Already in his youth Anna was acting weird. Was unusually dressed in men’s manners, neglected balls and social Protocol, read a lot, interested in philosophy and religion. At the age of 22 wrote a book “Pattern for children, or the Life of count Platon Zubov”. About marriage did not think, but the family and respectability was stronger than her iron will. Anna had to marry. Her lover was Prince Ivan Aleksandrovich Golitsyn, vertihvost and Joker. Nothing with a soul, he was extremely happy to correct marriage cash position.

as of the gift the Prince had received from the bride’s briefcase filled with money and securities. The phrase Galitzine, spravodajca offering roams from one memoir to another: “Here’s half of my condition. Take it by itself. And now it’s all over between us.” Golitsyn scampered towards to Paris, where for the second time and already in love married singer de Laurent, turned into a crazy bully and got the nickname “Jean de Paris”, “Paris Ivan.”

Anna was in St. Petersburg, and became friendly with Julia Krudener, adventurer, writer and preacher. Krudener clearly saw the future, but were paradoxically short-sighted. Hinted that the idea of “sacred Union” does not belong to the Russian Emperor, and her. Say, how to arrange the future of Europe and Russia. And even called for a war for the liberation of Greece. All that the public remembered and brought to the attention of the Emperor. In 1822 Alexander I banned mystical gatherings. Krudener and her family Golitsyn was in disgrace.

just at this difficult time, the official and talented scientist Franz Berkgeym, married the daughter Krudener, tried to implement the device project on the wild southern coast of Crimea agricultural colony. On the project knew at court, but the progress is not allowed. Needed Regal grace and an iron will “Princess of the Amazon” that idea is embodied. Together with foreign gardeners, winemakers and Bocharov disgraced ladies, Golitsyn and Krudener, went to the Crimea. The difficult journey lasted about six months – from spring to autumn of 1824 Krudener, much aching in the capital in December, died in Karasubazar. Golitsyn made it safely to the estate of Koreiz, which she recently purchased and wanted to turn into a center of winemaking. Fortunately, the endeavor was supported by powerful neighbor.

Almighty neighbour Duchess was the Earl MS Vorontsov, Novorossiysk Governor-General, the owner of the estate in Alupka, located near Koreiz. Vorontsov wanted to transform the Crimea. He saw in Peninsula, great potential. The count planned in the future to create a “great Russian wine”, which will be a worthy rival Bordeaux and Burgundy wines.

After his appointment as the Novorossiysk Governor-Gubernatora he came to the Peninsula with the inspection. Found that the local roads were not good and there is a need to build a new one. To my delight and pride he found excellent, although semi-vineyards – strong, centuries-old, belonging to the Tartars, as well as young vines, brought from abroad by foreigners and Russian aristocrats. A particularly strong impression on his seedlings Andrey Borozdin, the owner of the estate of Kuchuk-Lambat, and an experimental vineyard Christian stevena in Simferopol. But the scale of plantings should be increased in times, – Vorontsov wanted to make the whole of Russia to speak about the Crimean miracle, the great Russian fault. The Governor General acquired the estate of Massandra, Alupka, Gurzuf and Adnil. Wrote the best European vine, invited the European botanists, growers and Bocharov, invested a lot of his own funds and received the support of Alexander I. In 1823 nearly all the South coast has turned into one big flourishing vineyard, planted 4 million vines1.

With the support of the Vorontsov flourished the Imperial Botanical garden in the village of Nikita. In addition to olive, fruit, mulberry, nut trees, shrubs, plants and herbs have been collected here, over 600 of purebred varieties. There was a “Pinot Noir”, “Petit Verdot”, “Riesling”, “Malbec”, “Merlot”, “Tempranillo”, “Traminer”, “Tokai”, as well as many local varieties with intricate Tatar names: “Balaban-Sabbath”, “targumic”, “Kurt-kuiruk”, “usta-Mehmet”… In 1825, the indefatigable Earl founded the Company for the sale of Crimean wines with the drinks, the wide publicity and attract the attention of the capital’s discerning audience. Under the brand name of the Company in Sudak opened the big wine warehouse, and in Simferopol organized trade.

Example of count Vorontsov was inspired by aristocrats. Prior to 1823, in the Crimea was only a couple of landowners winemakers. After the count purchased the estate and announced the beginning of the wine company, here flowed the Russian nobility. By 1837, the winemaking here was already 105 landowners. These things liked high society ladies and have achieved great success. In 1836-1837 gg. Natalia Naryshkin did at his estate in Simeiz about a thousand buckets of wine a year, Mrs. Shipilova – 1500 buckets2. Granddaughter of the legendary General Alexander Suvorov, Varvara Arkad’evna Bashmakova (nee Suvorov), produced in a manor Mshatka 2100mAh buckets3.

But nearly all contemporaries noted that the best wine comparable to Bordeaux, made in your Koreiz Princess Golitsyn.

Golitsyn, like its neighbor Vorontsov, dreamed of a great Russian wine. Slowly, meter by meter, the estimate for the estimate, with the male persistence and female cunning she moved to his dream. Spent a lot of money, time and effort on the vineyards. Cherishing, cherishingLa them, called motherly “my children”. “I don’t want to know, in addition to vineyard and olives, keep the letters from St. Petersburg unopened. A thousand times a day I bless the mercy of God that brought me to this happy shore,” she wrote to Vorontsov4.

the Earl was a patron of her endeavors and supplied with seedlings from its own vineyards. Galitzine helped and another neighbor, Nicholas Hartwiss, Director of the Imperial Nikitsky Botanical garden. He loved Anna Sergeevna, sold, and gave the best seedlings and in her honor named one of the grown hybrid roses. The Princess is in debt does not remain, and in letters to Vorontsov and then asked Earl to help, “the glorious and indefatigable” Gartvis specie.

By the end of the 1820s Anna became the owner of a large valuable house in almost 30 thousand vines. Here was a Bordeaux, “Muscat”, “Pinot Noir”, “Traminer”. Grew well and more rare to the South coast “Petit Noir” – red grape variety. In the early 1800s, it was brought to the Peninsula Commerce adviser William Rouvier, a French political refugee and entrepreneur. By persuading the Emperor Alexander I to give it in rent derelict desert land, he organized there the sheepfold, but under the perch planted vines he brought from Malaga. But the soil proved unsuitable, and he tried luck in Laspi, because those places are very reminiscent of the suburbs of nice, where the variety is well grown. The first results were excellent. Soon the vineyards in Laspi compared with olive and Malaga. Wine really worked, aged, full-bodied, flavorful, almost a liqueur.

“Pino-Fleury” Princess Galitzine was also a native of Spain. So in Crimea, the Vorontsov era was called the red grape variety “Mourvedre” ancient history and high yield. In Crimea it was brought olive growers in the early nineteenth century. He is well settled and grown throughout the South coast. However, the wine from it was of low quality. It was recommended to mix it with Bordeaux and Burgundy varieties.

Anna was very proud of her “Riesling”. Probably got it from the garden Gartvis, which grew about 4 thousand bushes of this variety. Have gartvis put Riesling above all other German vines and spoke of him very highly: “excellent grade. The most famous by doing him the best Rhine wines, Johannisberger and others, takes the first place among the varieties of table wines”5.

she had vines of grapes asmanganese (aka – “Kleber”), old purebred varieties from the valley Rheingau. It is believed that this variety is bred based on the Burgundian “Pinot Noir”. Osmangazi vines appeared in Sudak in the beginning of XIX century due to the scientist P. S. Pallas, who in 1804 became the Director of the Crimean school of winemaking. The first planting yielded good results, ininograd stuck. In 1820-ies he moved to the South coast of the Crimea, planted in the Nikitsky garden and a few Russian names, including the Princess Galitzine.

In Koreiz cultivated and local varieties. Anna Sergeyevna was vine “Kokura”, which appeared in the area of Sudak in antiquity. Fat rich soil, he gave an excellent harvest. Golitsyn was made of red dense wine, quite strong.

Golitsyn clearly entered into the taste. From Germany and France have written by experienced Coopers, winemakers, pogrebschikov, and all that was required for quality wine production. Funds are not spared, and out of a lot of sense. Scientist Peter Koeppen reported the results: “In this year (1831 – Auth.) Asmanganese grapes pressure was already on 20 August. In early September there was a stampede of Bordeaux grapes and the so-called petit-noir. After all other grades of pressure was pineau fleuri”6.

when the Tenants have worked Galitzine, used the newest French and German methods. Collected bunches they had “graphiremouse”, that is, separated the berries from the brushes with special tubs with bars issued from Germany. Then made “pizhazh” – berries in the vats filled to half, tightly closed lids and every day early in the morning mixed with special shoes to weight wandered evenly. After 10-12 days it was poured into prepared barrels with a small metal tubes connected to a reservoir filled with water. While the wine of wandering from pipes in the water did the gas. When the fermentation was over, the servants refilled the barrels to the top was clogged up and then another several times, poured wine for as long as it never ceased to thicken. Then cleaned the drink with egg whites (ratio 2 protein for 5 buckets of wine). Only after all these procedures, the drink was ready for bottling.

wine is aged in specially equipped cellars. Swiss architect Karl eshliman built a basement on the bottom floor of the estate of Koreiz. Scientist Peter Koeppen, keenly followed the development of the wine company of the Princess, said: “Cellar in Huraisi (Koreiz. – Auth.) is constructed with the beginning of spring, for the arch whose worn stone is delivered from Feodosia, and this cellar, arranged above the shop, will cost thousands to 16 or 18 rubles,”7.

the Mistress of Koreiz left the cellar happy – spacious, comfortable, with a constant uniform temperature, which is important for quality aging wines. Outwardly, it looked spectacular – stone in the shape of a Latin cross, with two turrets, guests compared it with a Gothic castle. It flattered Anna Sergeevna, enamored of the middle ages and mysticism.

there was another problem, which the Princess tried to resolve the market. In the first years she could sell their aged red in��on only in Kharkiv. In 1831, 120 buckets sold for 22 rubles each. A good start, but wanted more. She, like Vorontsov, dreamed to conquer major markets – Moscow and St. Petersburg. And she constantly fussed about it wrote to an influential friend, had sent petitions to the Ministry of justice and personally to the Emperor. With Vorontsov and A. N. Golitsyn she finally got permission to trade in Moscow and “to put into the cellar, everywhere will be selling, the sign of the Imperial winoptimize wines of southern coast of Crimea,”8.

In 1834, she received 1400 buckets of wine9. Next year, 1,200 buckets, including buckets 200 Riesling, Muscat and 40 buckets, Bordeaux – 20 out”10.

the Princess believed that in 10-15 years will achieve the desired recognition for his wines in Russia and abroad. Unfortunately, her dream was never realized. Anna died in 1838 Ambitious wine venture of count Vorontsov also came to naught. In the Crimea continued to create good drinks, but due to the remoteness from industrial and commercial centres, lack of Railways and short sea shipping they are only partially fell into the large markets and could not compete with well-known European brands.

the Man who revived the local wine industry, became the namesake of Anna Sergeyevna — the Prince Lev Sergeyevich Golitsyn. Now his name is well known. A monument to him, about it and shot several documentaries. There is a Museum, there are famous Golitsyn cellar. From the rich vineyards of Anna Galitzine nothing has survived. Her cellar in the early twentieth century seriously was rebuilt, and now it is called “Wine cellar design” in honor of the former owners. Koreizsky HOMESTEAD and grave of the Princess lost. About the “Imperial winoptimize” now remember, only a few historians. And it is unfair because she and Peter Pallas, and Gates Nicholas and count Mikhail Vorontsov were the true founders of the Crimean winemaking and noble Patriotic idea of “great Russian wines”.

1. Ballas, M., the Wine industry in Russia. Historical-statistical essay. SPb., 1895. P. 17.

2. Steven H. a review of the success of sericulture, horticulture and wine-making in the midday provinces of Russia (1836-1837 gg.) / / magazine of the Ministry of internal Affairs. 1837. T. XXIII. Part 3. P. 469-471.

3. Ibid. P. 470.

4. Fadeeva T. southern coast of the Russian aristocracy. From the history of development of the Crimean South coast of the 1820s-30s in unpublished letters of the Princess A. Golitsyn to Alexander I, Vorontsov, etc. persons. M., 2016. P. 69.

5. Have Gartvis N. A. Overview of the actions of the Imperial Nikitsky garden and Magarachsky school of winemaking, made. SPb., 1855. P. 33.

6. Koeppen P. About the success of winemaking in the southern coast of Crimea // journal of the Minist��to be the interior. 1831. KN. 6. P. 165.

7. Ibid. P. 166.

8. Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. Assembly 2. T. XVII. N 1650.

9. Steven H. a review of the success of sericulture, horticulture and wine-making in the midday provinces of Russia (1834-1835 gg.) / / magazine of the Ministry of internal Affairs. 1835. T. XV. N 2. P. 301.

10. Steven H. a review of the success of sericulture, horticulture and wine-making in the midday provinces of Russia (1835-1836) // magazine of the Ministry of internal Affairs. 1836. T. XX. N 4. P. 46.