3 August (new style), 1890 born architect Konstantin Melnikov. In their design he took into account the movement of cars. As planned, every car was in the garage, took his seat and started forward, moving forward. It is on this principle in the 1930-ies was built two garage for Bakhmetevsky and Novoryazanskoe the streets.

In the year of 130th anniversary of the birth of the architect and innovator, we offer you to recall the main creations of Konstantin Melnikov that can be seen today in Moscow.

the ideas of the architect were so innovative that they often had to simplify, and part creative experimentation remained in the draft, far ahead of the technical possibilities of his time. The country simply does not have the necessary funds, materials and skilled workers.

This approach when the internal space of the building, or even a separate part of the building is actively changed by using temporary partitions, and other means, experts call the kinetic architecture, or architecture in motion.

in Spite of innovative ideas, Melnikov always took into account how the building will fit into the urban environment.

“Melnikov loved Moscow and evaluated from the point of view of the pedestrian, as the building will eventually look. It is competently fit in the allocated building plots their structures, so that people who passed could see it and did not feel confined in this space,”explained Anna Kistanova.

moreover, according to her, Melnikov always expected their projects from the point of view of fire safety, saving of construction materials. Due to the numerous staircases and additional exits they meet modern fire safety standards.

However, the fate of the buildings, as the architect was not easy. Not all the buildings Melnikova preserved in its original form. One of these projects. In the center of the orchestra was conceived a fountain, which, as he wrote Melnikov, architecture should be formed by the water jets. Although the project was not fully implemented, the layout of the site facing the street the Crimean Shaft, still coincides with the idea of the architect.

In the early 1930-ies Gorky Park has become one of the most popular in the capital areas. Here are organized exhibitions, have established the parachute tower, which in those days could not boast of any single Park in the world. English pisatelnitsa this place the “factory of happy people”. So the author of fantastic novels was struck by the smiling faces of Muscovites, whom he met during his trip to the USSR in 1934. today Gorky Park is one of the main symbols of Moscow.

Why the Neskuchny garden, the Green theatre and dev��shka — paddle: five stories from the Park Harkovenergoremont on project Shuko and Spasova: looks like a renovated entrance to Gorky Park

the earliest surviving works of Konstantin Melnikov — built in 1924. Work began after it was decided to close natural Sukharevsky market. Under the trade rows were allocated a plot of wasteland between the Large Sukharevsky pereulok, Pipe and Sadovo-Sukharevskaya streets. At the suggestion of Melnikov built his wooden pavilions, kiosks with storefronts on both sides. In the center of the converged three flat rays of the shopping malls have placed the office, which was the only brick structure in the market. In addition to office space, there was a tavern.

First, the millers decided to make the office a round, but then to emphasize the idea with the rays changed the composition on a triangle. Still in terms of city building represents. In the top of the triangle Melnikov placed the staircase from the second floor was open, and led onto a flat roof terrace. Characteristic of constructivism geometric structures emphasize the vertical projections on the walls and elongated Windows, and on the main facade is a round window-porthole.

General layout plan of the market was carefully considered given the location of the main entrances into its territory. Melnikov made the rows of tents of different sizes and not only put them in parallel, but also created a scenic space-planning composition, which he called

Novashevsky market lasted until 1930, and then his territory was occupied by the workshops for repair. Until the late 1990-ies of the office building Novocherkasskogo market was rebuilt several times and repaired. In the end, the house roof from flat to pitched, turned, changed the color of the walls and part of the wooden window frames replaced with plastic. The stairs leading to the porch, was bricked up. Original doors over the years have been completely lost.

Now agreed the project of restoration and adaptation of the building for modern use. He will also return to its historical appearance.

One of the most famous projects of Konstantin Melnikov — the House of culture named after I. V. Rusakov, located at the intersection of streets Stromynka and Babaevskie. The building resembles the shape of a huge gear, built in 1927-1929 for employees of the Union of public utilities. It was the heyday of the idea of a new life and upbringing of the new man — homemade lunch replaced a range of catering and ideologically wrong going to Church — visiting clubs workers.

Melnikov came up with to install seats for spectators in three extended from the building sectors, overhanging ��rotheram, — that before him, nobody did. Another highlight was the hall-transformer can accommodate from 250 to 1500 spectators. Melnikov developed a system of shutters, which when closed separates the podium from the stage. The resulting areas were classes in drawing, acting. To this day the mechanism of is not preserved after the war the building was rebuilt.

In 2015, after the restoration of the House of culture moved in. Experts have recreated the historic character of the listed building. In particular, it has been restored scene, auditoriums, balconies, foyer. In order also led facades, which restored the historic inscriptions, and recreated the stained glass Windows. The basis of the plans for the restoration were taken with the idea of Konstantin Melnikov. Just before his death, the architect made a project for the reconstruction of the monument, which was rebuilt and altered, as if he wanted to. The restorers took it as a basis and even the inscription on the Union — school of communism restored in full.

Genius, passion and building gear. How does the Theatre of the Roman Pictureshorse the restoration work in the Palace of culture named Rusakova

a Transformable stage, sliding partitions and a large number of external stairs, these much-loved solutions Melnikov used to create other buildings. So, the basis constructed in 1929 on the Berezhkovskaya embankment, stands in the auditorium with two levels of balconies (second floor and first tier), which are connected by two symmetrical lateral staircases. Intermediate platforms of stairs to get to lobby, lobby, library with reading hall and open terrace along the side facades. Due to the large number of glazed surfaces of the interior of the club was covered by abundant and even natural light. Dining room and kitchen built separately and connected with the main body passage. The restoration of the building was conducted from 2003 to 2009.

the basis For the project, built in 1927-1929 on Vyatskaya street, was taken placed on the body of the first floor form resembling a cigar. It was cut into two equal parts by a wall, which if necessary, could rise. The result was an auditorium with a capacity of a thousand people. After the great Patriotic war, the club became the Palace of culture named after Gorky, altered: the Windows were laid, staircases were removed and the building repainted. So it stood until the 2000s.

Osobennostyu round lobby surrounded by exterior stairs. By the way, for the building of Melnikov went to the corner lot at the intersection of Plyushchikha and 2nd lane Workers. However, the architect managed to significantly enter the building in urban development.

the Land plot is even more complex configuration was allotted for construction in the 3rd Rybinskaya street. The area was an irregular Pentagon, which Melnikov described as a “narrow, with oblique line.” The building has a graceful four-storey tower with a huge semicircular Windows. In the foyer on the ground floor was designed pool. However, in this area of Moscow at that time had no running water and sewage, so plans had to change. Now the club is under reconstruction. In the future they plan to open a private art Museum of Russian abstract art.

the bakhmetevsky bus garage built according to the project of Konstantin Melnikov, has long been an important cultural area of the capital. From 2008 to 2012, it housed the centre of contemporary culture “Garage”, and now —

the garage was built in 1927 to accommodate the more than 130 buses “Leyland”, purchased in the UK. It was before in Moscow there was not a single bus and, of course, garages are able to place them: British buses stationed literally anywhere and carriage sheds, and in warehouses.

In the Parking garage Bahmetevskom was the first in the country implemented new technological scheme of Parking — the so-called, in which the bus does not need to reverse, neither at entry nor at the exit.

Outside the bakhmetevsky bus garage looks quite squat building, but if you enter inside, you see a spacious room with high ceilings. They came through: he invented a unique system of overlappings on the area of 8,5 thousand square feet used only 18 of thin pillars, making the space looks so airy.

In 1929-1931, Melnikov worked on sozdaniemnovogo was driven from Novoryazanskaya street, and went to the opposite side. Thanks to this solution, within can accommodate 110 cars. The appearance of the complex has changed several times. For example, originally, the garage had 18 gates, but later some of them were laid. In addition, the outside came the outbuildings, and inside — the additional premises.

Garage-horseshoe awaits restoration. In the first stage, professionals will strengthen the Foundation and the roof, restored brickwork, dismantle a later addition. Then will begin the main part of the restoration. In the future in the building garage will open a Museum and cultural center

Garage Gosplan on Aviamotornaya street, the last major building designed by Melnikov’s drawings. It was built in 1936 and became a symbol of the end of the era of the avant-garde and constructivism in Soviet architecture.

Melnikov was engaged only. According to his idea, the composition garage resembles a car with a headlamp, a long wing of the first floor and radiator grille — vertical white columns. Gosplan of the USSR occupied the building until 1955, then it was given to the use of 8-th taxi Park of Moscow. Since the 1990s, the premises are leased.

But stainproductions Melnikov in 1934, is used for its intended purpose today. Once on the Suschevsky Val street you can see the transport of the Soviet organization, worked with foreign delegations, and now there are cars of the Federal security service.

the Architect was engaged in not so much the technical side (as in the design of the bakhmetevsky bus garage), but the exterior of the building: facade cuts through the glass surface, a stylized wheel tape. Was supposed to be and the layout of the car, but according to the original Melnikov’s project was built only the right side of the building.

the Home-Studio of Melnikov, built at the own expenses of the architect in 1927-1929 in Krivoarbatsky lane, became a symbol of the avant-garde.

the House having a plan can not be attributed to any known styles. The construction of walls and ceilings truly original. They are made in such a way that the house does not need additional supporting structures.

the Walls are cut by numerous hexagonal vertical Windows that create a unique ornament. Another huge window screen is located above the entrance to the house. On the ground floor is an entrance hall, kitchen, two bedrooms, dressing room, hallway and bathroom. At the second workshop, in which works of Konstantin Melnikov.

In 2014, the house received the status of it is Now a branch of the State Museum of architecture named Schuseva, which can be accessed with a guided tour.