Important details will complement the information gathered by the historian-the historian, a laureate of the State prize of the RK Mikhail Sudneva in the Museum of partisan glory to them. Ivan Genova in his home village of Sadova. Sydnev for almost 40 years engaged in research work, dedicated to the troops of the 2nd district of the partisan movement in Crimea. Under his leadership, a large group of researchers gathered biographical material, archive documents and correspondence, personal memories, photo archives, and excerpts from previously unpublished field notebooks Crimean guerrillas.
“Diaries during the war I did not lead”. From this phrase Leonid Brezhnev began his memoirs – the book “little land”. Keep a diary in the red Army was forbidden to all, regardless of position. The ban is not officially supported by Military orders, were substantiated by the high risk: data about the movement of troops and the battle was the enemy of great interest and, in case of contact with the author captured, could have disastrous consequences.
from the very first days of the partisan movement, the Crimean regional Committee of the CPSU(b) imposed a ban on keeping diaries. The only disobeying was the commander of the 2nd district Ivan Genes. The area was considered to be territorially the biggest, and therefore most difficult. There were major communication and transport routes. For example, the mountain road to Ust-Kut from Karasubazar (now Belogorsk), then seaside road to Alushta, Dolgorukovskaya Yaila, and Karabi, shuiskie through the forest.
Despite the complexity of the control groups which were in the area of Genova, considered the most efficient – largely thanks to his commander and his tactics. Affected by the combat experience. For 45-year-old Crimean Bulgarians it was the third war and the second guerrilla movement. During the Civil war, Gene was a underground fighter, and later as commander Novo-Tsaritsyno guerrilla group. In between fights he kept the field diaries, where meticulously described the tactics of warfare, dislocation and all the details of guerrilla life. However, the notebook, memories of the author were burned. Therefore, going to the mountains in the summer of 41, he took several General notebooks, elaborate storage space.
as a child, Ivan Gene was a shepherd boy on Karabi. Knew every path, the gorge and the rock, the location of all caves, shelters and water sources. Where to lay the database and the cache, so that it did not find the invaders? Where to hide the sacks of flour so they don’t get wet? Where to set the patrols and block roads? To these questions at Genova always had the answers. As a result, on account of its units the most successful sorties, and laid their caches are never found by the enemy. Over time, the opinion of an experienced commander started to listen all the leaders of the partisan movement. And on the Oprah��facilities stages tactics of the Crimean partisans were almost completely developed by Ganovim.
In his diaries Ivan Gavrilovic pointed out all that was happening around. Recordings were conducted regularly, in any weather, often with a pencil. When the diaries came out, the commander of the guerrilla movement of the Crimea Alexey Mokrousov, he asked the commander to hide them in a safe place. Night in the presence of some of the most faithful companions of the Genes buried in the hillside Middle five boxes of machine-gun belts. In addition to the 12 General notebooks, they were some of the attributes of the guerrilla life, which then joined the collection of the Museum of partisan glory named Genova in his native village.
In 1981 I moved from the Urals in the Crimean village of Garden, says the Museum’s founder, historian and ethnographer Michael Sudnow, and was amazed: neither the history of the village, nor the generalized experience of the work of several generations in a unique location of the Crimean steppes. But in this village was born Ivan Genes. Together with his disciples started a search operation. And two years after the construction of a new rural school for the Museum of partisan glory has been allocated a large room.
the diaries of the commander occupied the Central place in Museum exhibitions, but their fate also proved to be difficult and dramatic. In October 1942, after the failures of the partisan movement in the Crimea, Genova, along with other commanders were sent to the Kuban. The diaries he hid, and part of worksheets took with him to Sochi, where the evacuation was the Crimean regional party Committee.
recordings made in the forest, helped in the work party members. For example, there is described equipment for conducting sabotage during harvesting in rural areas: how to break machinery and assembled to destroy the invaders harvest. These instructions are then used by many of the underground organization of the Union.
After the liberation of Crimea Genes found only four of the five buried boxes. The fifth also got in 2016, “black archaeologists” from Sevastopol. On the Internet, they suggested to the leadership of the Central Museum of Tauris to buy their box for a lot of money. Museum workers asked to do the digitization of documents for the evaluation of exhibits. Treasure hunters never were in touch.
– However, in the last box was mostly leaflets and personal belongings Genova. But the diary was not, – said Mikhail Sydnev. – I know it well according to the memoirs of his wife Nadezhda Frantsevna with which he hid his personal archive on the mountain the Middle.
unlike other leaders of the partisan movement in Crimea, only Genes in preparation for the publication of his books relied on frontline records. And the others used archival documents and materials of correspondence with brother. In 1963 was published the first book “diary of a partisan”. The circulation of 50 000 copies of ratsels�� immediately.
– the basis for the book rests on the 12 General notebooks, his diaries during the years of guerrilla warfare – continues Mikhail Sydnev. – However, the version of the latest revision, the author did not like. Many details have been omitted, sharpening judgment and estimates became less, there was more ideological component. Ivan Gavrilovich was hoping for the second, more extended edition. It came out a year before the death of the commander and, unfortunately, in an even more shortened version…
After the death of Genova in 1970 in his apartment people came in civilian clothes – raided, seized documents. Among them was a large part of the diaries.
Several of the notebooks they found work and left, – said Mikhail Sydnev. – When the widow of Ivan Gavrilovic decided to move to the children in Voroshilovgrad oblast, all of the things and documents of her husband, she was transferred to our Museum.
Most of these records, dedicated to organizing events in the forest, in the Soviet book, “diary of a partisan” is not included: readers of the Soviet era should not have to know the difficulties faced by the author, as he is no respecter of persons characterized the party leadership. Moreover, you shouldn’t confuse the reader such phenomena as mass desertions from the red Army, open anti-Soviet agitation and so on. The records reflected necenzyrirana a look at the events of that time. Valuable items – for example, the planned number of products to groups. Manuscripts can understand what an incredible effort put Ivan Gene to provide troops with everything necessary, what emotions caused him Crimeans, waiting for the coming of the enemy, silently counting to “wait out” hard times. On diaries you can understand what kind of person was the author of: solid, solid, not afraid of responsibility.
Fully decrypted notebook recordings by the legendary commander will be included in the collection of documentary materials, forthcoming in the media center for them. I. Gasprinsky. It will be of great value for further studies of the partisan movement in the Crimea, the history of which is still a lot of white spots.
the Day of commemoration of partisans and underground fighters in Russia is celebrated on June 29. On this day in 1941 the Council of people’s Commissars of the USSR and the CPSU(b) issued a Directive about the need to create in enemy-occupied territory-organized guerrilla resistance. In Crimea, the guerrilla groups and underground organizations was created in early July. The entire Peninsula is divided into five guerrilla areas. The largest, combat ready, and therefore the most dangerous to the enemy was considered the 2nd district, which includes 10 guerrilla groups. And it was headed by Ivan Genes.