the authority of the Tolstoy suppressed the opportunity to look at the situation differently.
Unpublished archival documents that I found in the Russian state military-historical archive with the head of Department of information support Tatyana Yurievna Burmistrova, allow you to restore the actual circumstances of the drama.
the company commander Blood
It happened in the summer of 1866, when on the Russian throne the twelfth year sat Alexander II, recently, April 4, survived the first attempt on his life and 50-year-old adjutant General Milutin was a young Minister of war; when in St. Petersburg rallied and intensified “aristocratic” opposition to the Great reform, eager to seek the resignation of “red” to the Minister, and the people virtuous, despairing of the possibility of conflict-free motion of the Empire on the path of progress, thought about the damned question: “Is it possible to control the Russian peasant and a Russian soldier without a stick?”
June 6, 1866, a soldier of the 2nd company of the 1st battalion of the 65th infantry regiment of Moscow Vasily Shabunin struck in the face of his company commander, saying, “I’ll give you”1.
It was an emergency! The St. George flag of the regiment with the inscription “For Sevastopol in 1854 and 1855” lay down the shame. The scandal was impossible to hush up, because the captain received a pummel, from which he was bleeding, in four witnesses: the Sergeant major of the Bobylev, a member Stepan Massine and two mistresses of the house, which housed the company office, Plague and Anna Шептатовых2. And the commander of the regiment immediately reported about this to the commander of the Moscow military district the General-adjutant A. I. Guldenstubbe, and that, in turn, 15 Jun sent a report to the Minister of war.
But while the report 5935 N makes its way from the district headquarters to St. Petersburg, we have the opportunity to understand the circumstances of time and place.
the Case of private Shabunina. Rgvia. Published for the first time.”Inisocyte commanded to judge…”
17 APR 1863 war Minister Dmitry Milyutin, overcoming fierce resistance army reactionaries, played a very important reform and corporal punishment was abolished for lower ranks of the 1st category (not Strahuvannya*). Gone forever sticks and rods, and the rod remained only to punish stravovani. It was a real revolution. Today we are unlikely to imagine the shock experienced military leaders, generals and officers.
However, such humanity was fine for peacetime offenses is simple: drinking, uniform violation, a delay in the building; theft, loss of government property; wrangling with the authorities. The fact that it has managed to create Shebunino in the framework of the military of humanity does not fit. Moreover, it was not a precedent. Most recently, in may 1866 ordinary Ivanov and Golomzin raised his hand at the officers, and one of them pushed the Breasts regimental commander in front of the regiment. The audit Department of the war Ministry has demanded that such crimes “are more severe and immediate punishment”3.
Grandson Tolstoy twice unsuccessfully escaped from captivity
And it was determined that even in time of peace be judged “in the field of military law, with the appointment provisions of the wartime punishment”. And that means the death penalty, to cancel which could only be the Emperor.
22 Jun 1866 Audit, the Department produced the Minister for the report to Alexander II document No. 3589 “About important violation of military discipline by privates Shabunina”4. The next day, on the first page of the state paper appeared the handwritten resolution of the Minister: “his Majesty commanded to judge in the field of military law. Adjutant General Milutin. 23 Jun 1866″5.
adjutant-General Dmitry Milyutin.
the Fate of Vasily Shabunin was solved. The military trial was appointed on 16 July.
the Ordinary had formal judicial proceedings, a speedy trial and inevitable execution. But intervened in the case of Leo Tolstoy, whose business Shabunina caught in the midst of working on the main book of his life – “War and peace”. The writer took time off from work and agreed to appear in court as a defender.
Leo according to their natural sense of justice resembled those of the heroes of the drama Ostrovsky “warm heart”, who preferred to be judged not by laws, “like … God on the heart lay.” Retired Lieutenant of artillery were well aware of the severity of the offense, but hoped that his bright, appealing to the humanity it will soften the hearts of the judges. In the closing words of Tolstoy cried out: “…the Court must render himself more merciful than cruel, and remember that the judges – the people”6.
But the court, by two votes against one vote for the death penalty.
T. Shevchenko. Punishment shpitsrutenami. 1857.Career captain Yasevich
the time has Come to tell us about the victim Ratnam commander. To this day his life and fate no one was interested. Even the full name was not known to the researchers, and the name is constantly distorted.
the Captain Boleslav Victor Professor Yasevich was born on 18 Dec 1837 7 He was descended from the nobility of Vilna province. Neither he nor his parents had any immovable property, descent or благоприобретенного8. Poor landless nobleman Yasevich, the Lutheran religion had to rely only on themselves. Only successful military career would take him to the people. June 13, 1859, he entered as a cadet in the 2nd Konstantinovsky military school, successfully graduated and 16 June, 1860, was granted the ensign of the life guards Gatchina regiment. (So from 1856 till the summer of 1871 was called the life guards Jaeger regiment.)
the guards were sent SLwith only the best students of the school, and the Yasevich was one of the few lucky ones. The officers of the guards had the two highest in rank: the ranking warrant officer of the life guards was equal to an army Lieutenant. Brilliant start of the service!
the memoirs of Dmitrii Miliutin scattered diamonds aphorisms
In the same June 1860 Boleslav Viktor is received in the Mikhailovsky artillery Academy. A year later, it is produced to second Lieutenant, and August 30, 1862 Yasevich finishes Academy and gets the right to carry аксельбанта9. This is an important service difference sharply distinguishes it from the other officers. Colleagues understand that to them, “academician” (as in the time called all the graduates of military academies). Yasevich has the right to return to your guards, but service in the guard is extremely expensive: to adequately support themselves, should, in addition to salary, to regularly receive money from home. The poor gentleman has no such opportunity, and he is forced to leave with the guard.
14 Aug 1862 it is produced in an army staff-captains and sent to the 3rd reserve infantry battalion. And after five months of the year starts on the Polish uprising. A number of Polish officers, among them the graduates of the Academy of the General staff, change the oath and side with the rebels. In this difficult situation the authorities with suspicion looks at the Yasevich and not in a hurry to give him company. Boleslaw Victor used for training recruits and marching reinforcements. Captain cope, receives a reward of 130 rubles. silver, 5 October 1864 appointed commander of a company, that is, temporarily takes her under his beginning, but not yet approved by the company командиром10. December 25, the captain gets a real Christmas present: he was transferred to the 65th infantry regiment of Moscow. Career is getting better.
March 4, 1865 Yasevih arrives to a new place of service, and June 10, receives the rank of капитана11.
It was not the best of times in the regimental history: the regiment of Moscow left comfortable Khamovniki barracks in Moscow and relocated in the County Venev Tula province. Company of the regiment were scattered in the villages of three counties – venskogo, Epifanova, Kashirskoye and in the yasenki station Krapivinskoe County. In the end neither the regimental commander nor the commanders of battalions could not control the situation in companies, and company commanders were not able to gather people for personal training more than once a week. Discipline was not up to par, “the number Strahuvannya lower ranks to 1st January 1866, the year was 11 part of the whole regiment.”
All ranks of the regiment suffered very severe service either went to the guard, or rounding of the lower ranks of the prisoner’s mouth, engaged in the construction of the railroad between Orel and Kursk. Among the prisoners there were a lot of participants of the Polish uprising. In this difficult life conflict captain Yasevich chooses the only possible course of action. He lives strictly according to the Statute and requires the same from his subordinates. It is not like all. Subordinates of the captain murmured on the grueling daily drill.
Juncker, and then the ensign 65th regiment Nikolai Petrovich Ovsyannikov said: “the Captain at once separated from all his friends and became aloof. He was impeccably polite to all, but strictly limit all their intercourse with superiors and comrades among service dry relations.
Medium height, lean blonde, even reddish, with fine, regular, but with such a dry face and cold, steely gaze grayish-brown eyes, Yatsevich (as in the text – Ed.) made an unpleasant impression. In his presence everything seemed letenele and curtailed. Just felt somehow not on itself. …At him askance – he tried not zto Necati”12.
Leo Tolstoy was praying to a portrait of your mother
Among 63 officers of the regiment he was the only graduate of the Academy. Even Pets cadet in the regiment was very small – only 17 people, and seven officers had no образования13. Let us think in what condition was the captain Yasevich. He – the gentleman from-at Vilna, Russian officers treat him with caution. The company, which he commands, the guards at the work of captured Polish insurgents. For the Empire, and he was not a pole, and the Lutheran, for others, including thick – pole. That’s why a mental disorder.
How was he supposed to stay? What to find support? Only irreproachable in the performance of official duties.
“…Subaltern officers of the 2nd company almost with tears in his eyes begged the Colonel to transfer them to other companies, said Yatsevich literally torturing soldiers, torturing them and, of course, tormented himself for days on the teaching, shooting and so on. … But, if so, how can you blame such a zealous officer, for his zealous attention to duty of the service and performance of duty of the oath? It must encourage and reward them for it, but the captain was not encouraged and has not yet been awarded… simply forgot… the Soldiers secretly deeply hated him, because Yatsevich for minor offenses very severely they were punished, although never in the front or outside of it, not only did not swear […], but he never allowed himself to raise his voice… Everything was done quietly, without fuss, and cold-sober”14.
Binges clerk Shabunina
Conflict Yasevich and Shabunina was inevitable. Ordinary Basil Shabunina turned 38 лет15. He was ten years older company and was not the inexperienced young man, which he depicted in fILM “the Story of a destination”. It was already the 12th year of service Shabunina in the army. He was descended from the Moscow townspeople, entered the service on conscription in February 1855, and in September 1856 and became a deserter.
“Being in the service in the Leib Grenadier Ekaterinoslav regiment of His Majesty, made the escape from which two weeks later turned himself in and was arraigned before the court, which prosecuted the case, not visible”16.
the Punishment was good for seven years, said he served in the office, holding myself and in August 1863 was promoted to non-commissioned officers. Before who knew the letter of the non-commissioned officer opened the prospect to curry favor officer rank. Vasily dreamed of officers ‘ epaulettes, but from the second years took to drinking, and always drank alone and passed all reasonable limits. Physically strong stocky man the day he drank two bottles of vodka, that is 20 glasses or 2.45 литра17.
Finally, the patience of the authorities was exhausted. For drinking a non-commissioned officer Shabunina demoted to the ranks. But in March 1866 he committed a new offense: “we’ve been to court for selling of the uniform that belonged to Fedorov ordinary, and the ordinary Andreev cleaver with the use of the proceeds for drunkenness and evading the execution of official duties”18.
6 APR shtrafovannyy ordinary Shabunin was enrolled as company clerk during the 2nd linear company of the 1st battalion. But in the new place of service Basil does not quit drinking, for what, a month later, in early may, by order of the company commander paid solitary confinement in a punishment cell for one day. As you can see, captain Yasevich was gracious, although he could order the clerk whipped with rods.
How peasant boots win Palace aiguillettes
the problem of the captain was that he was to command a company without haI have sufficient experience of service in line units. He knew little about the company farm and, like Pushkin, was “alien to the course of securities business”. Ask at stravovanie clerk how we should process office paper, academician Yasevich considered below their dignity. Every time, he meticulously prepared by the clerk examined the documents, constantly forcing them to rewrite. While the company did not release Shabunina from combatant classes, although by tradition, the clerks from the drill was removed.
the Captain lived by the book. Tyrannize clerk was not in his intentions. “If you do not have time, so get another one or two scribes”19. Why Shabunin refused the offer of the Yasevich, we don’t know. The average propensity to drunkenness only exacerbated the situation. Shabunin believed that the captain of the nags him.
What happened in the tragic day of June 6, 1866? The military trial of Vasily Shabunin allows you to restore the chronology of events.
Crime and punishment
Early in the morning in the company held drill sessions that ended in 10 hours. Said “went to a nearby village and after drinking in the pub where kosusko of vodka, took with him another polushtof with couscou who drank a little, and by 5 p.m. had already drunk quite a decent”20. And no wonder! During the day the ordinary and did not bother to eat. It is up to five times was applied to the bottle, “drinking shkalik or kosushka”21, a total of sipping in the pub and in the office 1.2 liters of vodka. (Koseska = 1/4 bottle = 0,307475 liters. Shkalik = 1/2 cups = 61.5 per milliliter.)
the Summer had been hot. The temperature reached 30 degrees. Clerk carried.
What happened next, he said almost didn’t remember. It looked like a picture of the accident according to witnesses.
“…while the location of the company at the yasenki station, Krapivinskoe County, company commander captain Yasevich, arriving after lunch in the office with Sergeant by Bobylev to order the defendant Shabunina to prepare for battalion doctrine detailed consumption people, I found him in a state of intoxication; why ordered the Sergeant to put him in a separate room and prepare the rods, with the intention after exercise to punish him; when captain Yasevich went out into the hall, then the defendant said, going behind him, said: “for what I was in solitary confinement, polacca face, so I’ll give you” and hit him across the face at Yasevich flowed from bleeding at the nose, after which the Sergeant-major, and was attached to the office of ordinary Stepan Massine grabbed Shabunina and, at the command of the company commander, put under arrest”22.
July 16, 1866, held a session of the military court. The President of the court was the regimental commander, Colonel Peter A. Young. Members of the young Lieutenant Gregory Apollonovich bells and no longer young ensign Alexander Matveevich Stasyulevich. All three were familiar with Tolstoy, and degraded in those days in ordinary Stasyulevich met him in 1852 in the Caucasus, and the bells went to school with the brother of Sophia Andreevny. All three visited Tolstoy in Yasnaya Polyana. It is not surprising that Tolstoy was one of the first learned about the incident in the regiment, although in later years could not exactly remember who told him about the court – Stasyulevich or bells.
both of them were terrified from the upcoming trial, and from the inevitable sentence.
the Earl agreed to play the role of protector.
Colonel Young and Lieutenant Kolokoltsev will vote for the death penalty, ensign Stasyulevich against.
Error lawyer Tolstoy
Tolstoy decided saving private Shabunina, resorting to the means which we have few. The count wrote to the aunt the Countess Tolstoy, the lady-in-waiting of the Empress. She was briefly familiar with the war Minister. Milutin heeded the request and ordered to immediately provide him with the military trial.
In rgvia preserved his autograph (published for the first time):
Please give me help on the case of the same member or Moscow Butyrka neH. regiments (probably don’t remember which) that hit the face of his company commander. This soldier, in June this year, was tried at the field laws. The sentence was presented for confirmation of the Gene. Hell. Guldenstubbe.
what is it confirmation?
Request Minister Milutin on the case of private Shabunina. Rgvia. Published for the first time.Request Minister Milutin on the case of private Shabunina. Rgvia. Published for the first time.
Confirmation (statement sentence)commander of the Moscow military district adjutant General of Guldenstubbe: the sentence of the court to approve.
In the film “purpose” pedaliruetsya the idea that the absence of the name of the regiment in a letter to Tolstoy asking for clemency served as the formal basis for refusal. Say, here it is – a soulless Russian bureaucracy. On the silver screen embodies the version that shortly before his death expressed to the count.
“on 9 June 1905. I asked L. N., he in 1866 defended the soldier in lakes?
‘Yes,’ said L. N. – The judges were familiar. One was for liberation, two for rasstrelyana. The speech gave was purely legal, so I tried to make was this. It was good that I saying her, began to cry. The petition for pardon – I forgot to write in it, where the regiment is – for this reason, and another one at the same time there was another similar case (insulting the officer with a soldier), was not presented to the sovereign. Of course, Milutin could find out where the regiment is (Milyutin was Minister of war). Soldier shot and buried”24.
Autograph Milutin refutes this version.
moreover, the Minister of war has carefully studied the case, with pencil underlining in documents. We also do know that the Emperor was informed about the case of private Shabunina and confirmation of the sentence by the commander of the district.
Alexander II found it impossible to show mercy. The sentence was executed on 9 August 1866 in the village of New Kalpna. On the sidelines of the concluding document of the case preserved dung of the Minister of war: “Presented to His Majesty August 11″25.
Illustration for story Garshina “Coward”.After the trial
the Fate of participants of this history has developed dramatically. A week later, after the execution of captain Yasevich was approved by the company commander and commanded it for eight long years. No one expelled him from the regiment. But the hopes of the officer career was not fulfilled. Pummel received from Shabunina, has become an insurmountable obstacle for career growth. The authorities considered the officer disgraced, and ceased to promote him. Once a brilliant academician turned into “eternal captain”, which was not destined to become a major on active duty.
the end of the Yasevich was pathetic and terrible. He spent a year in a military hospital, suffering from mental illness. “Upon admission to the hospital November 3, 1876, he noticed the following phenomena: the gaze was wandering, answered confusedly, and noticed there was a weakening of the memory; movements were sluggish and slow, everything is treated apathetically. …All the above phenomena indicate the existence of at G. Yasevich mental illness, in the form of dementia. The disease lasts about two years, the reason for her syphilis and chronic catarrh of the intestines. Its state and nature of the disease is incurable”26.
In March, 1878, he was dismissed from the service with production in the rank of major and appointed pension in the amount of 210 rubles per год27. Was less than 58 cents a day. It was not poverty. It was the poverty. Children of retired major was not the wife, the daughter of a retired shtabs-captain, as he Yasevich, had no property. Their days they finished in the Ryazan province. Date of death and place of burial is unknown.
Basinsky: Tolstoy was proud of himself, much less the modern Manager
the Colonel the Young man with success comaHoval Moscow regiment until 1873, Remained in the regimental history as one of the best commanders: “all of it, as they say, doted”28. He received the rank of General.
the Ensign Stasyulevich, a classmate of the young Men in the cadet corps, was promoted to second Lieutenant and in 1867 he committed suicide.
the Lieutenant of bells, son of a retired Colonel, no company (as in filmed half a century the film) has not received and was soon transferred to the cavalry. Became the Sumy hussars. I had no career. Above the rank of shtabs-captain has not risen, resigned as a captain.
Brilliant artillery officer, count Leo Tolstoy.Bar
17 Sep 1866, on the fortieth day after the execution Shabunina, in Yasnaya Polyana celebrated the birthday of Sofia Andreevna Tolstaya. On this occasion, in the estate at the request of count arrived regimental band of the Moscow regiment. “Danced everything from the Colonel’s Boys, Leo Tolstoy, and Dyakov. … Stasyulevich enforcement danced the quadrille”.29
it is Quite clear that all participants in this story, she made a terrible impression: one person hit another, and it for this shot. But! It was not just a man, and the soldier who had hit the officer. And it happened two months after the assassination of the king and a few days after the start of the Austro-Prussian war.
no One could be certain that Russia will remain aloof from the war in Europe, and the war will not last much longer given by the story of 41 days. Rearmament was not completed for lack of funds in the Treasury. To be in this situation, the charity means to weaken the discipline in the army. And therefore, neither Milutin, nor the Emperor, which were not cannibals and barbarians, did not consider it possible to intervene in the “business Shabunina” and to show humanity. They had no other choice.
had No choice and the Russian intelligentsia, who considered it his sacred duty to be in opposition to the government.
1. Rgvia. F. 801. Main military-judgment management. Op. 92/37. D. 101. SV. 1549. 1866 1 tbsp 5.
2. Ibid. L. 13.
3. Ibid. L. 7.
4. Ibid. L. about 6-7.
5. Ibid. L. 6.
6. Tolstoy L. N. Full. Coll. Op. vol. 37. Moscow, 1956. S. 477.
7. Rgvia. F. 400. Main headquarters. Op. 12. D. 5420. L. 17.
8. Ibid. L. 20 about.
9. Ibid. L. 17 on.
10. Ibid. L. 17 on.
11. Ibid. L. 18.
12. Ovsyannikov N. P. Episode in the life of L. N. Tolstoy. M., 1912. P. 17-18.
13. Smirnov Y. S. History of the 65th Moscow infantry of His Imperial Highness the sovereign heir Tsesarevich regiment. 1642-1700-1890. Warsaw, 1890. S. 480; ADJ. 25. P. XXXII-XXXV.
14. Ovsyannikov N. P. Decree. CIT. p. 18.
15. Rgvia. F. 801. Op. 92/37. D. 101. SV. 1549. 1866 1 tbsp 12.
17. Tolstoy L. N. Full. Coll. Op. vol. 37. S. 474.
18. Rgvia. F. 801. Op. 92/37. D. 101. SV. 1549. 1866 1 tbsp 12-12 about.
19. Tolstoy L. N. Full. Coll. Op. vol. 37. P. 475.
20. Rgvia. F. 801. Op. 92/37. D. 101. SV. 1549. 1866 1 tbsp 14.
21. Ibid. L. 13 about
22. Ibid. About L. 12.-13.
23. Ibid. L. 9-9об.
24. Makovicky D. P. U Tolstogo, 1904-1910 // Literary legacy. T. 90. KN. 1. M., 1979. P. 308.
25. Rgvia. F. 801. Op. 92/37. D. 101. SV. 1549. 1866 1 tbsp 16.
26. Rgvia. F. 400. Op. 12. D. 5420. L. 2 L. 2 vol., L. 3.
27. Ibid. L. 11.
28. Smirnov Y. S. The Decree. CIT. p. 485.
29. Kuzminskaya, T. A. My life at home and at Yasnaya Polyana. Part III. GL. XVIII. Tula. 1964. P. 412.