all collective nurseries and playgrounds, providing normal conditions for work.
9. In the coming days to complete all pre-harvest work: weeding grain, inspection, fertilizer and deep tillage of sugar beets, to finish the summer planting and processing of vegetable crops, fodder root crops and other arable crops.
10. Bureau of regional Committee of CP(b)oblige the Communist party(Bolshevik)to organize a mass-explanatory work in the collective farms, ensuring increasing productivity in all areas of work so that all work in the collective farms was carried out quickly and with high quality.
Secretary of the regional Committee of CP(b)U Mishchenko
RGASPI. F. 17. Op. 42. D. 419. L. 154-155. Original. Typescript. Signed G. K. Mishchenko – autograph.
July 3, 1941
immediately after the speech on the radio Deputy Chairman of the SNK of the USSR, people’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs comrade. Molotov in cities and districts of Poltava region held mass meetings and rallies.
Feeling the greatest hatred of the rabid fascist bandits swept people. On the podium were representatives of workers, intellectuals, farmers to declare their loyalty to the party of Lenin and Stalin, the Soviet government’s readiness to defend the great Motherland.
At the meeting of the plant № 456 of Poltava Komsomol member of the Manager of the shop tov. Gavrilov said: “Today, my mother and sister went to the red Army, went to defend their homeland from the murderous Nazi dogs, I asked the factory management to let me go from the factory – go voluntarily in the Red Army, I will beat the fascist bastards to the last drop of blood.”
Cadet College train ing. Litovchenko, speaking at the rally, said: “I am non-partisan working, not having any previous education, when the Soviet government received a specialty of a road foreman. I request the party organization to accept me into the ranks of the CPSU(b) and immediately send me to the front to fight the enemies.”
Mobilization of the region is organized according to��but mobiplanet. Political-morale encourage healthy, it is the organized, timely 100% turnout at collection points, and desire as quickly as possible to go to the front.
Filed applications for admission of volunteers into the ranks of the red Army 1730 people, of which women 688 people.
the course of the appeal and supply region for the eighth day of mobilization (increasing number).
the Call for military service – 97,7%
Avtomehanik machines to 94.7%
Trucks special vehicles – 95,5%
the Tractor – 93,8%
the Horse has 97.6%
the Wagon and harness – 100%
the Beds passed NCO – 400 PCs (100%)
All of the building allotted for the hospital what is stavudine and NCOs deployed in accordance with mapplname with the exception of the club “Bolshevik”, communal College Kremenchug, College of land reclamation Poltava, jobs employing military units.
on 24 June 1941 the Bureau of regional Committee of CP(b)U discussed the question of the organization of local defense in the districts of the region. The decision of the Bureau required the first Secretary of the Communist party(Bolshevik)and the Chairpersons of the Executive committees of the Soviets to establish chiefs MoEHE in the districts and villages of the region, and to organize round-the-clock surveillance of the air.
the Bureau of regional Committee of CP(b)in pursuance of a resolution of the Council of people’s Commissars of the USSR on 24/VI – 1941,14 adopted decision 25/VI – 1941 “On measures on struggle against parachute landings and saboteurs of the enemy in the front line”.
in carrying out this decision, the city committees and district committees of the CP(b)U in 24 hours organized in all the districts destroyer battalions.
At the meeting of the regional Committee approved the chiefs of the assault battalions and their deputies for political Affairs and political platoons were approved at the meetings of the Bureau of city and district committees of the CP(b)U.
Just picked up the destroyer battalions in the region 9570 people, including Communists, 3451 people, Komsomol members – 1567, of the Soviet Aktiv – 3988 people.
To embed soldiers in the districts selected facilities for 6,200 people.
for the rapid movement of fighters dedicated transport: trucks – 132, the motorcycle 22, bike – 514 PCs., supply – 423 and horses – the 384 goals.
the Battalions are mostly armed with hunting rifles and/or rifles To separate the men fighting with rifles. Each battalion established round-the-clock one of the platoons.
in addition, the districts in each farm, the farm, MTS, enterprises and institutions and residential buildings organized around the clock assistance to groups fighting battalions, created 2145 covering 19519 people.
To shelter the population from aerial bombardment in the cities of Poltava and Kremenchug existing gas-shelter and cellars are on alert, in addition to gardens, parks, hidden places dug trenches.
With��cretary regional Committee of the CP(b)U Markov15
RGASPI, F. 17. Op. 42. D. 423. L. 82-86. Original. Typescript. Signed V. S. Markov – autograph.
1. See: The Bulletin Of Archive Of The President Of The Russian Federation. War of 1941-1945. M., 2010. Pages 34-37.
2. RGASPI. F. 17. Op. 42. D. 419. L. 91-92.
3. RGASPI. F. 17. Op. 42. D. 419. L. 60-61.
4. Mobilization plan for ammunition and cartridges were approved by the resolutions of the SNK and the CPSU(b) on June 6, 1941 N 1509-620сс/s “On mobilization plan for munitions in the second half of 1941 and 1942”, N 1510-621сс “On the construction of factories and workshops for the production of ammunition and ammunition” and N 1511-622сс “About the logistics of mobplana ammunition and bullets”. Also 65 enterprises of the people’s Commissariat of ammunition in the implementation of this plan was to take about 600 “civilian” plants. For Commissariat of the chemical industry, General engineering, medium engineering, heavy engineering, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, the introduction of mobplana ammunition was a specific operational task for the restructuring of production in war-time conditions. See: Izvestia of the Central Committee of the CPSU. 1990. N 6. P. 197-198.
5. Svinarenko Peter G. (1911-1942) in 1940-1942, the Chairman of the Executive Committee of Kharkiv regional Council, a candidate member of the Communist party(Bolsheviks) of Ukraine.
6. Epishev Alexey Alexeevich (1908-1985) – between 1940 and 1943, the 1st Secretary of the Kharkiv regional Committee of the CP(b)U, in 1938-1952 years a member of the Central Committee of the CP(b)U.
7. Naidenov p. A. (1905-1967) in 1940-1944 Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Dnipropetrovsk regional Council, in 1941, a member of the Operative group of the Military Council of the southern front.
8. Zadionchenko Semyon Borisovich (1898-1972) – in 1938-1941 1-St Secretary of the Dnipropetrovsk regional Committee of CP(b)U, in 1938-1949 he was a candidate member of the Politburo of the CC CP(b)U, in 1941, a member of the Military Council of the southern front.
9. Burmistenko, Mikhail Alekseevich (1902-1941) – in 1939-1941, the 2nd Secretary of the CC CP(b)U.
10. Anatoly Sidorin E. (1905-1947) in 1941, 1-St Secretary of the Dneprodzerzhinsk city Committee of the CP(b) Ukraine during the war was authorised by the Military Council of the southern front.
11. MoEHE – local antiaircraft defense.
12. ZPK – factory party committees.
13. Mishchenko Gabriel Korneevich (1904-?) in 1938-1945 the 1st Secretary of the Vinnytsia obkom of the KP(b)U, in 1938-1949 and member of the Central Committee of the CP(b)U.
14. See: Resolution of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b) on approval of the resolution SNK USSR “About measures on struggle against parachute landings and saboteurs of the enemy in the front line” // RGASPI. F. 17. Op. 166. D. 1316. L. 161-162.
15. Markov, Vasily Sergeyevich (1905-1978) – in the years 1939-1945 1-St Secretary of the Poltava regional Committee of the CP(b)U, in 1940-1956. the member of the Central Committee of the CP(b)U.