Vladimir Leonidovich, a couple of years ago, the media in the Urals wrote about the frog that you found under Krasnouralsk, she had a body like cellophane, even the internal organs are visible. And all at once thought, well, of course mutant, enterprises in the Urals, the whole of nature ruined.
Vladimir Vershinin: that’s just in this case, the Industrialists were innocent. It was a frog, just devoid of colour, albinism in nature is not so rare. And this is an acceptable anomaly in development, is caused by a mutation. Mutations in nature occur constantly. Without some of their share would not have been possible evolutionary process in principle.
A frog with ten limbs, not so long ago discovered in the United States, is also the norm?
Vladimir Vershinin: And then, oddly enough, blame not the people. While in America, of course, at first considerably alarmed, and even allocated for a study of this phenomenon nine million dollars. The survey revealed almost a “detective story”. It turned out, one of the parasites – trematode Ribeiroiaondatrae, more precisely, its cercaria (intermediate stage of development of trematodes) were intestinalis same part of the tadpole, where there is a formation of the limbs. What caused the abnormal development of this zone, and as a result appear individuals with five or more limbs. Ask why the parasite needs it? So the frog was born more vulnerable and quickly got into the bill to the Heron, for example, or swallowed some kind of reptile. In other words, the same ultimate owner to which “seeks” this parasite, in which it breeds.
In this case, how to understand that the anomaly arose due to the interference of us humans?
Vladimir Vershinin: you Know, every time this is very individual, you need to study and to conduct the whole investigation, given the range of factors. Here, for example, have you ever taken ever, what color are the eyes of a frog?
Vladimir Vershinin: And you look closely, they’re Golden! But in combination with separate factors of transformation of the environment, frogs can be absolutely black eyes. And if in some place you meet not one, but several individuals with black bottomless pupils, this may indicate that the environment in which they live, clearly not all right.
We’re in so much trouble in the nature did. Driven, for example, almost all small rivers in the cities in the pipe under the ground, they tell us the building is not interfered with, expensive land was not taken away. Pour in the pipes no one knows that. And where the poor frogs live? They’re mostly like clean water. Incidentally, in Germany all species of amphibians listed in the Red book. Because they are very vulnerable, their number and diversity strivesexclusively decline on the entire planet.
You so lovingly talk about frogs that I want to listen to forever.
Vladimir Vershinin: And you would know in Japan are frogs. There is only one in the world “the Palace of the frogs”, the Amphibian research center. Scientific institution, where study of amphibians. Imagine it on the threshold of each door transparent partitions, so that no one accidentally frog escaped and not died. These partitions are marked yellow “Zebra”, is that people raised legs, and no one accidentally stopped or parked on a runaway.
By the way, this summer, my colleagues from Japan had planned to continue working together, but broke coronavirus. The Japanese study of the hybrid species are interbreeding. And we have large practices in natural populations of amphibians. Thanks to joint research with colleagues from Hiroshima University and personally to Dr. Ikuo Miura’s, it turned out that the marsh frogs that live in the Urals, there are mitochondria Balkan frogs! And it turns into another “detective” investigation. Well, from the Balkan DNA in the Urals? Not doprygnul this frog thousands of miles away.
Vladimir Vershinin: the First way out of the laboratory, when scientists, students conduct experiments with imported frogs. When work ends, but we can’t kill them, I am sorry, that is released into the wild. The second way – when the frogs for hundreds of miles are imported with the fry when breeding.
Vladimir Leonidovich, what is the most important discovery you’ve made for yourself, studying frogs?
Vladimir Vershinin: In fact, the discovery of many. In humans, because common frogs body plan, we are very similar and at first glance it seems incredible.
Here, for example, in recent times we often find in nature frogs with sexual abnormalities, intersex, hermaphrodites. One of variants of such pathologies, when the male testes appear in the oocytes (female germ cells) instead of sperm. If the population grows, the proportion of females for the frog community is even good. For them, the more females the better, ideally one male should have two females. When the individual becomes bisexual or has anomalies of generative organs is pathological. If the analogy with humans, the picture is opposite: today, scientists are alarmed over the past half century has increased the number of infertile couples. About 17-20 percent of couples are unable to have children. And the reasons of physiological abnormalities of frogs and humans, oddly enough, often have the same nature. This is the environment in which we all live. Namely, the abundance of organic pollutants in nature, by-products of the hydrocarbons. They fall in and��atmosphere, in soil, in water and partly in food. It is proved that, having a cumulative effect, they affect the ability of men and women to have children. Scientists doctors confirm: increased the percent of male infertility in recent years. And the cause in many cases, environmental factors and unpredictable effects from their interaction.
what we need to protect the environment in which they live, clearly proved to the whole world and pandemic coronavirus. It turned out that if something terrible globally, then run us from this “monster” nowhere, very much on the small planet we all live. And we, scientists, have long understood this, studying amphibians. You know, there is in Ekaterinburg a small pond, where some 20 years ago you could find three species of amphibians, and today none. Quietly, discreetly, and ceased to croak of a frog. People actually are also very fragile and vulnerable creature. No need to forget about it.
what a frog croaking? Talking about their sound?
Vladimir Vershinin: first and foremost, about love. Most often, the croaking of the males and attract females. By the way, could be the sound to distinguish males from females. At last, the sound more thin, high. Frog just vietava the eggs can tell the male is trying to hold her, they say, to me is not necessary. “Fuck off…”
is it Possible to have frogs that live in Russia, as do the French?
Vladimir Vershinin: Theoretically, Yes. If they live in a clean environment and if you allow eating habits and upbringing. Otherwise, it may happen as the grandfather Shchukar of “virgin soil upturned”. Remember? “Brothers! But one we have a frog ate it!”
by the Way, the French eat small frogs, not more than 10 inches in length. Those that are more considered unmarketable.
When you first fell in love with frogs? Why study these all my life?
Vladimir Vershinin: my love for all living beings is very much influenced by the father, although he is a techie by training. When I was a kid, we often went together into the forest. And when he noticed something amazing chick, for example, entangled in the grass, or the frog, he stopped and stood motionless. And I knew in that moment that now I will open a small miracle. This sense of discovery of something amazing, the anticipation of this miracle has stayed with me all my life. And you know, I never thought after school, where to go to learn. Of course, the biologist.