the 40-year-old Adam Castillejo (Adam Castillejo), until recently known as the “London patient”, became the second man in the world, completely devoid of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
this is the achievement of an international team of scientists says in the articles presented in the journals The Lancet HIV, and Nature.
In may 2016 Castillejo held a bone marrow transplant, mainly for the treatment of cancer, Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
At the same time stem cells for transplantation were obtained from a donor with a rare mutation that makes people immune to the most common type of HIV, HIV-1. Doctors hoped the operation would not only help to cure cancer, but “restarts” the patient’s immune system.
it Should be clear that immunity to human immunodeficiency virus in rare cases, provides a mutation in the gene CCR5. (It was her infamous geneticist Hae Cisangkuy “gave” the world’s first genetically modified twins that HIV infection is not transferred to them from the parents).
In September 2017 Adam Castillejo stopped taking antiretroviral drugs. Usually after just a few weeks after cessation standard treatment, the virus begins to multiply again.
However, in March of 2019, experts said that Castillejo was not find any signs of HIV for up to 18 months.
Now, after another year (i.e. a total of 30 months), researchers can be more confident about long-term remission.
Specifies that the numerous tests did not reveal in the body of men active infection. The researchers found only “fossils” HIV — fragments of the virus that is not able to multiply and pose no danger.
“We had expected this. Pretty hard to imagine that all traces of the virus hitting the billions of cells will be removed from the body,” explained lead author of ISSladowanie Professor Ravindra Gupta (Ravindra Gupta) from the University of Cambridge.
the team’s mathematical modeling suggests that the likelihood that HIV will not return throughout the life of a man, is extremely high.
Note that the first person who completely recovered from HIV was American Timothy ray brown (Timothy Ray Brown), known as “the Berlin patient”. About his full recovery after the same treatment, experts said in 2011.
brown, like Castillejo, initially treated from cancer — he had leukemia. And he had also undergone a bone marrow transplant from a patient who had resistance to HIV.
However, experts emphasize that bone marrow transplantation is a complex operation, involving greater risks (and finding a suitable donor may take a while). In the case of Castillejo it was a “last resort”, because otherwise the patient would have died from cancer.
the team Also reported that there were several other patients who received similar treatment, but they have remission was shorter.
“This treatment is only used as a last resort for patients with HIV who also have life-threatening hematological malignancies,” added Professor Gupta.
However, the breakthrough work of physicians can be the basis for development of safer approaches to modification of immune cells.
in Other words, patients with drug-resistant forms of HIV (who do not respond to antiretroviral therapy) have hope, “Ambassador” which now considers himself Adam Castillejo.
earlier, “Conduct.Science” (nauka.vesti.ru) reported that to overcome HIV can also edit the genes, antibody therapy, and a special vaccine. All of these techniques have already been clinically tested.