Look in Moscow of the XIX century and learn how city life changed with the onset of June. The main components of the Moscow summer in the nineteenth century — in the material

With the start of summer, Muscovites were rushing to get out of the stuffy city to the garden — as 1888, for example, in the area were counted. In the warm season there moved an impressive number of residents — up to 40 thousand people.

the most Prestigious of all was to rent a summer house belonging to the businessman Vasily Perlove (today a district of suburban Mytischi). In each of the 80 houses had their own shower and toilet was equipped bath on the Yauza. Fences were not — they were considered bad manners. The rent was paid mainly for the next three years. Came expensive: the money you could buy housing in Moscow. In the fee included cultural activities: twice a week the Gems were invited to speak to the cottagers musicians and actors.

the Fashion for cottages came first. The historian Nikolai Karamzin noted that in the summer on the streets almost no one remains: the summer visitors are leaving, the rest are at home escaping from the heat. In the 1830s the garden was located in Ostankino, Kuntsevo. The latter has a special history. In this area since the XVII century were the Royal hunting grounds and a country house. But in 1826-m Nicholas I ordered to give part of a city Park and a part of the lease to 48 or even 99 years. Here there and settled wealthy vacationers. The house that belonged to the state Councilor does Ivan Lyamina (1822-1894), are preserved until now.

art Nouveau, pseudo-Gothic and avant-garde. The six main buildings Sokolniki

“Sokolniki now dotted with many beautiful villas, which each summer are busy the best Moscow society”, — was stated in the guide, 1867. A lovely cottage you had to pay about 550 rubles a season — twice more than in more modest places.

there were places of summer holidays and in areas that today are considered Central, such as on the Leningrad prospectus. Architect Fyodor Shekhtel built there dvuhetazhki, its owners, merchants and manufacturers frequently changed.

In the late nineteenth century suburban housing was built and Tsaritsyno. Rest here are mostly intellectuals — writers, composers, scientists.

Bicycles began to appear in the city in the early 1860-ies and was not available to everyone. After lucky, riding strange two-wheeled device, people turned. And although the ride they were allowed only in country parks Yes in closed arenas, cyclists were jealous. Some envy pushed to ugly deeds to damage the wheel or set on easy rider dog. And bikes was afraid of horses, due to which cab drivers were angry and would hit velexipedia on the back with a whip to get off.

In 1883, the first in the country for Cycling. There were other societies: the Moscow club Cycling (MCVE), club ciclista “Moscow” society of cyclists, “Russia”, Union of cyclists, tourists and the circle ciclistas “Muir and merilis”.

Bikes are becoming more accessible, more popular. To ride on the streets was allowed only in 1894. By 1902 mu fans of two-wheeled transport in Moscow, there were only five to 10 thousand. Each bike definitely had its license plate. Appeared.

Walk the Boulevard or the Park in bright new clothes was in itself entertainment. Ideas.

the Rooms of the “Moscow mercury” were filled with images of Parisian fashion. For example, it told how to wear yellow straw hats. Not far behind, and the magazine “Moscow Telegraph”. In 1820-1830-ies there was also a category “Paris fashion”, thanks to which you can find out all about silk “colours of Paradise yellow bird” and what you’re supposed to wear dress for Hiking. Men were taught to tie the “halstuch” in a special book, 1829.

single girls of wealthy families wore modest dresses and after the wedding wardrobe appeared dense silk, silk with wool (sometimes from Persia, Turkey and Italy), as well as bonnets or hats and tattoos that were not removed in summer.

to Buy this all can be had in many shops in the Kitay-Gorod, Tverskaya and Myasnitskaya ulitsa Kuznetsky most. Even with 1820 years they sold fashionable clothes from Europe. One of the most famous shops on Kuznetsky owned It not only traded, but also sewed herself and advising them on matters of fashion.

In 1825, was first published the play “Woe from wit”, which puts into the mouth was these words:

And all Kuznetsk Bridge, and the eternal French

Out of fashion to us, the artists and the muses:

Ruining pockets and hearts!

When will save us, the Creator

From their hats! chepcov, and pins!

Upper trading rows (now GUM) opened in 1893. at About the same time there are other passages — Solodovnikova, Golofayeva, “Muir and merilis”. There you can find underwear, men’s and ladies ‘ hats, handkerchiefs, parasols, silk ribbon and more. In the 1890s more and more enterprises, where sew women’s clothes. The most famous was the firm “nadeina Maria Cherkasova”, factory Claudia Muravyova, workshop and store of the fashion designer Nadezhda Lamanova (Andrucci). Clients the last, incidentally, was the capital of the famous actress, Princess Elisaveta Feodorovna. And Konstantin Stanislavsky offered her to make outfits for the Moscow Art theatre.

At the beginning of the XX century increased the number of publications where it was possible, sorryü topics about fashion: “Women”, “Ladies world”, “Women”, “Magazine for Housewives”, “woman’s World”, “Magazine for women”. They all ceased to exist in 1917-1918. In one of the rooms “Magazine for Housewives” of 1915 stated: “the Skirt is still very short…” Short skirts were considered to have paved the ankle. These have become fashionable in 1914.

“the Skirt is still very short.” Study of pre-revolutionary women’s magazines Revolutionary spirit and folk motifs. Consider the dress of the legendary actress Alice Koonen

One of the most popular places for Muscovites was Sokolniki Park. In 1878 the territory from the Royal Treasury, paying fabulous 300 thousand rubles. Creating the Park was facilitated by the patron Sergei Tretyakov. There made lighting and paved highway. In the center put a wooden rotunda, where were the musicians. Then arranged and an open stage for concerts and performances. There in his time were Fyodor Shalyapin and Sergei Prokofiev. On the ponds there were boats for skiing. Were here restaurant for aristocrats, and a gazebo with tea and bagels for the common people.

Another favorite citizens Park — appeared in 1803, under Alexander I. basically there was about those who have no country cottages, people walking there all day long, stopping at times until late evening. We were lovers and Hiking, and undercarriage. Here too were the musicians.

Lovers of botany, attended the “Apothecary garden”, then. In 1805 it became the owner of the Moscow University. Garden planted with various plants, including rare. Just three years later, there were already 3528 names.

the Kremlin gardens (Alexander garden) created in the years of 1821-1823. Instead of a dirty ditch appeared fragrant Park is another point of attraction for Muscovites, who loved the leisurely meditative walks. Put in order, and in 1825 started a garden with flower beds, paths, lemon trees in tubs. Guests of Petrovsky theatre (now Large) have a habit of coming long before presentation to take a walk here.

In 1840 he graduated from the Royal residence is composed of three adjacent architectural-Park complex. This area was chosen for the most part merchants. Here whole families came, riding on boats, watching the view of the air theater under the open sky.

Why the Neskuchny garden, the Green theatre, and a girl with a paddle: five stories of Gorky Park

And the famous Moscow zoo has its origins in 1864, when it was known as the first in the country. It contained a variety of domestic and wild animals and birds. Among them were bears, wolves, lions, tigers, kangaroo, alligator, rhinoceros, parrots. Collection replenished due to the natural��mu growth and gifts: the ruler of Egypt Ismail Pasha, gave the Zebra, and the commander of the frigate “Svetlana” Ivan Butakov brought back from holiday in Australia several animals. In the Zoological garden it was very difficult to get — in cash lined up a huge queue.

Muscovites of the past centuries differed little from us in terms of the ways of salvation from the heat. In the heat, especially when you want cool, they — in its present form it appeared in the XVIII century. It was made out of milk, egg whites, sugar, to add a chocolate, black currants, raspberries, cherries. Have a cold dessert at the time, met another name — glacier. First, it was cooked on the stove, then poured in a porcelain shapes and left to cool. After that, mass was said in the ice cream maker with ice and salt and frozen.

In the nineteenth century, apart from the usual ice cream, appeared and its variants, is quite popular among Muscovites: Sorbetto (which is not fully cured ice cream) and (semi-liquid mass of fruit juices).

ice cream traded on Kuznetsky most, Arbat. On the streets you could often meet sellers, shouting: “Sugar ice creams!” Later, this Creek has immortalized in his poem “Ice cream”. In 1925 it was published as a separate book with illustrations by Vladimir Lebedev

Sugar Ice

On a silver platter it should be,

thick and sweet

Eat up!

I Wrestled with the heat and with the help of such kvass. It was cooked everywhere, in rich and poor homes. Sometimes the brew can add fruit. Sold it on the streets the representatives of the Guild of casolaro. Muscovites were also fond of lemonade, cranberry honey, and other drinks.

Another popular summer pastime since the late nineteenth century was a pastime at the beach. Usual now about the swimwear then out of the question, people are “sunbathing” in closing the arms and legs of the overalls of thick wool or cotton. Female models included skirts. Your suit citizens were decorated with ruffles, sailor collars. To set often attached stockings, gloves and hat or cap. Bare chest men was strictly forbidden, they also wore closed clothes. The same rules were maintained in the early twentieth century.

Places for a beach holiday were selected by the Commission sanitary doctor of Moscow. On approved areas near bridges are sometimes made — wooden houses in the middle of the river. These were Stone, ustyinsky, Borodino, the Crimean and other bridges. They were divided into noble and commoner branches, as well as male and female. Was and family — for couples with children.

On the beach mostly just rested, enjoying the water. Swam quite a few — there were disputes that cold at first, river water may be hazardous to health. Yes, and to swim in this clothing was not very comfortable. Swimming was forbidden from 23:00 to 08:00.