whatever may be thought sissies in the West, we are deeply fortunate that we live right now.
the entire history of human life has reached the highest level of comfort, medicine is evolving like never before, the level of poverty at a record low, while developed countries support the unprecedented peaceful relations with each other.
This needs to be enjoyed while it lasted, but it inevitably happens. It is not only that history tells us that approximately every thousand years the Earth is a natural phenomenon, erasing from the face of the planet about a third of its population, so also we all still look forward to the next ice age that will cause us much more severe blow than any cataclysm.
Indeed, there is no certainty as to how humanity will end my days. Some see this perspective something quite horrific; the nihilists it comforting, but the fact remains: 99% of all species that have ever existed on Earth is extinct.
People in the short period since the beginning of our existence, has managed to be on the verge of total destruction. Three times from what we know, our population was reduced to thousands and even hundreds; in the last 70 thousand years ago, when as a result of global climate change people were “on the verge of extinction”, says the paleontologist Maeve Leakey (Meave Leakey).
Earlier this month, we interviewed scientist of astrobiology by Lewis Dartnell (Lewis Dartnell) on the reasons that can result in the new Apocalypse (most likely it will be a global pandemic). He not only studied our origins and the probable reasons for its termination, but also wrote a book about how will look the consequences of the almost complete extinction, “Knowledge: how to rebuild our the world after the Apocalypse” (The Knowledge: How to Rebuild our World After an Apocalypse).
it offers the interesting observation that, unlike our ancestors who were engaged in hunting and gathering, managed (just) to outwit the planet, when she was most in the mood most of us today would have been depressing not adapted to this turn of events. And the few survivors with incredible difficulty trying to get everything back to normal.
are You ready to dive into the game, as if it was under the worst of circumstances?
How it happens
In the five years prior to the current outbreak of coronavirus Dartnell almost prophetically said, “Incredibly contagious strain of avian flu finally overcome the species barrier and successfully over people, or may have been deliberately released as an act of biological terrorism.
Infection spread with devastating speed in the modern age, densely populated cities and Intercontinental air travel, destroying a significant portion of the world population has not yet been implemented effective measures of immunization and even orders the introduction of the quarantine. Known to us the world came to an end: what now?”
How we are
not so Good. “People living in developed countries were cut off from civilization processes that support their livelihoods, says Dartnell. As individuals we are amazingly ignorant regarding even the basics of food, shelter, clothing, medicines, materials and vital substances”.
He tells us: “If people in modern life would simply come to terms with the reality of the lack of food in the markets or the water in the taps, we would very soon have to leave their home andnbsp;would be moved to violence, competing for resources. Theoretically, in fact, from riots we are only three days.”
Obviously, in the case of mass human extinction, when the planet will remain only a small proportion of the population, the fate of humanity will depend on the professions of these people. “If you have a huge number of accountants and advisers on governance, you might as well say goodbye to the chance to build society anew, he says. — If you have nurses, doctors, engineers, mechanics, they would, of course, brought much more favor, than the people of the theoretical professions.” Himself a scientist, and me, the journalist, Dartnell refers to the last useless category.
in homo sapiens, the first modern people, left nearly 200 thousand years for the invention of agriculture, and since then they have gone a difficult way.
Take the Mayan civilization, is incredibly difficult service of an ancient society that existed in Central America. To the eighth century Maya, facing no difficulties, have made too much progress in agriculture on his head — that was enough to incur the collapse of civilization.
the Rampant deforestation in the short term implies a greater number of crops that can feed people, and hence rapid population growth (which entails its own problems). Somewhere about the tenth century the representatives of the Mayan civilization suddenly left their cities. No one knows exactly why, but the fashion now among many scientists the theory is that the Mayan collapse was accelerated local climate change caused by tropical deforestation, combined with overpopulation, starvation and probably war.
Today webladem kind of repetition, especially in regard to overpopulation, stresses Dartnell. “Many of the problems of excessive use of resources and harm to the environment — ocean acidification, pollution of the environment, plastic — essentially boil down to the fact that too many of the population lives, violating environmental standards,” he says.
“In the case of mass population reduction, following this twisted logic, many problems will be solved.”
so, you survived one of the few, and it’s time to think about restarting agriculture. Where do you start? Get to Norway and its snowy expanses.
On the Northern Svalbard, far from the eyes of the hidden Svalbard global seed vault. The purpose of its creation is to save enough seeds to ensure the genetic diversity of the crop worldwide in the event of the Apocalypse. More than 860 thousand samples approximately four thousand species of plants are safely stored in hermetically sealed packages on this remote Arctic stock.
even Here is provided security measures in the style of James bond: in case of power blackouts rarely opened the vault will remain closed. The cold warehouse will be supported by permafrost. And special conditions of the current security measures stipulate that the stored seeds can only be the state that put them there, ensuring that nobody will be able to cash in on the agricultural crisis of another country.
Before the Apocalypse you are, of course, can not go look in the vault out of idle curiosity, but Svalbard has a variety of attractions for travelers, in particular the settlement of Longyearbyen is a strange town, a hundred days a year, the existing BAAs sunlight, where anyone in the world can live without a visa, but nobody’s allowed to die.
How we will survive the next ice age?
If it is a little similar to the last, which ended about 12 thousand years ago, it will freeze all of North America, Europe and Asia. A significant lowering of the sea level cut off the sea lines of communication in regions such as the Mediterranean or the Straits of Torres in Australia, and civilization in the form in which we know it will collapse.
Some of the few survivors of the last ice age took refuge in one of the only places on Earth remained suitable for life — on a piece of land on the southern coast of Africa from Cape town, which by convenient coincidence, the readers of “the Telegraph” seven times in a row have voted as their favorite city.
it would be for life if there is extreme cold? We don’t know, but you can adopt the wisdom of the inhabitants of Oymyakon, currently considered the coldest inhabited the Earth. When the photographer Chappel Amos (Amos Chapple) visited the Russian settlement, where the temperature can drop to -67 degrees, and frosted lashes — an everyday reality, the locals told him that to maintain power they resort to “Russian tea” — as they called vodka.
what if, on the contrary, will become too hot?
the Most rapid temperature increases on Earth happened about 55 million years ago known as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), a period when natural greenhouse gases — the exact cause is unknown — increased temperature of the planet between five and eight degrees C, probably for several thousand years to levels that were about seven degrees higher than today.
the ContextThe Independent: Greta Thunberg — the driving force of the Russian ecoactivists Independent18.11.Spektrum 2019: humanity will survive a nuclear war, only to later die in мукахSpektrum.de29.10.2019 Die Welt: the Plague and the climate can kill насDie Welt07.10.2018
Then many extinct species of marine animals, but it has benefited biodiversity on earth; mammals flourished and it was during this period saw the evolution of primates. Much closer to the current time phase, during which the temperature on our planet was somewhat hotter than it is now, usually coincided with the flourishing, not with the difficult period of humanity; a good example is the Roman climatic optimum. More recently, in 2001, when journalists, “Los Angeles times” (Los Angeles Times) interviewed the inhabitants of California’s death Valley, the place at the moment is considered the hottest on Earth, they reacted with incredible enthusiasm.
All this does not mean, of course, that warming is beneficial for all. For us, the increase in temperature will result in melting ice sheets and rising sea levels, and if that happens, it would be wise to find a place almost inaccessible to flooding. For this approach the Himalayas, although on top there may be quite fresh. Perhaps it would be better to bet on the high plateau of the Altiplano of Bolivia, occupying a vast territory in South America. This entire region is situated at an altitude of 3750 IUspectra and, moreover, it is a beautiful place in the world.
whether on our planet becoming even hotter than it was, for example, during the PETM? It is theoretically possible. According to the journal “scientific American” (Scientific American), if we are faced with a “runaway greenhouse effect”, climatic processes, has never happened on Earth (but may have occurred on Venus). To make this possible, we have to burn to ten times more fossil fuel than we have available.
in One word, how would we, the people, nor believed himself to be mighty and destructive force, there is a limit to how much we can really affect the climate.
super-rich people are already preparing
for a long time People are building bunkers in case of doomsday — typically Cams and followers of conspiracy theories — but in recent years this madness has spread to the elite.
Peter Thiel (Peter Thiel), the billionaire behind “PayPal” (PayPal) is one of the many giants of Silicon valley, jumped at the shelter, where it will be possible to take safe shelter from the Apocalypse: he purchased 500 acres of land for 13.5 million dollars on the shores of lake Wanaka in New Zealand, after the (somewhat controversial) acquired local citizenship.
Thiel made a wise choice, not least because it is your favorite country. Two scientists recently created a ranking of the most safe locations to escape in case of extreme pandemics, and, not surprisingly, the island was the main center of attention. New Zealand took the list of suitable options second place after Australia. Isolated naturally from the spread of the disease, called them excellent places to escape the pandemic or “other significant akistansocial threats.”
an Adherent of conspiracy theories would be very surprised to learn that of all the largest players in the corporate world, tech giants all the more eager to purchase these bins (maybe they know something we don’t know?), but we’re not here to ask such questions.
What will the world be without humans?
Quite pleasant, if you don’t happen to be one of them. When Greg Dickinson (Greg Dickinson) from “Telegraph travel” (Telegraph Travel) visited Fukushima — eight years after nuclear disaster, the area was cleared of the population — he saw abandoned, but hopeful landscape.
“This place probably more than any other place on the planet gives us the opportunity to look at what happens when people leave something, and nature is left to itself, he wrote. — In the cracks of asphalt sprouted green shoots, areas where homes were destroyed by the earthquake, and now were buried waist-deep in foliage, one house was completely hidden behind the colossus-plant, creeping along the outer walls.”
similarly, in the Chernobyl 30 years after the worst nuclear disaster in history led to mass evacuation, wild animals and different species of birds roam in fact the largest in Europe — albeit natural — natural reserve. European lynx, before absent here, returned to these territories, as a significant number of moose, deer and wolves.
Today, under the supervision of a guide you can visit some parts of Chernobyl, as did Oliver Smith (Oliver Smith) from “Telegraph travel” —the decision is yours. Just do not delay — there is still quite radioactive.
the new York times contain estimates of the solely foreign media and do not reflect the views of the editorial Board of the new York times.