Recall: their first Mars probe, “hope” has launched the United Arab Emirates. The machine introduced Japanese rocket H-IIA launch site Tanegashima. Just three days later in a resounding start rocked the scientific world China: heavy carrier “Changzheng-5” he sent interplanetary space station “Tangwani-1” (“Questions to heaven”). This is from three satellites Orbiter, lander and Rover. The probe is designed for a Martian year (about two earth), a 240-kilogram Rover 90 Martian days. If all goes well, then China will become the second country after the United States, whose intelligent robot careful on the red dusty paths.

And on July 30 there also went the Rover Perseverance. The large and heavy “Martianez” among the NASA. Weighs 1025 kg, has a length of 3 m, width – 2,7 m. And here, too, your “cheese”: on Board the Rover is the first ever Martian helicopter. It’s just a little drone. However, it will allow us to understand the potential of rotary wing vehicles beyond Earth. It is planned that “pinwheel” will be launched several times, and each flight will last no more than three minutes.

Another feature of the “extreme”, as they say specialists, of the mission: the soil samples that will get the machinery in the future will be delivered on the Ground. At least the Americans will try.

an Important point: the United States was able to send its Mars Rover due to Russian engines installed on the rocket Atlas V. “Engine RD-180 NPO “Energomash” has ensured the successful launch of NASA mission to Mars. Congratulations Igor Aleksandrovich Arbuzov (the General Director of “Energomash”. – Approx. ed.) and team of this enterprise “Roscosmos” quality work”, – stated in the message of the state Corporation “Roscosmos” on Twitter.

the Martian hype-2020 is explained very simply: in July opened the most favorable from a ballistic point of view, the window for the flight to the red planet. In other words, Earth and Mars as close to each other. Such arrangement of the planets happens about every 2 years and 50 days. What does it mean? Depending on the initial speed of the spacecraft varies and its duration. So, one of the fastest Mars-shots only lasted 128 days, one of the longest – 333 days. In any case, “window” engineers and scientists are trying to exploit to the full.

Today, in the orbit of Mars the American probe Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and NAVEN, and on the surface of Mars – the Curiosity Rover and the stationary vehicle is Insight. Also circling around the planet, the European probe Mars Express and the Trace Gas Orbiter (the last two of the four scientific instruments created by specialists of the Russian space research Institute). Another camera in orbit around Mars Indian interplanetary station “Mars Orbiter mission”.

According to many scientists, with the help of the red planet mcan be solved not only a serious scientific problem. The earth is not immune from global catastrophes. And Mars, as many believe, is the most promising candidate for the role of a spare planet for humanity. However, cosmic radiation will become a major obstacle to manned missions to Mars, experts are convinced. For example, this view is shared by the academician the lion Green. “To fly humans to Mars, I’m very pessimistic,” – he does not hide. In his opinion, the problems associated with cosmic radiation, will be relevant during the flight to Mars because of the large distances. More than six months, the crew will be in open space with all the charms of radiation from the Sun and cosmic rays.

however, Stanford University Professor Scott Hubbard warns: alien viruses can enter the Earth through the rock samples from Mars. The scientist believes that removed from the surface of the red planet the stones have to be treated so, “as if they are infected with the Ebola virus”, until proven their safety. Although in an interview with Stanford News Hubbard makes a reservation: the probability of viruses from another planet using the rock samples is still very small.

whatever it was, almost all experts agree: not a technique, namely the people – the most vulnerable link in long-term space expedition. Scientists calculated risk of radiation exposure for an expedition to Mars and back, which will last two years. According to their estimates, the total radiation risk over the life of the astronauts, regardless of age, for the protection of a radiation shelter 20 g/sq cm will be 7.5% and the reduction in the average expectancy of life – 2.5 years.

But the idea of designers working. A contribution to the solution of problems trying to make even the students. So, some time ago members of the International space school at MSTU named after Bauman suggested the flight to the red planet inside the asteroid. It is assumed that the celestial stone will serve as a natural protection from the galactic rays. It is clear that the required technology “implementation” of the asteroid. And such being developed.

– We often see that after landing, the astronauts bear arms, said in an interview “RG” Deputy Director of the Institute of biomedical problems of RAS on scientific work Valery Bogomolov. But on the same Mars who will do it? Therefore, the task is to find out the capacity of the crew after long months of space travel, to assess the possibility of motor areas, sensory systems for work in spacesuits on another planet. And what can be done to improve.

Analysts agree: the Martian and similar projects to inspire the youth and promote the national spirit. Research projects are a symbol of the relationship of Stwounds to the cosmos. Not coincidentally, the Chief designer Sergey Korolyov paid special attention to the missions to the moon, to Venus, to Mars.

the world’s First machine that got on Mars was the Soviet station “Mars-2” in 1971. Unfortunately, the machine crashed. In the same year held the world’s first and only in the Soviet space program soft landing of the lander on the Red planet. It was a “Mars-3”. He started to transfer data already 1.5 minutes after primereniya, but the relationship ended after 14.5 seconds. Dust storm! No luck.

the General history of Martian studies, two-thirds of the missions failed. The failure is not passed neither our country nor the United States nor Europe. There are numbers: just to Mars was sent 44 missions. 16 of them successful, 7 partly successful and 21 unsuccessful. By the way, the first Chinese Mars satellite “inkho-1” (110 kg) was actually associated workload of the Russian mission “Phobos-grunt” launched in November 2011. And burned up in earth’s atmosphere.

experts underline that the project was unique. No one had the courage to fly to pick up the soil from the surface of Mars. Russia has a chance. Yeah, didn’t work. “Still time to strategize will work”, say the optimists.

Now, Roskosmos, is trying to return to Mars with the European space Agency. In 2016, the Russian “Proton” was launched by the joint ExoMars mission to successfully deliver to planet orbiting Observatory Trace Gas Orbiter. But the lander “Schiaparelli”, developed mainly in Russia, crashed while landing. The next ExoMars mission postponed to 2022. And she, too, will include a Rover.

Vladimir Bugrov, the developer of projects of expedition to Mars and the moon, the leading designer of manned rocket and space complexes for disembarkation to the moon and “Energy-Buran”:

In 1962 Sergei Korolev, developing interplanetary program, submitted to the expert Commission is realistic the project of an expedition to Mars in which to send 3 people were supposed to gather in orbit of an artificial Earth satellite (OISS) total set weight 500 so relatively speaking, at 165 tons per person. Over the past half century, these data reduce failed. Even in projects focused on reusable electrical propulsion ships.