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most people who contract the covid-19 will probably get mild respiratory symptoms which goes over by themselves, according to the Norwegian institute of public health (FHI).
They estimate that around 80 percent of those infected have been mild disease of the virus. Many of the dead to the now elderly or people with poor health, according to FHI.
But the virus affects not only the elderly and sick people. Also, young healthy people getting the disease in severe form, and need the respirator-using, according to the director of the medical intensive care unit at Ullevål hospital.
1. Underlying diseases
– Covid-19 provides the majority of severe disease in the elderly and people with underlying illnesses, says Anne Spurkland.
She is a professor in immunology at the University of Oslo, and has written the book “the Immune”. She emphasizes that there is much you do not yet know about the relatively fresh virus.
– We only have three months of experience. So there are very many things we cannot answer, ” says Spurkland.
People with diabetes, chronic lung disease, cancer, heart disease and high blood pressure are at increased risk for more serious disease of the korona virus. Also people over 65 years of age is considered to be more susceptible to serious disease of the Covid-19, according to Helsenorge.no
2. Unlike the immune system
There is currently no vaccine or effective treatment against korona-virus. Why is immune system essential for to suppress it.
According to Spurkland, one can share the immune system in humans in two parts: one part is the innate immune system, the other part is the custom in the immune system. The custom immune system develops throughout life, but especially when you are young.
– in Short, one can say that children have one mission when they come into the world: To be immune. The immune system your are screwed together so that they take care of one infection after the other, ” she says.
Spurkland says this is part of the explanation that many of the children who have been infected by korona-virus have had a mild sykdomsforløp.
– Parents can often be much worse of the same disease as a child not even register that they have, ” she says.
doesn’T HAVE ALL the ANSWERS: Professor of immunology, Anne Spurkland, says there is much you do not yet know about Covid-19 because the virus is new.
Photo: University of Oslo 3. Age
most young people have an immune system that can quickly mobilize and strike back against the new virus. This ability to reform will diminish with age, according to Spurkland.
the Immune system in the elderly have learned to defeat the virus after the virus throughout a long life. When a new virus pops up, don’t have the immune system the same reservekapasiteten to react quickly enough anymore.
She says that this is one of the main reason that there are more elderly people who are seriously sick of korona-virus.
On one other hand, a strong and active immune system that mobilize quickly, also give a more serious sykdomsforløp, according to the professor.
– I often get questions about how to gain a strong immune system. Then I usually like to say that what is crucial is that you have a wise immune system. A wise immune system fails to distinguish between the healthy and sick cells.
Spurkland explains that a strong immune system in some rare cases it can turn so sharply back at the disease that it goes away at healthy and essential parts of the body. This can in worst case end with death.
– By a pneumonia, balances the immune system and the lungs on a razor’s edge. React the immune system for powerful it can end up with to destroy the lungs, she says.
4. Genes and exposure
Different genetic varisjoner between people is also one of the explanations Spurkland pulls forward.
– that one is seriously ill can be about pure chance and bad luck. Those that survive may be lucky and have the right connectors of the genes.
Spurkland also believe that how much one is being exposed to the virus may have something to say.
– We have seen examples of totally fresh health care worker who have got serious illness because they have been massively exposed to the virus, ” she says.
On the Island say the researchers that they have found 40 different mutations of the korona virus, according to Danish Information. A Danish researcher says to the website that he believes the virus may be more contagious, but less dangerous.
According to a study from the China developed the virus himself early to the two varieties. The one virustypen, called S-type, so to give a mild disease and be less contagious. The second version, the so-called L-type, spread faster in the beginning of the outbreak in Wuhan in China.
FHIs Department of virology has carried out analyses of the 11 SARS-CoV-2 viruses from Norwegian patients. The analyses have shown that all viruses so far belong to L-type, according to the latest ukerapporten to FHI.
5. Education and income
the Risk to become infected and seriously ill can also depend on non-medical factors, believes researcher Svenn-Erik Mamelund by OsloMet.
He has done research on pandemics for over 25 years, and are now working with the project PANRISK. The project, previously described by the Research.no, the highlights including how education and other social factors influence the risk of morbidity and mortality by an influenza pandemic.
– We examine the relationship between social conditions such as education and income, and the risk of becoming exposed, infected and develop serious illness, ” says Mamelund.
Findings so far show that people with low education and income have higher risks for serious disease requiring hospitalization, hospitalization on intensivavdelig and to die, according to the researcher.
SOCIAL INEQUALITIES: Education and income may also have something to say for how hard hit you are by an influenza pandemic, believes that the researcher Svenn-Erik Mamelund.
Photo: Sonja Balci / Sonja Balci
Why social conditions are of importance for serious pandemiutfall to the project shed light on the closer, but Mamelund shows, among other things to studies done in the USA where people has voluntarily allowed himself to expose for the influenza virus and forkjølelsesvirus.
– It turned out that the people with high education and income are less likely than those with lower income were infected and developed symptoms associated with flu and colds.
the Researcher believes that there are complex reasons for this.
– There is a social difference that can act on stress in job, family life and other stressful events that affect the immune system negatively, so that those with lower social status to a greater extent develop the disease if they are exposed.
Fear the poor will be affected hardest
According to the researcher, there are several possible explanations for why people with higher education and income are also less likely to develop serious illness if they become infected.
– the rich and The most wealthy are less vulnerable because they often have less underlying diseases, often have better opportunities to isolate themselves in their own home and better helsekunnskap and network.
Mamelund adds that people with higher education on average, can think more rationally and have more knowledge about how to navigate the health care system.
In addition, draws him forward the possibility of social distancing as an important factor.
– It may not be as easy to isolate themselves in a narrow block where there are many versus in a large apartment in Vestre Aker in Oslo, ” he says.
Mamelund also fear that korona-the pandemic and the social and economic consequences of the strict folkehelsetiltakene will go hardest beyond the poorest in Norway.
I’m worried that we’re going to see the social differences of the people who have been hardest hit by the pandemic. Who gets unemployed, and who in the greatest degree have to bear the negative health and economic langtidskonsekvensene of unemployment, ” he says.
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