the Digital economy is not only a Russian, but a global trend.
Portal “the Future of Russia. National projects” together with the editorial Board of the international TASS begins a series of articles about the digitalization in different countries. The first story is about Estonia and how the small Baltic state has built the most advanced digital societies in the world.
In late January, the crew were in an expedition off the coast of Antarctica sailing ship “Admiral Bellingshausen” witnessed an unusual scene: on the deck with a laptop in the hands of rose, the President of Estonia Kersti Kaljulaid, sat behind the Desk, opened the computer and put an electronic signature on the decree to award the state awards of the 114 residents of the Republic. Document instantly got into public circulation in Estonia.
“In Antarctica I want to demonstrate that like in Estonia, the development plan in a digital society allows its citizens to browse the Internet, wherever they were”, — told Kaljulaid.
Estonia is often called “the most modern digital government”. In July 2019, as noted in the report InterNations “Digital life abroad”, according to coming here to work skilled foreigners, the country ranked first in the world in terms of development online services. the highest scores in this ranking, Estonia has received in categories “free Internet access” and “public services online”.
e-services e-Estonia allows residents to interact with government agencies directly from home — starting with the payment of taxes and open a business to medical advice and voting in elections. The latter was launched in 2005 and has made Estonia the first country in the world with Internet voting. In 2000, Estonia is also the world’s first ranked right to the Internet to basic human rights.
According to the Estonian Fund for enterprise development, regular use of the Internet and 91.6% of the population. As calculated earlier, the British company Rotten WiFi, Estonia ranked second in the world for quality public Wi-Fi networks: the connection speed is the average of 14.8 Mbps.
While some politicians point out that the level of broadband Internet penetration in the country does not match its ambitions. “The situation with high-speed Internet in Estonia is poor, — said Chairman of the parliamentary faction of the Centrist party Andrei Korobeinik. Is actually a serious problem that hinders regional development. Outside the main centres in Estonia is very cheap housing and beautiful nature, this could be a convenient option for Frielthe Meuse, but this requires a fast Internet”.
According to a study conducted in Estonia a few years ago, in the so-called white areas, which are minimally covered by high speed Internet and where the operator has no plans to build a broadband network in the next five years, was 140 thousand households, said the Chairman of the parliamentary group in support of broadband Internet connections Erki Savisaar.
to provide these regions of the Internet in the future, Estonia announced a competition of service providers, which was won by Elektrilevi.
According to Savisaar, the parliamentary group examines whether it is possible in the case of additional funding to have time to spend online in these areas by 2023.
According to the report, Global IT, in 2016, Estonia ranked first in the world in the coverage of cellular networks. Cellular services the country provides three provider Telia, Elisa and Tele2. The kit, which includes SIM card, as well as 5 GB high-speed mobile Internet in Estonia can be purchased for 3.5 Euro.
the Future of mobile technologies in Estonia is associated with the development of 5G networks. This issue is being discussed both at the level of government and in the Parliament, the MP said Savisaar.
“5G should be such that the services in this network will be able to offer all who have the ability and the desire, he said. — It is necessary to reverse the sale of frequencies to provide Internet services and pass frequencies in the lease of the network businesses. The companies involved in the infrastructure service should not be offered”.
In January, the competition on distribution of frequencies for the development of 5G in Estonia has been suspended indefinitely due suit company Levikom. In her opinion, conditions of competition are made in such a way that the frequencies will eventually only three of the largest mobile operator.
the Project of development of the 5G network may encounter political obstacles. In October last year, Prime Minister Estonia jüri Ratas and Vice President US Michael Pence signed a joint statement on security in networks 5G, which virtually eliminates the possibility of using the Estonian networks products of the Chinese company Huawei. It is Huawei partner mobile network operator Elisa.
To date, according to the Fund for the promotion of entrepreneurship, 7% of GDP Estonia create a company related to IT sector, providing jobs nearly 6% of the working population. In Estonia employs about 5 thousand Internet companies their total revenue is estimated at 3.6 billion euros a year.
In a recent study, the SEB found that 88% of Estonian population regularly bought products in the Internete. The volume of such transactions in recent years, growing twice as fast as the world average. Often buying on the Internet, Estonians make on the world’s largest platforms such as Alibaba, AliExpress and Amazon.
Estonian programmers behind the creation of such worldwide known brands as Skype, Hotmail and the system of international money transfers TransferWise. Increasingly important part of the Estonian Internet-economy are the companies working in the field of financial technologies. In 2017, this Baltic Republic was opened Europe’s first cryptocurrency Bank Polybius, all the processes which are built on blockchain technology. In September 2018 in Tallinn hosted the first digital EU summit, where EU leaders discussed the possibility of building a digital single market, including using the latest technology.
an Important step towards increasing the attractiveness of Estonia for foreign entrepreneurs was launched in 2014 the program electronic residency.
“the Program of e-citizenship has been successful: last year the taxes on companies based “e-citizens” have exceeded 10 million euros, said the portal the Deputy of the Centrist party peddler. Is just the beginning, the future prospects are good, especially considering the Brexit (British exit from the European Union. — Approx. ed.)“.
In March, the Estonian Parliament adopted a law that will reduce the level of bureaucratic burden for start-UPS. After that attracting investment will not have to register the Estonian notaries that will help the foreign startup founders.
at the same time in Estonia have been thinking to enter a new entry visa for the so-called digital nomads — Internet entrepreneurs which, because of the nature of their activities can work in any part of the globe. Such visas are expected to attract freelancers from all over the world to come and stay and work in Estonia. The bill approved by Parliament in first reading.
In total, Estonia currently offers over 600 e-services to citizens and about 2.5 thousand businesses. ID, which allows to obtain all these services in Estonia is ID-card acting as online-passport. With her help, residents can remotely sign documents, pay bills for mobile communication and transport, to vote, to carry out Bank transfers, to medical prescriptions, to monitor the progress of children in school and in a matter of minutes to open own business, without leaving your computer.
Growing popularity of online-voting: in 2019 in parliamentary elections nearly 47% of voters progrosevale via the Internet.
“In Estonia, the trends are very clear: more people vote in the primaries either on the Internet or on sites that are open for a few days before the main election day — said the peddler. Is more positive: than it is easier for people to vote, the more voter turnout and the better democracy works”.
But the vote via the Internet not everyone likes: the Chairman of the Conservative people’s party Mart Helme, for example, questioned his reliability and even called “stain”. However, no evidence that the elections via the Internet is insecure, the party has not submitted.
Some doubts about the safety of electronic technologies of identification are stored. In may last year, the newspaper Postimees reported that the attackers first managed to forge personal data of several tens of inhabitants of Estonia and to use them to gain access to Bank accounts and other information.
Development Internet technologies in Estonia is largely attributed to the artificial intelligence (AI). Last year, the authorities approved developed under the leadership of the Ministry of economic Affairs and communications state Chancellery and programme of action in the development of AI. She received the unofficial title of the “software Kratta” in honor of the creatures from Estonian mythology with an artificially created body and mind, which is subordinate to his master.
“I’m glad that both the public and private sector there is a clear interest in the implementation of artificial intelligence — said Prime Minister jüri Ratas. — In the long run it will bring government services and the private sector to a whole new level, increase the productivity and competitiveness of our economy and will allow Estonia to continue to be the flagship for our partners in Europe and in the world.”
In the country’s Parliament in the near future I plan to start using AI for speech recognition, and in the future — for the implementation of the translation and compilation of related meetings. The Ministry of justice is testing technology AI for sentencing on simplest Affairs: Estonia could become the first country where will start to work electronic judges.
Now on country roads touring six-wheeled robots-couriers, developed by the Estonian company Starship Technologies.
the Robot moves at pedestrian speed, he is able in one trip to cover the distance up to 5 km and carry up to 10 kg of cargo. The package inside the device puts a store employee, then the mechanical courier leaves at the path for a given address. Thanks to installed sensors and cameras, he is able to go around obstaclestions, to give way and obey all traffic rules. Open the lid to get the package only by code that knows only the destination of the shipment.
In August of last year in Tallinn Kadriorg Park was free to go unmanned buses of the French company Navya. Before you start working on the route the car “passed the exam” on the knowledge of traffic rules. And in April of this year on the route linking Tallinn airport one of the closest areas of the Estonian capital, will be launched unmanned buses. A machine the local production Iseauto accommodates up to six people and is capable of speeds up to 20 km/h. Its height is 2.4 m, length — 3.5 meters, width 1.5 meters, it is equipped with sensors and cameras and is controlled by the operating system that allows for Autonomous and safe driving.
“Estonia could become an excellent testing ground for unmanned vehicles: we have an extensive network of roads and small population density, said MP from the Centrist party Andrei Korobeinik. But is that our legislation not quite ready for this. Those single projects that have been implemented in Estonia was the machines or with very low speed limit or a person who, although not driving, but must sit in the cabin and control the situation. In addition, in Estonia allowed the robots of delivery — they are small and not go too fast. We talked on this subject with representatives of “Yandex” and got some good ideas that are working now”.
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