But it is not enough just to build a house. Comfortable housing is not only a solid roof over my head, but all the blessings of civilization, are accustomed to modern man.
Why the market of housing and communal services are not interested in energy saving
Connect the country house to the utilities – gas, water, electricity – the problem is not less than its construction. With electrical networks, problems often arise in distant from the industrial centers of the area or where they were held for quite a while, and then modernized. Mainly consumers are faced with a lack of capacity, instability of the quality of electricity and frequent accidents.
Output in these cases, only two – either to wait for the network upgrade, or to create an Autonomous power supply system a country house, which will compensate the shortcomings and power fluctuations in the network, and provide consumers with energy in case of accidents.
For example, take a house in the average area per 100 to 120 square feet without a lot of frills that are not connected to gas networks and a shared boiler house. And home heating – Underfloor heating and battery in this total amount while we will not be considered, because it is a separate song, is required for such additional area of not less than 10 kW of electricity.
the Usual city apartment for a family of 3-4 people enough about 5-8 kW, a country house you need to have 12-15 kW
the Usual modern city apartment for a family of 3-4 people is now missing about 5-8 kW. It absolutely does not mean that such power even in the separate use of electrical appliances will be sufficient for a country house. But the figure to remember is how long it would take energy for the normal functioning of electrical appliances, home appliances and lighting. It is necessary to add the capacity required to operate the pump, supplying water from wells, boiler and water heaters. It is still 4 to 6 kW. To the result add the queries of the energy for the hotplate 1500 to 4500 watts. To the resulting suMiu is suggested to add 15-30% in order to have a stock to increase energy consumption.
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it is Clear that not every house has all possible appliances, and almost all of them are used simultaneously. Emergency power outage for a few hours and is quite comfortable to get generator 5 kW. But if the goal is to ensure proper functioning of all systems and appliances in a country house for a long period of Autonomous sources of power, independent generation should be at least 12 kW and more is better.
Experts call the same number, what happens mathematically, to meet the needs in electricity of a modern country house with an area of 100-120 square meters for 4 people will need a generation capacity of at least 12-15 kW. However, to obtain this power, it is advisable in a hybrid way, using several types of generation, not just one. The load can be split thus: 50% – fuel generator, 30% solar generation light and 20% generation of wind power. Possible nuances. For example, the owners of the houses located on the banks of large reservoirs, it may be reasonable to increase the share of wind generation in the southern parts of the country it is possible to increase the share of solar. Of course, do not have to use all three modes, you can use only two types of generation.
Infographics “RG”/ Anton Bookbinders / Sergey Tehnoulevaatus, burn!
the easiest and Most common way to provide a backup or secondary capacity electricity – buy a diesel or petrol generator. Basicallym advantage is a relative independence from seasonal changes and weather fluctuations. The disadvantages of powerful generators fuel type applies a very strong noise device and the need to store at itself on a site large stocks of fuel for its operation.
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Petrol or diesel generator 3 kW, you can buy for the amount of 20 thousand rubles. Powerful generator 10 kW will cost 150 thousand rubles and above. The fuel consumption of diesel generator is less than gasoline. Therefore, diesel generators are often used for short-term work. Diesel generators can be a major source of energy, working for a long time and consuming less fuel.
In recent years more and more widespread gas generators. They are a little more expensive than gasoline or diesel, their price starts from 40 thousand rubles, but they are cheaper to operate. Powerful units from 5 kW there are more than 100 thousand rubles. The problem is that most generators of this type require connection to the gas network. Installing this unit is only on the basis of the package of permits and mandatory participation in assembling teams of craftsmen from the local gas company. Independent gas generators exist, but most of them work from the conventional gas cylinders, that is a very limited period of time. Powerful stations, powered by liquefied natural gas, while very expensive – from 350 thousand roubles. Their is still a relatively small market, although it is expected that such devices in the near future will be widely distributed.
the sun be Hot
a Very popular solution is to provide Autonomous electric power plants using solar panelscnyh batteries (panels). The pros are obvious – environmentally friendly, quiet, easy to maintain and when installed properly can be used for production of electricity in any weather. Of course, in winter, in cloudy and rainy days, the performance will decline. Complete with solar panels you need to purchase a solar inverter that converts direct current generated from solar modules, to AC voltage of 220 volts, and the battery, accumulating the received energy. As a rule, country houses available on the market ready integrated solutions.
Infographics “RG”/ Leonid Kuleshov/ Sergey Tikhonov
Place the solar panel in any unshaded space station, for example, on the roof of the house, paying the receiving surface at an angle of 70 degrees, better on the South side. From time to time you might need to clean the panel from dust and remove the debris. Quality solar panels are very reliable and designed for operation from 15 to 25 years. After that, their performance decreases slightly, and the next 15-20 years panel give the resource to the extent of about 80% of the original capacity claimed by the manufacturer.
the Main disadvantage of solar generation that the system is unstable, its power is too dependent on weather conditions. In addition, to generate 10 kW of energy under the solar panels will require an area of over 32 square meters, which, given the standard dimensions of plots, very important. The price of such power bites – it costs about 700 thousand rubles. But the set of 2-3 kW can be purchased for 110-130 thousand rubles, and for the installation of the panels will require an area of 3.5-5.5 square meters, that will allow you to place them on the roof of the house without taking up square footage. Station 4 kW cost from 300 thousand roubles, and under the boards will need more than 15 square meters.
the Installation of wind turbine capacityness from 5 kW or more will have the greatest economic efficiency, if the average annual wind speed exceeds 6 meters in seconds, or 21.5 km per hour. Once it is possible to mention that in Russia regions below this condition performed, quite a bit. Most often the average wind speed here is less than 5 meters per second. This does not mean that vetrogeneratory we are not profitable, just to expect from it miracles is not necessary. Before installing the wind turbine on the site, it is to analyze data about wind power in the region over the last 5-10 years. You can find them on the Internet or to the weather service. It is worth to note that when the wind is three meters per second most of the turbines generate the minimum amount of energy which may not have even lighting.
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the Cost of wind turbines varies from power energy. Kit of 1 kW of energy can be bought for 100 thousand rubles, and a wind turbine of 10 kW will cost about 700 thousand rubles, and it will require a mast height less than 10 meters.
One of the greatest arguments against the installation of a windmill on the dacha are published constant hum (even barely audible) and vibration. The latter, of course, can relieve a suburban area from moles and rodents, but would hardly add to the comfort of the people living on it. Therefore, the wind turbines, especially powerful, it is not recommended to install in the vicinity of residential houses.
the WalletInfographics “RG”/ Anton Bookbinders / Sergei Tihonovich electricity can be sold
Any owner of a private house may sell in network the excess energy. The amount of loans it can not exceed 15 kW. It can be developed as renewable energy sources (RES) – using the sun or wind, and fuel generators. Possible solutions and combined, combining, for example, diesel and wind turbine.
the Order of payments is transferred to the network of electricity is maximally simplified. The calculation occurs at the end of each month as regular calculations of citizens with guaranteeing suppliers of electricity. A lot of this does not work, but the payback of the systems of private generation is accelerated.