November 26, 1936, being in a wretched mood, Mikhail Bulgakov embarked on his most funny and most evil work. The title was like the title: and the first double-stressed. The novel, Bulgakov did not finish in the time he worked on “Master and Margarita”, was engaged at the Bolshoi theatre. Later, when after a quarter-century after the writer’s death breaking in mid-sentence novel will still be published in the journal “New world”, the neutral second name. However, the reaction to it is not neutral — the characters in a theatrical figures recognize themselves, and funny is not for everyone.
What caused the bad mood in which Bulgakov started work on the “Theatrical novel”? Trouble began in 1930. The writer fell under the ban: it ceased to print. Since the show was filmed a performance of “the Crimson island” in the Central theatre of working youth, where he then worked as a Director, prohibited days of the Turbins at the Moscow art theatre, “Zoyka’s apartment” in the Vakhtangov Theatre. Criticism found them justified “the white guard”. Bulgakov “made the victory of the people not happy, but the pain of obedience” — was stated in one of the articles.
In March 1930, he is in despair wrote a letter to the government of the USSR with the request to determine its destiny, either to give to emigrate to Paris brothers, or provide the opportunity to work in Moscow. Joseph Stalin personally called Bulgakov and was advised to enlist in the Mat. He, unlike the critics, the play “Days of Turbin” like he had seen in her favor. “Demonstration of all-destroying power of Bolshevism” — Stalin described “the Days of turbines” for the year prior to this call. Then he personally ordered to restore removed it from the repertoire of the play, which was at the Moscow art theatre in 1926.
As a Director-assistant Mikhail Bulgakov worked in the theater until 1936. Did the staging for the play “Dead souls” by Nikolai Gogol, even went on stage in the role of judges in the performance “Pickwick club” by Charles Dickens.
a Comedy about the French playwright Moliere, “the External glitter and false content.” The play, which was prepared four years, the result was shown only seven times. Seven — with great success.
“the Moscow art theatre — the cemetery of my pieces” spoke bitterly Bulgakov. That summer, he left theatre and moved into the role of librettist and translator in a Large. That same autumn he took up the “Theatrical novel” — for the most part to amuse myself. Came home after work, rushed to the table and enthusiastically wrote about the misadventures of a poor writer Maksudova. The poor man fell into the millstone of the theater, managed by two old men who many years not talking to each other. Full of intrigue those��Central life brings the hero of the novel to suicide.
Before the death of Mikhail Bulgakov remained only four years. Underlining with a double line of the title “the dead man” in 1936, he did not suspect that soon he will leave this world.
Under the Independent theatre Bulgakov had in mind Both in the theater are present invisibly, Ivan runs out of the house in Sivtsev Vrazhek (in fact, Stanislavsky recent years lived a recluse in Leontief lane) and Aristarkh Platonovich travels across India.
the Story of the unfortunate Maksudova largely coincides with the history of collaboration with the Bulgakov’s Art. The title and plot of the novel, which Maksudov rewrites in a play — “Black snow” — is an ironic reference to the “White guard”. And the endless changes of scenes that require playwright, reminiscent of four years of alterations “Moliere”. However, the author didn’t encrypt the image Maksudova — Mikhail Bulgakov is hiding under the name Bomberdove.
For Maksudova in the Independent theatre’s first literary Manager to undertake Misha Panin (“I’m Mike very much,” said the hero)and Director evlampiya Romanova, “a Royal lady with a Regal face and diamond earrings in their ears.” They are asked to make the affair a hoax. These characters are literary Manager of the Moscow art theatre Here as Markov described the acquaintance with Bulgakov in his memoirs:
to pay attention to Mikhail Bulgakov mhatovtsam advised the poet at the time served as a Director of the Vakhtangov Theatre, where success was “zoy’s flat”. In the “Theatrical novel” Antokolsky referred to as Grisha Aivazovsky, literary Manager of the theatre “Group friendly” and a big fan of Maksudova.
how do we know who was referring to Bulgakov? Later, after her husband’s death, Elena Bulgakov, and her son from a previous marriage have created a list of prototypes, based on memories of conversations with the deceased. However, some of the prototypes did not need the hint — they’re all well understood. For example, the legendary actress of the Moscow art theatre reading “New world”, in a rage called Elena Bulgakova: as they say, it could prevent the publication? Koreneva, who was then 80 years old, recognized himself in the image of Lyudmila Silvestrovna Pryakhina, prima Independent pet Ivan and exalted some hysterical ladies.
Bulgakov Korenevo didn’t like (she, however, answered him in kind). One of the main studs in her direction in “the Theatrical novel” was the scene in the office: Lyudmila Silvestrovna categorically refuses to give the year of his birth. Here, the writer tartly ridiculed the desire Koreneva playing young heroines. In 1929, at the age of 44, she went on stage in the role of a 20-year-old Zinaida in “Uncle’s dream”. Young beauty actress played intramural�� long. However, it’s not her fault: the replacement, she refused to look for Stanislavsky himself. After the death of genius who favored it (Koreneva was friends with the wife of the Stanislavsky), her position in the theater began to change. When in 1958 she was sent not retire, Koreneva was offended to depth of soul. She vowed never to cross the threshold of the Art theatre and kept his word.
the cat referred to in the above passage, there is a reason. Mouser pet Stanislavsky at the Moscow art theatre knew probably everything: the Colonel admired the grace of his cat, whose name was and always put it in the example of actors. That’s how he writes about it in his autobiography “My life in art”:
the way Polixeni Toropetskiy, treacherous Secretary Aristarkh Platonovich, forcing her Silvestrovna to admit how old she is, hiding — the Secretary Nemirovich-Danchenko. Last Bulgakov did not like, but to Baksanskoe treated warmly. She was the older sister of his beloved wife, Helen.
the two sisters from childhood he loved the theater. In 1918 they arrived in the Mat — only took one, Olga, for the position of Secretary. She quickly became a local legend. Thanks to the professional abilities of the woman got the post of personal Secretary Nemirovich-Danchenko, and thanks to the character — a high position in the theatrical hierarchy. It was printed under the dictation of the first manuscript of “My life in art” Stanislavsky (and later “the Master and Margarita” his son-in-law). Bokshanskaya was a sharp tongue, and knew all the secrets of the Art — a lot of her stories Bulgakov took in “the Theatrical novel”. The writer couldn’t do to ignore her ability to type quickly and without errors and erasures under the dictation, while the other cases.
At the Art theatre Olga Bokshanskaya spent most of his life. He gave her the opportunity not only to make a brilliant career, but also to find personal happiness. Olga was married to actor son Vasily Luga, one of the disciples of Stanislavsky, who formed the first composition of the future Moscow art theatre. In “the Theatrical novel” it is hidden under the mask of the actor Stroeva, appearing in exactly one scene. However, on the stage native theater Kaluga played mostly cameo role.
When the protagonist of “Theatrical novel” Maksudov first enters Nezavisimy, friendly actor Bombardov holds for him a tour of the portrait gallery of actors theatre. Among the stories told of them deserves special mention and so of the late major-General Claudia A. Komarovsky-Escapar de Bonkura, the commander of the life guards Lancer regiment of His Majesty, once trapped in the play and decided to drop everything and go to the actors.
This story prototype Echapper de Biocura — major General, party of Russian-Turkish valiona debuted at the Moscow art theatre in 1898, in the role of Empress Irene in the play “Tsar Fyodor”. Alexander Ostrovsky to see her debut could not — at that time it’s been 10 years since his death. But there had been another writer, Anton Chekhov. A friend of the theatre, he was present at the rehearsals, so the Director saw on stage for the first time. Somehow, after another run, almost in love, he wrote to Alexey Suvorin: “Irina, in my opinion, gorgeous. Voice, generosity, sincerity — so good that even my throat itches…” Less than two years after they were married.