The dry summer of 2018 in Switzerland is still fresh in our memories. The farmers had to irrigate meadows artificially, and helicopters flew water to the Alps. Many farmers slaughtered animals because they no longer had end of the year, enough feed for the cattle.

it was, However, influenced not only in our mid-2018 the weather due to extreme events, but on the whole of the Northern hemisphere occurred almost simultaneously in June and July special events: There was record heat and droughts in North America and Western Europe, but also heavy rain and Floods in South-East Europe, and Japan.

researchers now know the reason. The weather events are due to a phenomenon in 10 km altitude: the jet stream, the strong Wind that circles the earth from West to East and our weather is influenced.

Last summer, the waves of the Jetstream-wind band remained-namely, a long time just to wander instead of more – “as a result, the weather stopped in the affected regions, conditions, and longer and have to weather extreme”, writes the Potsdam Institute for climate impact research (PIK) said in a statement.

phenomenon led in 2003, 2006 and 2015, to heat waves

When this phenomenon occurs, and the “large waves lungs” for weeks at a spot to remain, develop from some of the Sunny days, sudden heat waves or droughts, and from a couple of rainy days, possibly floods.

The same pattern, the researchers also recorded during the European heat waves of 2003, 2006 and 2015, which are among the most extreme ever recorded.

Kai Kornhuber of the University of Oxford and the ACE of diamonds is lead author of the study of the climate team of researchers that made this discovery: You’ve found out “that the specific locations and timing of extreme weather in the summer of 2018 were not random, but directly with the Emergence of a repeating pattern in the Jetstream”.

stick the end of the shafts are concentrated on

The wind pattern occurs in the last 20 years, more and more frequently, and will take increasingly longer. “In the two decades prior to 1999, there was no summer, in which we see this pattern the stock shafts over a period of two weeks or even longer, but since we have already seen, seven of the summer,” says Co-author Dim Coumou, of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and the ACE of diamonds.

The researchers found the wind patterns lasting heat extremes in Western Europe, North America, and in the Region around the Caspian sea.

land masses heat up more quickly to

The researchers expected that the wind pattern due to climate change and the man-made global warming in the future even more frequently. There are two reasons for this.

first, the land masses heat up faster than the sea areas. This in turn leads to a larger temperature difference between Land and ocean. The scientists now expect that the higher difference in temperature favors the formation of the wave pattern.

Secondly, might be another important reason, “that the North Atlantic is cooler than it should be,” says the climate researcher. This is probably a consequence of the slowdown of the Gulf stream. The need for further studies, says Stefan Rahmstorf, head of the Department of earth system analysis at PIK.

risks for food production

grow is Clear, but The study clearly shows that the simultaneous Occurrence of extreme weather ball increase events in different regions of the North half of the risks for the people and global food production in the affected areas, are important granaries are, and because the majority of the people living in the Northern hemisphere.

And very important is: This continuing heat wave, caused by the stagnant wave pattern, come to global warming “still on top”. “This increases the risk of particularly extreme heat waves, especially in regions such as North America and Europe,” adds Scott Osprey of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Oxford.

After all, the researchers now hope, thanks to the discovery of the wave pattern to an improved prediction of future extreme weather events in the Northern hemisphere. (pt)

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