the Pandemic has made significant changes to training young Russians for the entrance exams. “Homeland” decided to help “on distance” applicants (and of course their fans-parents). Before you lecture “generalist” – for future teachers of history and literature, bankers and accountants. And even for future physicists and mathematicians.

the Lecturer will teach you how to relate the money, which is referred to in the works of Russian classics, with the realities of the present day. Doctor of philosophy semen Ekshtut has thirty years experience with the students and knows all about the psychology of the teacher.

no One knows what will happen in the exam. But be prepared to impress the examiner!

Author: Denis Fonvizin.

Work: Comedy “Ignoramus”.

date: 1781.

Review. In the Russian Empire until 1786 minted gold Imperials. This coin 10 ruble-esteem were minted from gold 88 Zolotnik mark (about 917-I metric) and had a lot of 13.09 g, that is, each Imperial was 11.6 g pure gold1. At the time of writing “Ignoramus” 1 Imperial=10 silver rubles=10 paper rubles=1000 copper kopeks.

Annual income of 60-year-old nobleman starodum that were among ten thousand. While the annual salaries of field Marshal was 8080 rubles. In October 1787 the General-in-chief Alexander Suvorov won a brilliant victory: defeated the Turkish troops on the Kinburn spit, and he was twice wounded during the battle. Catherine II was supposed to reward the commander with money: “He think to give any money – tens of thousands, or thing…”2

To understand the enormity of this sum, let me remind you: the clerk at the state of the iron factories in Siberia received 20 rubles and 60 rubles in private factories3. That is, the income is also a lot of work in Siberia of starodum that were among 167 times higher than the income of the qualified employee. One PUD of rye flour in Siberia cost 5.5 COP.; a bushel of the best wheat flour – 30 COP.; pood pork – 40 kopecks. If considered in relation to the price of flour and ham, the annual income of starodum that were among exceeds 75 million rubles today. This, however, is not quite correct, because they do not take into account the revolution of prices of agricultural products.

But gold is the ideal measure of value and a universal equivalent.

At the beginning of 2020, based solely from the rates contained in the gold coin, equal to one Imperial 42 425 rubles 27 kopecks. Thus, the annual income of starodum that were among 42,5 million rubles today. This surpasses the salary of any of the current senior Russian officials, but it is much less than the average income of the oligarch.

What is not a reason to give a vivid example of the degree examination or in the case of Posokhov��for teacher-the public sector?

Author: Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin.

Work: story “Poor Liza”.

date: 1792.

Review. She sold lilies of the valley for five cents. Penny since Catherine is a big copper coin with a diameter of 40 mm. Erast paid her a rouble large silver coin with a diameter of 38 mm. Weight of the silver rouble Catherine the great was 24 g when the content in it is 18 grams of pure silver. “The content in the ruble of pure silver lasted until the end of the tsarist minting coins banking in 1915.”4.

At the beginning of 2020, if we start only from the prices contained in the coin of pure silver, one silver rouble (ruble) is equal to 671 rouble 40 kopecks. But this fact alone is not enough to feel the difference between the scale of prices at the end of the XVIII century and in our days. In fact, long past time, the lilies have not yet been listed in the Red book. In our days, trade Lily of the valley officially banned. So we can’t compare the price of bouquet of lilies of the valley in the days of Karamzin in our time.

But we know that a loaf of rye bread in the time of Catherine was worth one copper kopeck. Sold for five cents, one bunch of lilies of the valley, Lisa could buy with the money five loaves of rye bread and a few days to be well-fed. And received from the Erast silver ruble – 126 loaves.

Translating purchase in today’s money, Lisa would pay for a loaf 5 rubles 33 kopecks. Of course, these days there is no such price, in one of the Moscow hypermarkets of the cheapest bread (half sliced 350 g) costs 25 rubles 50 kopecks. So in comparable prices loaf of bread “rose” at least 9.6 times. And the ruble the time of Catherine the equivalent of about 6426 modern rubles.

by the Way, applicants, tenants, just in case you need to know: in 1793, the cost of a rented apartment, for example, in St. Petersburg (in a stone house in the center, three rooms and a stable) was 8 rubles a month. If we start only from the prices contained in these coins pure silver – it is godly. Only 5 371 modern ruble 20 kopecks.

For comparison: these days, renting a modest two-bedroom apartment in the center of the Northern capital is a minimum of 48 thousand rubles per month. Consequently, rental housing has increased at least 9 times.

From the memoirs of Alexander Yakovlevich Artynova (1813 – 1896), a peasant village Ugodichi Rostov uyezd, Yaroslavl province.

“on 12 August (1839) was published a Manifesto on the Highest establishment rate uniform for the whole of Russia on silver, gold and banknotes. …In Rostov at that time was following a course:

5 rubles banknotes value on a walking rate of 6 rubles 30 kopecks 10 rubles banknotes – 12 ruBley 60 cents, etc.

100 rubles banknotes = 126 rubles, 3-ruble gold coin = 13 rubles 50 kopecks, proimperial (5 rubles) = 23 rubles.

Imperial (10 rubles) = 46 rubles, trehubova the platinku (platinum coin in denomination of 3 rubles silver; their sizes correspond to the 25-kopek silver coin or quarter. – Auth.) – 13 rubles 50 kopecks, platinum 6 rubles = 27 rubles, the platinku 12 rubles (platinum coin of 12 roubles silver; their sizes correspond to the ruble silver coin or the ruble. – Auth.) – 54 roubles, 20-franc French coin was = 22 rubles, 40 francs = 44 rubles; 5 cents silver was worth 24 pennies.

the Dime (10 cents silver) = 48 cents.

fifteen kopecks = was 72 cents.

Twenty kopecks = 96 cents.

a Quarter (25 cents silver) = 1 ruble 20 kopecks.

Poltinnik (50 kopeks silver) = 2 rubles 40 kopecks.

New silver rouble was equal to 4 rubles 50 kopecks.

Old coin = 2 rubles 60 kopecks.

Old ruble = 5 rubles, the Prussian Taler with pillars = 6 rubles.

Austrian Taler, eagles = 5 rubles 80 kopecks.

Debts in this time before the new year trying to pay at the above rate, and with the new year silver ruble was equal to 3 rubles 50 kopecks. At this time, trade was brisk, because everyone was trying to buy goods at a composed rate,”5.

Author: Leo Tolstoy.

Work: the novel-epopee “War and peace”.

date: 1863-1869, 1873.

Review. This event occurred in December, 1806, when the Bank notes have fallen significantly in price: course the silver rouble was equal to 137 cents banknotes. The amount of the card debt are shown in assignat roubles. In full silver rubles former student of Moscow University Nikolai Rostov Dolokhov lost 31 386 rubles 86 kopecks, which in terms of modern money would be $ 21 073 138, 7 (twenty-one million seventy-three thousand one hundred thirty-eight rubles and seventy kopecks).

It was a huge amount, although the Alexander era knew and larger gambling losses. Prince Pyotr Andreevich Vyazemsky, by his own admission, “boil on the cards over half a million”. Baron Waldemar von Lowenstern, very likely a prototype of Prince Andrei Bolkonsky, won an illegitimate son of Catherine II, count Alexei Bobrinsky 450 thousand rubles, but then in the big card game, which got him into Prince Vasili Meshchersky, lost 400 thousand rubles6. On the eve of departure Rostov to serve in the regiment, old count Ilya Andreevich gave his son two thousand rubles, and warn�� that the money given to one-third coming 1807. (University professors received at this time two thousand roubles a year.) Service in the cavalry was very expensive, and to do a sovereign’s salary could not.

you know the scale of prices, I will refer to memories of Leonty Avtonomovich Travin (1732-1818), who was born a serf, but to 54 years managed to get the rights of personal nobility. In the lean 1806 he to feed his large family, which had many dependents (wife of deceased son, three grandsons and two granddaughters), was forced to buy bread on 319 rubles in cash.

“from Year to year the poor harvest of bread, the purchase of which was used in 1804, ninety-five rubles, in 1805, one hundred and seventy-eight rubles, in 1806, three hundred and nineteen rubles…”

during these years, when the Russian Empire waged a continuous war to pay off from service in the army, it was necessary to purchase levy ticket price of 500 rubles.

Consequently, in 1806 for the sum of card loss count Nikolai Rostov could be satisfied with bread in a lean year 135 large families, and 86 men of military age would be able to pay off from military service and to avoid 25 years of service. For the same money a University Professor would have 21.5 years of broadcasting from the pulpit, educating youth.

On the exam compassionately tell that to the Professor and it’s yours.

Author: Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky.

Work: the novel “Crime and punishment”.

date: 1865-1866.

Review. Money needed former pre-law student, Rodion Raskolnikov to continue his education. It is because of their absence he was compelled to leave St. Petersburg University. Full University training was in those years four years (at the medical faculty five years).

the University Statute of 1863 established a fee from students for listening to lectures in the amount of 50 silver rubles per year in the Metropolitan universities and 40 rubles – in other universities7. Consequently, the complete course would cost Raskolnikov 200 rubles. It was a hefty sum. The pension received by the mother of Rodion Raskolnikov, was only 125 silver rubles a year.

the author of the novel extremely accurate in every detail. It was at this same time due to financial difficulties, the future famous writer Gleb Ivanovich Uspensky was not able to obtain a legal education, neither in St. Petersburg nor at Moscow University. Money in the purse of prozentsatz Raskolnikov would be enough for the urgent payment of a debt on overdue and protested bills (115 silver rubles) and paying full University course. Clothes, shoes, food and textbooks Dissenters would have earned by giving private lessons and translating��mi. A former student was a bad expropriator. He was very nervous and confined in a robbery just one wallet and a few valuables lying in the pledge, “and in the dresser, top drawer, in the box, some clean money for one and a half thousand found, except for the tickets!”

For these fifteen hundred unjustly acquired money seven or eight students could receive a University education. Well, in terms of modern money Rodion Raskolnikov by the murder and robbery of prozentsatz Alyona Ivanovna and her sister Lizaveta received 213 236 rubles 64 kopecks. In these days, the money would not be enough to pay two full semesters.

If we proceed from the scale of prices in the sphere of higher University education, 200 silver rubles epoch of the Great reforms of the modern equivalent of two million rubles, one ruble Alexander II is comparable to 10 000 rubles.

Learn to “excellent”, save parents money, do the budget places – and you will be happy!

1. Monetary circulation of Russia: Historical sketches. Vol. 1. M.: Interkrim Press, 2010. P. 123.

2. Ekaterina II I G. A. Potemkin. Personal correspondence. 1769-1791. M.: Nauka, 1997. P. 242.

3. Here and further information on retail prices are: Memories of the Russian peasants in XVIII – first half XIX century / introd. art. and comp. V. A. Koshelev. M.: New literary review, 2006. 778 S. //

4. Russia’s history in coins: an Album / Comp. A. Melnikov, V. Uzdennikov, I. Shikunova. Moscow: Menatep, 1994. P. 91, 100.

5. Memories of the Russian peasants in XVIII – first half of XIX century. M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2006 //

6. Levenshtein VI Notes: 1790 – 1815. Moscow: Kuchkovo pole, X-History, 2018. P. 619.

7. Rozhdestvenskiy S. V. Historical overview of the activities of the Ministry of national education: 1802-1902. SPb.: Publication of the Ministry of national education, 1902. P. 421.